体育外围

《比较哲学与比较文化论丛》 第8辑目录

点击次数:   更新时间: 2019-06-01



编 委 会

主 编: 吴根友

副主编: 储昭华

编 委:

校外编委(以姓氏音序为序):

anjingru baitongdong beidanning chenlixin dengxiaomang

huang  yong  mou  bo  nipeimin zhangxianglong

校内编委(以姓氏音序为序):

程 炼 储昭华 丁四新 郭齐勇 郝长墀

体育外围he ping liweiwu lidianlai pengfuchun sangjingyu

体育外围sudechao wugenyou xushuisheng zhaizhihong zhong nian

zhuzhifang zouyuanjiang

目 录

特 稿

shanzheyuzhexuejiatiyuwaiweidesixiangguiji——lingmudazhuoyuxitianjiduolang…(ri)zhucunmunan

zhonglingyuzhuyiyudaxuesiweisanlingyu——sangongsansilunlixueyinlun………………… xiao si

比较方法论

duihuadebiyaoxinghekexingxing: guanyu“ren”gainiandesikao……………………………wuhongmiao

论比较的可能性及其展开……………………………………………… 王林伟

儒学中的真理认识论问题…………………………………………………… 邹晓东

比较哲学史研究

比较的意义与可能的误区——以梁启超为例…………………… 储昭华 谭研

秦家懿“内在超越”思想探析……………………………………………… 余泳芳

对话与比较: 个案研究

congfojiaoyinmingdelianglunsixiangkanzongjiaoduoyuanlunzhikenengxing qianxuesong

《gulanjing》zhongdeyesuxingxiang——congbijiaozongjiaodeshijiaokan xu tao shijunhua

膜拜团体成员心理矫治中的世界观问题研究………………………………黄 超

体育外围shilunyitengrenzhaiduizhoudunyi《taijitushuo》dechanshi

——congzhongribijiaozhexuedeshijiaochufa lian fan

mengdesijiu、yuzhengxienvxingguanzhibijiaoyanjiu zheng wen

学术新人

体育外围xianxiangxueshiyuzhongde“haoliangzhibian”

——试以胡塞尔的交互主体性现象学回应惠子………………………………曾 允

Table of Contents

Featured Articles

the track of intellectual dialogue between zen buddhists and philosophers: with special focus on daisetsu suzuki and kitaro nishida…… (japan) makio takemura

Doctrine of Central Sphere and its relation to Four Dimensions and Three Spheres in theGreat Learning: Introduction to Ethics of Three Public-Private ContrastsXiaosi

Methodology of Comparative Philosophy

The Necessity and Feasibility of Dialogue: On the Notion ofRen(Humanity) …体育外围 Wu Hongmiao

On the Possibility and Development of Comparison …………体育外围Wang Linwei

The Problem of Truth in Confucian Epistemology ……………体育外围 Zou Xiaodong

History of the Studies of Comparative Philosophy

Significance and Potential Misconception of Comparative Philosophy: An Analysis of Liang Qichao ………… Chu Zhaohua, Tan Yan

Julia Ching’s Notion of Immanent Transcendence………体育外围Yu Yongfang

Dialogue and Comparison: Case Studies

The Possibility of Pluralism from the Perspective of the Epistemological Thought of Buddhist Logic………………………………………… Qian Xuesong

The Image of Jesus in theKoran: from the perspective of Comparative Religious Studies……………………………………………体育外围Xu Tao, Shi Junhua

The Problem of Worldview in Psychotherapy for Members of Cult Worshipers………………………………………………………………… Huang Chao

Jinsai Ito’s Interpretation of Zhou Dunyi’sExplanation of the Diagram of the Great Ultimate: from the Perspective of Sino-Japanese Comparative Philosophy………………  Lian Fan

A Comparative Study of Montesquieu’s and Yu Zhengxie’s Views of Women……………………………………………………………………… Zheng Wen

New Scholars’ Contributions

A Phenomenological Study on theHaoliangDebates: A response to Huizi from the Perspective of Husserl’s Phenomenology of Intersubjectivity……… Ceng Yun

te gao

[编者按]体育外围本辑有两篇作品因题材、风格独特而被编入“特稿”栏目。竹村牧男先生的《禅者与哲学家体育外围的思想轨迹——铃木大拙与西田几多郎》一文是其应武汉大学哲学学院邀请而做的学术报告。作者为日本东洋大学教授、校长,著名的比较哲学与比较文化研究专家。在讲演中,作者对日本著名的禅宗大师铃木大拙与著名哲学家西田几多郎两人思想相互影响、相互促动的关系及演进过程进行了全面的总结和分析。文章谈的是思想史的一个典型个案,实质上从一个侧面深入揭示出东西方哲学与思想文化、特别是禅宗与基督教之间既相互碰撞,更相互补充、促进的矛盾统一关系与发展演变规律。作者娓娓道来,读者用心去读,定能颇有启迪。

xiaosi(benmingyangxiaosi)xianshengshimeijihuarenxuezhe,duonianlaiyizhishizhiyuzhongxizhexue、wenhuazhijiandebijiao、duihuahehuitongdeyanjiutansuo,chubanguo《jiazhexue》yishu。zheipian《zhonglingyuzhuyiyu〈daxue〉siweisanlingyu——sangongsansilunlixueyinlun》,shiji《jiazhexue》zhihouzhuanmensikaoquanqiuzhengzhizhexueyuzhengzhixuedesixiangtigang。zuozhejiangrenlunshijiefenweitianxia、guojia(shehui)、jiatingdengda、zhong、xiaosangebutongcengcidelingyu,renweixifangwenhuayizhonglingyuweizhong,jiyouzhidejiejiandeyouzhangzhichu,gengyouzhuduoquexianyubiduan。zhongguowenhuadetezhengzaiyuyitianxia、jiatingweizhong,zeyouzhuyujiuxifangwenhuazhipian。weicizuozhetichuleqizhuoyoutesedejiangsandalingyutongyiqilaidexindelunlixueyuxinzhengzhixuehongguangouxiang。

体育外围gaiwenshizuozhezhengzaizhuanxiedeyibuzhuzuodesixiangtigang,bingfeiyibanyiyishangdelunwen,wenzhongdeguandian、zhuzhang,weibirenjinzantong,danbufangtichulaigongdajiataolun。xueshutansuoguizaichuangxin,huoyoubuzhou,rannengqirenxinsi,jiemizuzhengui。benjiyouzheiliangpiantegao,zengsebushao。zaicitezhixieyi。

禅者与哲学家体育外围的思想轨迹

——铃木大拙与西田几多郎

竹村牧男*

一、大拙与西田的体育外围

体育外围lingmudazhuo(youmingzhentailang,1870—1966)shiyiweidaibiaoribendeshijiejisixiangjia,xitianjiduolang(youmingcunxin,1870—1945)zeshijindairibenzuidadezhexuejia,qizongjiaozhexuezaijinniantebieshoudaoshijiefanweideguanzhu。dazhuoyuxitian,shaonianshiqixiangshiyujinzezhidi,jiududisigaodengzhongxueshi,tamenchengweiletongxue。zineiyihou,errenyibeizixianghuzunzhong,youqingjianshen。ruguotanlundazhuoerbutidaoxitian,huihulvehenduodongxi。tongyangdi,ruguotanlunxitianerbushejidazhuo,shenzhiyehuiyousunyuxitiandebenzhi。tamenerrenjiushizheiyangjuyoushenhouermiqiedetiyuwaiweiguanxideyidaidajia。jintiandeyanjiang,tiyuwaiweixiangduierrendeweidarengejiqisixiang,shizuojieshao。

dazhuoyuxitiantongchushengyumingzhi3nian(1870),tongyangchengzhangyujinze(buguo,xitianchushengyuhebeijunyuzhiqicun)。dangshi,zhenghaoshiribenjianghushidaimufantizhikaishibengkui,maixiangxindejindaiguojiatiyuwaiweidebufazhizhong;errenzaishenshouxunqiuziyou、dulideshehuifengchaodeyingxiangzhong,duguoleshaonianheqingnianshiqi。bujiu,errenyijudongjing;xitianweileyanjiuzhexue,jiuduyudongjingdaxue;dazhuoduishanbaoyouxingqu,jinruyuanjuesi,zuanyanshanfa。houlai,dazhuozaimingzhi29nian(1896)huode“jianxing”,yinianchuntianyuandumeiguo。zheiqijian,xitianpinmingdicanshandazuo,zheizhongshenghuochixudaomingzhi40nian(1907)《shanzhiyanjiu》fuzichuban(1911)desi、wunianzhiqian。qijian,dazhuobuduandicongmeiguoxiexinmianlihuoanweixitian,xitianzejidazhuoyoujidazhuoyeyizheshoude《dachengqixinlun》yingyidexiangguanziliao;errenzhijiandemiqietiyuwaiwei,sihaomeiyouzhongduan。jiyu《shanzhiyanjiu》yishuzhongde“chuncuijingyan”yijidayingxiangdeweilian·zhanmusidezhuzuo,jiushiyoudazhuoxiangxitianjieshaoheyoujide。

体育外围dazhuozaimeiguojuzhuyue10nianbianhuidaoleriben。neishimingzhi42nian(1909)deshiqing。dangshi,xitianshixuexiyuandezaizhijiaoshi,tahaituijiangangganghuiguodedazhuodangjiaoyuan,bingjieshaolezijizaizhidexuexiyuandegongzuo。raner,diernian,xitianquequjingdoudaxuerenzhile。bujiu,haidanrenzhenzongdagudaxuedejianzhijiaoshi。guiguohoudedazhuo,tongshiyouzhongxinkaishilexiangyuanjuesishizongyanshanshixuexicanshandeshenghuo,bujiu,qiqiaodeshi,xitianzaijinzeshiqideenshibeitiaoshijingjiurenlexuexiyuandeyuanzhang,yudazhuo、xitiantongweizhiyoudeshanbenliangjidanrenleliaozhang。raner,beitiaodejiaoxuefangzhenheyejiweidedaorenke,beitiaoheshanbenbujiubianlikailexuexiyuan。xitianchangchangqianguadazhuodeshenghuo,yushibianqingtalaidagudaxuerenjiao。dazhuoyinzongyanshanshiyuanji,zuizhongzaidazheng10nian(1921)zhuandaoledagudaxuezhijiao。

zhihou,dazhuoyuxitianzhijianyinggaichangyoumianwujiaotandejihui,zheishikeyituicede。danqixiangxiqingkuangbushenmingle。jinguanruci,sixiangshangdeduihua,xiangbiyinggaiyizhibaochizhede。dazhuozaidagudaxuejiechudaoyiqinluanweizongzudejingtuzhenzong,duiqizongjiaotesefashenglexingqu。yucitongshi,tongguoduishandebuduanzuanyan,dazhuofaxianlerezhongyupingminzhijianxinyangdemiaohaoren,yushizhuanxiele《jingtuxisixianglun》(zhaohe17nian[1942]),weishanyujingtudexiangtongzhichuerdakaiyanjie。lingyifangmian,xitianyizhixiangzuihouxiezongjiaowenti,danyincengjingpipanxitiandetianbianyuanlunshuleqinluan(zhaohe19nian[1944]),zheijixitiandejingtuguanjiyulejidadeciji,xitianyiduitianbiandefanlunzuoweijiaodian,kaishizhuanxiezongjiaofangmiandelunshu。zheijiushixitianzuiwannian,jizhaohe20nian(1945)wanchengde“changsuoxingluojiyuzongjiaoxingshijieguan”deguandian,xitianzaizheilibajidujiao、shanhezhenzongfangzaileyigeshiyujinxinglunshu。

tongnian6yue7ri,xitianshishi。dazhuotingdaoxitianshishideehaohou,yizhiqibuchengsheng,zaizanglishang,yebutingdikuqi。dangran,xitianyeyizhirenweidazhuoshitayishengzhongduyiwuerdemonizhijiao。ruguoshidazhuoxianyuxitianshishi,xiangbixitianyehuikugesantiansanyeba。errenshifeichangnandede、jiyuzhenqingerjiejiaodezhiyou。

errenjishitongnianchusheng,youshitongxiang;jiduishanyoushenrudetanjiu,youduizhenzongyongyoushenkedelijie;jizheyanyushijiededongxiang,younengduizongjiaojinxinghehuluojidetaolun;duiyuchuantongdesiweifangfanenggouzhanzaishijiedepubianlichangshangjinxingsikao,dengdeng,errendegongtongzhichu,dequefeichangzhiduo。zaibuchongyidian,xitianxihuandahai,dazhuokuaigaoshan。

二、对佛法原点的自觉

jiexialai,tiyuwaiweixiangzhuyaoduierrendezongjiaosixiangjinxingtaolun。shouxianshiguanyuerrennianqingshiqidehuati。youyizhongshuofarenwei,xitianzhisuoyizhiliyucanshan,shiyinweixitianyueduledazhuode《xinzongjiaolun》(1896)。zineiyihou,weilechejiuzijizhiweihe,xitianbianmenglieerguoduandikaishilecanshandazuohuodong。dangshixitiandexinjing,jianyuxitianderiji。tebielingrengandongdeshi,xitianshenzhirenwei,canshanxiuxing、qiudaokeyiyushengmingxiangjiaohuan。duiyuxitiandezheizhongpoqiedexinqing,bunanxiangxiang,yuanzaimeiguojuzhudedazhuowubuweizhisuodong。

dazhuozaizheiqijiancengduocixiexinjixitian。qizhong,youyifengxinshuodaozijijuewudaolezongjiaozhizhendi。zheishiyifengluokuanweimingzhi34nian(1901)1yue21rideshuxin,neirongshi: “tiyuwaiweijinlairenweizijikeyilveweipinweidao‘zhongshengwubianshiyuandu’dezhiyile。dachengfojiaojiangzheiyijuzizhiyusihongshiyuandepitoudiyiju,qishijiubiaodalerenleishengcundezhongjimude。ruobujiuduwubiandezhongsheng,ciyishengshenzhibanwenyebuzhi。zhenchengdeanxin,zaiyuanxinyuzhongshengshiyuandu,licizhiwaierbucunzaigerenzhianxin。”dazhuozaimeiguo,zaiyigerentanqiufofadeguochengzhong,juewudaozijideshengmingyiyijiushicunzaiyushiyuanzhongshengdedu,renleideshengmingyiyiyezaiyuci。zhiqian,dazhuocengrenwei,sihongshiyuanzhizhong,“fannaowujinshiyuanduan”lisuodangrandiyinggaifangzaidiyiwei。raner,dazhuozheishimingquefaxianzijidezheizhongxiangfashiyigecuowu。duixitian,dazhuozaixinzhonghaixiedao: “xianzaixianglai,tiyuwaiweidadadicuole。weile‘zhongshengwubianshiyuandu’,suoyicai‘fannaowujinshiyuanduan’ye。ruguomeiyoudiyiyuan,fannaoyouheduanmiezhibiyao?fouye,duandefannaodexianjuetiaojian,qishijiuzaiduzhongshengzhiyuan。tiyuwaiweiyerenweiyeyouwuguanjinyaodeshiqing,raner,tiyuwaiweishenxinzhenzhengdeanxinzaiyudiyiju,buzaidierju。”dazhuoyumingzhi28nian(1895)labashexinshihuodejianxing。dantazijishuo,houlaidaomeiguohou,yi“zhoubuxiangwaiqu”yijuerchedikaiwule。zheiduiyudazhuolaishuo,yeshiyijianjuyoujuedingyiyidedashi。eryucixiangpidi,dazhuojuewudaozhongjideanxincunzaiyuci“zhongshengwubianshiyuandu”zhizhong,zheiduiyuhoulaidazhuozuoweiyiweizongjiaotuderensheng,wuyiqidaolezhidaoxingdezuoyong。tahaiyudazhuoshituxiangoumeijieshaodachengfojiaodehexinsixiang,shitujijitanjiudachengfojiaohexinsixiangjuyouguanlian。

xitianzaitongnian2yuexiaxunshoudaoledazhuodezheifengxin。tazai2yue24riderijizhongxiedao: “dazhuojushilaixin。yizhongshengwubianshiyuanduzuoweianxinzhiyu,qixinxionggaojieerguangda,lingrenxianmu!lingrenxianmu!wudengzhongriweisiyuerlaoleishenxin。cankuicankui!wudengyiqiudaozhizhibo,yinshaoxiaozhiyuwanghuoyinxiexurouyuerchangchangwangleqiudao。tebieshijintian,dacuotecuoye。jinhoudangmengsheng、fafen。zheizhuyaoyinwukejizhiyizhililiangpinfazhiguye。”xitianmianduidazhuodeshuxin,chengzhidifanshenglezijideqingkuang,biaoshiyuanyixiangdazhuoxuexi。xitianyishengrenwei,zaizongjiaofangmian,dazhuoyuanyuanzaishang,xuntayideng,raner,yiwaideshi,qigenyuanyexujiuzaizheifenshuxinzhizhong。

zongzhi,dazhuodeshan,qishibudandanzhishirangrenganshouyizhongqingliangzhijingjiedesixiang,tongshihaishiyizhongxiang“zhongshengwubianshiyuandu”deyuanxingeryongwangzhiqiandezongjiao。

三、二人关于基督教的理解

1.西田对基督教的理解

体育外围xitianduifojiaoyuyihengaodepingjia,zheishihaowuyiwendeshishi。danyucitongshi,taduijidujiao,qishiyejinxingleshenrudexuexi,bingbatanaruzijidezhexuezhizhong,zheiyeshibuyinghushideshishi。xitianqichuxuexizhongshijijidujiaoshenmizhuyizheyagebu·bomeihekusadenikuladengrendezhexue。nikulade“fanduideyizhi”shuo,rangrenxiangqixitiande“jueduimaodundezitiyuwaiweitongyi”yiyu。erqiehaixuexileaogusidingdezhexue,qizijuedesixiang,yuxitiande“changsuoluoji”dexingchengyouguanlian。xitiantongshihaiduikeerkaiguoerdemaodunmingtidehanyijinxingleshenkesikao,erqiehaiyueduleluolan·batedezhushu(canzhaoqianjianyang《xitianjiduolangyujidujiaodeduihua》chaowenshe,2000nian)。

体育外围longzekejizhunbeifuouzhouliuxue,dangtaxiangxitianzixunyinggaixiangnaweixuezheqingjiaozuihaoshi,xitianshuo: “deguomuqianyuqizhexuejiadaoburushenxuejiagengyouyisi。haidegeerzhibei,suowei‘buan’、‘juewang’deng,douyinzibulaishi·pasikahekeerkaiguoer,kanbudaoguanjiandeshen。shenxuejiayoubate、bulunnuo、gaojiadundeng,danqizhongbatezuilebuqi。”zheishibeidajiasuoshuxideyoumingdequtan。xitianshitujinruxifangshehuidegenyuanzhichuqutanjiuqitezhi。

xitiantongshihaiyuribenguoneideshenxuejiayizhibaochizhemiqiedetiyuwaiwei。qizhong,lingtiyuwaiweishenganquweideshi,ruxialuokuanweizhaohe7nian(1932)7yue13ri、xiejifengbanyuanjilangdeshuxinzhongdeyijie: “tiyuwaiweisuoweide‘wu’,bingbushirenmentongguo‘wu’yizimashangxiangdaodefeirenqingdedongxi。tiyuwaiweirenwei,tiyuwaiweisuoshuode‘wu’dezijue,yiqiyongyouagape(ai)dehanyi,congerchengxianchusanweiyitidecoequality(pingdeng)deyihan。”yejiushishuo,xitianjiangshenjinxingwuhua,erqieshiqiweiyizhong“ai”decunzaile。keyixiangxiang,qishizheiduiyuyoutaxinyangqianchengdemuqinfuyangzhangdadexitianlaishuo,yeyichengweixuerouyibufendezhenzongxinyang,wuyiqidaolemouzhongjijiyingxiang。yinwei,zaiciliangsannianqian,tazaijihe辻zhelangdeshuxinzhongcengshuodao: “tiyuwaiweisuoshuode‘wu’,bixushichengrengerenzhiziyoude、baokuoyiqieerenzaineide、ruqinluansuoshuodeneiyang,yikewennuandexin(qinluanshifourucishuoguo,buxiang)”(luokuanweizhaohe5nian[1930]1yue4rideshuxin)。kezhixitiandezongjiao,juebushizhishishan。zhenzongsuomiaohuide、dacidabeideamituofo,qiancunyuxitianzongjiaoxindegendi,zaicijichushang,jidujiaodeshangdi,yebeitasuojieshoule。

体育外围xitianzaiwannianzuihoudelunwen《changsuoxingluojiyuzongjiaoxingshijieguan》(《xitianjiduolangquanji》jiubandi11juan,yanboshudian。yixiafanyinyonggaishu,zhijiyema)zhongtichulezaishanyuzhenzongyujidujiaozhong,zitiyuwaiweiyujueduizhedeguanxishitongyiluojidezhuzhang。zaigailuojizhong,jueduizhebeishiweiyizhongjueduiaidecunzai。birutalunshushuo: “zaihouzheyifang,yuqixiangfan,jueduizhezuizhonghaishibaorongtiyuwaiweiziji,jibiantiyuwaiweizijiruhebeipanta,tiyuwaiweizijiruhetaolita,tazuizhonghaishizhuishangtiyuwaiwei、baorongtiyuwaiwei。zheijishitadewuxianzhicibei。……jueduizhezuizhongyifoudingzijizishenerzhenzhengshirenzhiweiren,rucicaikeyichengzhiweizhenzhengjiuren。……jibianzaijidujiaozhong,tiyuwaiweiyekeyicongsuoweidaochengroushendeshuofazhongfaxianzheizhongshangdizitiyuwaiweifoudingdeyiyi。jiufojiaolaishuo,cishijiekeyishuoshifodebeiyuanshijie,shifangbianshijie,keyishuoshifoxianxianchenggezhongxingshierjiudurenlei”(435ye—436ye)。

erqie,zuilingrenjingyadeshi,xitianhaiyinyongtuosituoyefusijide《kalamazuofuxiongdi》,tichulezhanxindejiduxingxiang。shijianwei15shiji,didianweisaiweiliya,duiyufuhuodeyesu,dafaguanfawenshuo,weihedaoxianzailaidaozheilifanantiyuwaiwei?duici,yesujidushizhongyiyanbufa,ruyingziyiban,zaidiertianbeishifangshi,bianzoudaolaofaguangenqian,wenlelaofaguanyixia。xitianyiciyesujidudelizizuoweigenju,zhichushuo: “xindejidujiaoshijie,huoxujiangtongguoneizaichaoyuedeyesujidudedaokaixian”(di461ye—462ye)。qishi,dangjinshijiezuiqianyandeshenxue,sihujiushizaizhuiqiuzhezheizhongjidujiaodelijie。

2.大拙对基督教的理解

qiahaoyuxitianlunshudesuoweishizhongbaorongbeilizijidejueduizhexiangduizhaode,shidazhuodezhenzongguan。dazhuozai《ribenshilingxing》(1944。shouru《lingmudazhuoquanji》jiubandi8juan,yanboshudian)zhongzhichu,zhenzongrenweitongguojueduiwuyuan(wutiaojian)dedabei,cishenjikededaozhengjiu。zheizhongzhengjiusixiang,wulunshizaiyinduhaishizaizhongguodouweicengchuxian,suoyi,dazhuojiangzheizhongzongjiaoyishimingzhiwei“ribenshilingxing”。shuodaozheili,biruwenxuejiayuantengzhouzuosuomiaoshude、changchangmomodijiejinzuirendeyesujiduxingxiangzhilei,sihuyekeyishuoshiribenshilingxingshiyijidujiaodeyanshuozuoweijiyuanerfaxianchulaidegainian。

buguo,jushuo,yuxitianduijidujiaoshenganqinqiexiangbi,dazhuoduijidujiaodetaidujiaoweiyanli。congdazhuolaikan,jidujiaorenweishijieshiyoueryuanfenliezhihoubuduanfazhanchulaide,dantaquemeiyoubawochuyuqigenyuandeyiyuandeshijie,yinci,duijidujiaobunenggandaomanyi。“shangdishuo,yiyouguang,jiyouguang。keshi,sheikandaoletani?”dazhuofachuzheiyangdegonganshiyiwen,yibiaomingtaduijidujiaodebuman。

zheiyexushiyinweimeiguoqingjiaotujidujiaoyangedelunliyudazhuodexinxingbuxiangwenhedeyuanguba。buguo,dazhuoduiyutianzhujiao,quebaoyoutonggan。lingmuzhongxinzaihuiyidazhuodewangshishi,cengzheiyangjizaishuo: “xianshengwannianshi,tiyuwaiweijingguozhangshijiandepanghuanghou,zuihouzhongyuguiyiletianzhujiao。tiyuwaiweibacishixiangxianshenghuibaoshi,xianshengfeichanggaoxingdiduitiyuwaiweishuo: ‘neitaihaole!’nicengjingshixinjiaotu,zongtishuolai,xinjiaotuaiyongnaodaikaolvwenti,guoyulixing。zheijueduilijiebudaozhenshidedongxi。zaizheiyidianshang,tianzhujiaogengjiejinyushan。nizhidao,diyi,tianzhujiaoyoushengmumaliya,zheijiushibeimuguanyinma!’jiezhe,bianhualehenzhangyiduanshijianjiangshuguanyumaliyadechongbai”(《lingmudazhuo——renとsixiang》,yanboshudian,1971)。

qishi,dazhuozai《dongfangshideguandian》(《dongyangdeなjianfang》,1963。shouru《lingmudazhuoquanji》jiubandi20juan)suoshoude《dongxizagan》yiwenzhong,cengzantanmaliyaxinyang。zaigaiwenzhong,dazhuozhichu: “duiyumuxingjingaidexinqing,dongfanggengyouyuxifang。”shenzhihaishuo,tarenweimaliyaxinyanglaizidongfang,“buguanruhe,wulunshimaliyahaishiguanyin,doushiyizhongmuxingdexiangzheng。zaidongfang,guanyinbujinjinshisanshisanguanyin,erqiehaixianxianchuwushudehuashen,suodaozhichu,congshizhejiudurenleiyuwanwudeshiqing。bingbuxiangmaliyaneiyang,dengdaotianshang,jieshoushangdidebaoguan。jinhoudongfangdejidujiaoxintusuoxinyangdemaliyashengmu,buzhishifouhuibianxianchengguanyinpusa。……buguanruhe,‘zongjiao’bunengmeiyoumaliyaheguanyin。fouze,‘zongjiao’buhuishoudaorenmendeqinglai。”

体育外围yuqigaojuyutiantangdemaliya,dazhuoduiyuxianxianyucishijianerbuduandicongshizhejiudurenleihuodongdeguanyinpusa,jiyugaodupingjia。zheizhengshiyuxitiansuoshuodefoudingzitiyuwaiweideshangdijuyouxiangtongzhichuba。xitianhedazhuozaitiyuwaiweishengmingdegenyuanzhongfaxianledabeiyijiciaidezuoyongzheiyidianshang,shixiangyizhide。zuoweishanzhededazhuo,shitongguobashanfangzaidachengfojiaodehongguanshiyezhongjinxingbawo,erqietongguozaidagudaxuejiechuzhenzong,bingduicijinxingshenrudetanqiu,erdadaozheizhongjingjiede。dangran,dazhuosuojianxingdelinjishandegongantixi,guanchuanzhedabeizhixin,qishishiyuciyeyouguanlian,zheishihaowuyiwende。lingyifangmian,keyirenwei,xitiantongguoshenruxuexijidujiao,erqieyouyuxitianziyouxiaoshiqitongguoerrumuransuojieshoudezhenzongwuyishizhongerfashengdezuoyong,caizhongyudaodazheiyijingjiede。yinci,errendeyanxing,tongyangdizhengminglesuowei“xianyoudabei”dezongjiaozhenli。

3.宗教性自体育外围的逻辑建构

wuyonghuiyan,xitianshiyiweizhexuejia。dazhuoyinggairuheguileini?ruguojiaotazhexuejia,zeganjuedaotayoudianerrongtongwuai;ruguochengtashifojiaoxuezhe,taquechubanledaliangdeyibanxingtongsuduwu。danlingyifangmian,chengtaweiqimengjia,queyoujuedeyoudianerbugouside,yinweitazaisixiangwajuefangmian,youtaduzide、shensuideneirong。

体育外围qizhongdelizizhiyi,bianshi“jifeiluoji”detichu。wuyonghuiyan,zheiquziyu《jingangbanruojing》zhongyi“afeia,shiminga”(abushia,suoyimingzhiweia)dexingshifanfuchuxianyuju。dazhuozaizheilijiang“sejishikong”yu“kongjishise”,jieduweizhijuedeshanzhedelichang,bingyong“jifei”yuyizhengheerbiaodade。

体育外围dazhuotichude“jifeiluoji”,buzhishixianyukeguanshiwu,qishishiyizhonglunshuzitiyuwaiweibenshen、zhutizishendegainian,renweizitiyuwaiweiyuchaotiyuwaiweiweiyideyizhongshenrudebiaoda。biruzai《shandesixiang》(《shanのsixiang》,1943nian,shouru《lingmudazhuoquanji》jiubandi13juan)yishuzhongbiaodadefeichangmingque。gaishushidazhuodedaibiaozuozhiyi。yinwei,youyitian,tiyuwaiweideenshiqiuyuelongminwendazhuo: “zaixianshengdaliangdezhushuzhong,ninrenweinayibenzuimanyi?”dangshidazhuodangjihuidashuo: “nikeyiduyidu《shandesixiang》。”

zaigai《shandesixiang》yishuzhong,dazhuoyong“ge”yu“chaoge”,chanshuleshansuojiangdezitiyuwaiweidewenti。biru,guanyupanshanbaojideshizhong,dazhuoruxiajinxingjieshao: “gegeshanrendouyoufayan,dandagebifangshuo,jiuxiangshikongzhongwujianyiban。shifoujidaoduifang,bushiwentideguanjian。kongzhongsuomiaohuadexian,meiyoulunkuodehenji,erqiejianrenyewuqianque。chuyuzheizhongzhuangtai(duishenghuojinxingyueshu)erxinxinwuzhi(zheibingbushishuowuyishi,suiyoufenbie,danbixulaojiwufenbiezhifenbie)。rucishiquanxinjifo,quanfojiren——renyufobuyi。suoweidao,yucikaishichengli。”bingjieshishuo,zaizheili,“geshige。suibushichaoge,danchaogezhiweige,qiyongcaideyikeneng。geshichaoge,bushige,shichaogezhige。suoweifoyuren,shijifeiwuyideluoji。”zaizheili,zitiyuwaiweiyuchaotiyuwaiweisuiweiyiti,danyucitongshi,mingquelezitiyuwaiweidezhenshicengmian,er“jifeiluoji”zeyinggaishiyongyucizitiyuwaiweizhenshicengmian。birudazhuozai《linjidejibensixiang》(《linjiのsixiang》,1949。shouru《lingmudazhuoquanji》jiubandi3juan)zhongzhichushuo: “zheige‘ren’shiyige‘chaogezhe’,tongshiyoushiyige‘gezhe’。huanyanzhi,linjishilinji,tongshiyoubushilinji。······renshishenghuozaijifeiluojizhongdeyizhongcunzai。linjiqiahaoyucixiangfengle。”

zhongyaodeshi,zaizheili,“ge”bingbudandanzhishibei“chaoge”suobainongdeyizhongcunzai。rudazhuohaishuo: “zheishi,‘ge’bingbushiyizhongdaoju,ershiyigeziyouyizhidezhutizhe;bingbushibennengxing、fanshexingxingweideyizhongnengdongzhe,erqiaqiashiyigetongguozitiyuwaiweiquguizhizitiyuwaiweidechuangzaozhe”(《shandesixiang》)。yejiushishuo,“ge”suichengliyu“chaoge”dejichuzhishang,danzhengyinruci,guigenjiedihaishiyigedeyizhierfashengzuoyong。

lingyifangmian,xitianyezhenghaoduixiangtongdewentizaiqi《changsuoxingluojiyuzongjiaoxingshijieguan》yiwenzhongyouguolunshu。xitianduiyushandeyibanlijieshenhuaibuman。shuodaoshanwu,kongpaduoshurenhuixiangdaoxitianzai《shanzhiyanjiu》(《xitianjiduolangquanji》jiubandi1juan)zhongsuolunjide“chuncuijingyan”zheizhongjingjie。haiyourenhuixiangdaosuowei“liulvhuahong”dejingjie,huozhehaihuixiangdaosuowei“maquezhizhi,wuyagaga”dejingjie。zheixiedangrandoushiyizhongzhenshi,danzhishizheixiejiusuanwanshi,neizhishitaozuizaizhukeweifendefayuedejingdizhizhongbale,henkenengbuhuizijuedaodangxiarenhedongxidouwufatidaidezitiyuwaiweishengmingzhizhenshi。xitianbenrenduiyu《shanzhiyanjiu》guoyuqingxiangyuxinlixue,biaoshilefansheng,renweiquefaluojidezijue,congertichule“changsuoxingluoji”deshuofa,jichanminglezhenshi“gewu”(zitiyuwaiwei)deluoji。zheilisuoshuode“gewu”,jizhijikezijiguidingzitiyuwaiweizishen,tongshiyoukefanguolaiguidingzitadeguanxi,keyichuangzaoshijiedeyizhongcunzai。

duiyushandebenzhi,xitianzai《changsuoxingluojiyuzongjiaoxingshijieguan》zhongruxiazhichushuo: “suoweishan,qishibingbushixiangduoshurensuorenweideneiyang,shiyizhongshenmizhuyi。suoweijianxing,jishizhishenrudidongchatiyuwaiweizitiyuwaiweidegenyuan。tiyuwaiweizijishiyijueduizitiyuwaiweifoudingerchenglide。jueduideyizheyiqizitiyuwaiweifouding,jizuoweiyizhong‘gewu’zhizhong,tiyuwaiweidezitiyuwaiweicainengchengli。yinci,tiyuwaiweidezitiyuwaiwei,zaigenbenshangshiyizhongzitiyuwaiweimaodunxingdecunzai。zijilejiezitiyuwaiweibenshen,qishizheishiyijianzitiyuwaiweimaodundeshiqing。yinci,tiyuwaiweizhizitiyuwaiwei,guigenjiedizhiyouzaizitiyuwaiweizhigenyuanshangchaoyuezitiyuwaiweicainengyongyouzitiyuwaiwei,tongguozitiyuwaiweifouding,yikendingzitiyuwaiweizishen。conggenyuanshangdongchadaozheizhongmaodunxingzitiyuwaiweitongyi,jiaozuojianxing”(445ye—446ye)。zheilisuoshuode“tiyuwaiweizhizitiyuwaiwei,guigenjiedi,zhiyouzaizitiyuwaiweizhigenyuanshangchaoyuezitiyuwaiweicainengyongyouzitiyuwaiwei”,keyishuojiushizhi“ge”yu“chaoge”weiyideyisi。zaixitianneili,“ge”yeshiyanrancunzaizhede。

xitianbazheizhong“ge”yu“chaoge”tongweiyitidelilun,yong“niduiying”yiciyuyibiaoda。renweizheitongshishizitiyuwaiweiyifoudingzuoweimeijieeryujueduizhexianglianjiedeyizhongshitai。duici,xitianjieyongruxiadadengguoshideyuyanyuyishuoming: “yijiexiangbieerbulixusou,jinrixiangduierbuduichanei。cili,renrenyouzhi。”

体育外围yucitongshi,suowei“niduiying”,tongshihaizhichedizijuedaozitiyuwaiweijishiyige“gezhe”,jisuoweiyushangdixiangyu。zai“ge”dexianduanjuewudaoshiyigeyinggaisiwangde“gezhe”,biannengxianghuiyulingqi“gezhe”laiyichenglide“chaogezhe”。huozhezaichedijuewudao“zuie”shi,yekeyishuojiangbeishangdidebeiaisuoyongbao。zheizhongliudongzhuangtai,keyiyongqinluan《tanyichao》zhongsuowei“mituowujiesiweizhiyuanli,ruoshannengkaoan,zeweiweiqinluanyirenye”yijuyuyibiaoda。xitianzai《changsuoxingluojiyuzongjiaoxingshijieguan》yiwenzhong,weilenenggouchongfenbiaoda“niduiying”deyisi,yecengduociyinyongqinluandezheiduanhua。

shunbianzhichudeshi,《tanyichao》dezheiduanhua,yeshidazhuojingchangyinyongdejuzi。yinwei,zheilide“yiren”,yu《linjilu》zhongde“yiwuweizhenren”de“ren”、“jijinmuqiantingfadi”“ren”juyouxiangtongzhichu。dazhuorenwei,zuoweiyizhongzhenghele“huinengzhijian、shenhuizhizhi、mazuzhiyong”desixiang,dui“linjideren”yuyigaodupingjia。zaidazhuoneili,yecunzaizhe“chaogezhe”zhiwei“gezhe”deshijiao,jizuizhongbusangshi“gezhe”deshijiao。

zongzhi,wulunshixitianhaishidazhuo,errendoushitongguorushangsuoshudeluojitichuleshanyuzhenzongweiyideguandian。yiyanyibizhi,jishi“tiyuwaiweizhizitiyuwaiwei,guigenjiedi,zhiyouzaizitiyuwaiweizhigenyuanshangchaoyuezitiyuwaiweicainengyongyouzitiyuwaiwei,”rucizheiyang,cainengfaxianzhenshidezitiyuwaiwei。shanchangchangshuo“jiumingjishi”。wulunshidazhuohaishixitian,doushitanjiuzitiyuwaiwei,yiqi“chaogezhe”zhi“gezhe”(jifei),zuoweiyizhong“niduiying”ertichuqi“luoji”jiegoude。

4.代结语

xitiansuiranduijidujiaojinxingleshenruxishou,danzuizhongjiangxiwangjituoyufojiao,raner,tarenwei,qijindechushidefojiaobuxing,bixushizaixianshishehuizhongfahuizuoyongdefojiao。yinci,xitianduifojiaodepipantaiduyeshifeichangyanlide。tazai《changsuoxingluojiyuzongjiaoxingshijieguan》yiwenzhong,jiangzheizhonglichangyong“pingchangdi”yiyuyuyibiaoda。ci“pingchangdi”,bingbushidanzhipingwenwushi。yisishizhisiwangyuzitiyuwaiweierzuoweiyigexindezitiyuwaiweidansheng,zaixianshishijiejinxinghuodong,chuangzaolishi。xitianzhichu,“suoweitiyuwaiweizhizitiyuwaiweiconggenyuanshangchejianzitiyuwaiweibenshenerguiyujueduizhe,bingbushishuolikaicixianshi,ershizhichejianlishixingxianshidegenyuan。yiqijueduixianzaidezitiyuwaiweiyouxianxing,guigenjiedijiangshiyigelishixingde‘gezhe’。”(di423ye—424ye)xitianhaizhichu,zaizongjiaozhizhong,youyuduilingzitiyuwaiweilaiyichenglidegenyuandebaoen,“yingdang”cainengchuxian。zhiyoubeizongjiaosuozhengjiuderen,cainenghuiyingjueduizhedehuhuan,cainengzaicixianshishijieweitazhefahuijiuduzuoyong。

xitianyuzhaohe20nian(1945)lishi,dazhuojiezhezaizheigeshishanghuoleyue20nian。qijian,dazhuodanrendagudaxuejiaoshouzhizhizhi90sui,erqiejingchangdaohaiwaijinxingjiangyanhuodong。taduizhenzongdelijieyejianquminglanghua,xitianyetongyangfabiaozijidejianjie。qizhongzhiyibianshidui“haixiang”dezhongshi。mingquelunjizheigewentideyanshuo,shiruxiajianyudazhuozuiwanniandeyiduanhua。zheishiyoujiatengbiansanlangsuojiluxialaide: “jilezhidi,buyingjiuzhu;jibianjiuzhu,yehaowuzuoyong。shifoushiyizhongxiangshou,buzhidao,danzhishiyizhongxiangshou,yebunengdailairenhebianhua。neizhishiyizhongzitiyuwaiweimanzubale。zhengyinruci,yidankandaolejileshijie,jiuyinggaiganjinfanhui,zhuzai‘haixiang’shijiecaidui”(qianjie《lingmudazhuo——renとsixiang》)。

体育外围dazhuodequerenwei,cishendangxiayoujueduiwuyuandedabeidedaojietuo,shiribenjingtujiaodetezhi。dantabingbujinjintingliuzaizheiyicengmianshang。weilededaoyizhonganxin,tahaibuduandizhichutongxiangxianshishijiedetongdao。zheiyuxitianzhichudedangxiadanshengyubaoendeshuofa,zhenghaobumouerhe,huweiduiying。

体育外围dazhuozaiwannianchangchanggantanshuo: “yaoshixitianhaizaijiuhaole!”sihaomeiyouyangaitaduishiquzhiyinzhihoudegudu。tiyuwaiweiyinggairuhejichenghefayangguangdazheiliangweisixiangdajiadeyichanni?tiyuwaiweirenwei,zhishaoyinggaibadazhuohexitiansuochanshuode“youfojiaozouxiangxianshishijie”deketi,jiehexiandaitiyuwaiweizijidelichang,shenrusikaoxiaquba。

yishangjiulingmudazhuohexitianjiduolangdesixiangtiyuwaiweideyigecemianjinxinglejieshao。xiexiedajia!

中领域主义与《大学》四维三领域

——三公三私伦理学引论

笑思*

一、人类的三大并列生活领域

体育外围dongyarenzhanzaizishenwenminglichangshang,huirenweirenleijianlidaodeyuzhixu,buzhisheji“shehui-geren”suoquandingdefanwei,bujinweilezheizhong“zhonglingyu”neibuyoudeyouxu。jiatingzuoweixiaolingyu,tianxiazuoweidalingyu,binglie、pingxingyuqijiandeguojia-shehuizhonglingyu。xiao、dalianggelingyuneirongfengfu、bibukeshao、erxiangduiduli。renxing,baohanrendejiatingxinghetianxiaxing。

体育外围guojiahuoshehui,yujiating、tianxiazhinengbinglie,budeguofentuchu。sanlingyuneideshenghuotongdengbiyao,budehoucibobi。jiangqidouguijiewei“shehuishenghuo”,yituchuzhonglingyu、qiangdiaoguojia,jishixifangyiguandepianxia,yeshidongyazanshidemianweiqinan。jiayutianxiagehanqi“ge”,gexuqi“hua”,gezinenghuachuqizhuanshudedaodezhixu,erbunengdouguiyueweizhonglingyudedaodezhixu。

zaijiating、guojia、tianxiasandalingyuzhong,keguancunzaizhesanduigongsijiandequfen。zheisanduigongsiqufen,guifan、huafenlesandalingyuneidegongyiyusili、gongdeyuside。renrendouyaoyixujinrusanzhongshenghuo,zaiqizhongbeifenbiechengren、zunzhong、daodehua,-jinguanxilarenhejidujiaozongshimen,yinweiguodukanzhongchengbang、jiaohuidengzhonglingyuxingtuanti,zhiyoudanyigongsiguan,wushijiating-tianxiadeteshudaodezhixu,erxiaaihualexifangdaode-zhixudeneirong。

东方古典中的“《大学》四维”(身、家、国、天下)框架及其蕴含的家文化-天下正治[①]体育外围,导致四维间的三个间隔平均化,突显分别内含公私之别、道德秩序需求的三大独立生活领域。大学四维三领域,因此是出自东亚、全人类普世适用的文明框架、世界观、方法论。其内涵极为丰富,其形式不可或缺,其利用有待推广。

dongyarenzairujiajiaodaoxia,yuanbenbirenheqitarendougenglejie,rendeyiqiecongxiaozaijiakaishi。jiatingshibiguojiagengyuanchu、gengpubian、gengjiben、gengziran、gengyongjiuderenleicunzaixingshiheanquan、shenghuodanwei,shirenleidaode-zhixudeyuantoulingyu。jiatingyinyangjianbei,chuangzaoshengming,xuyaobingyinfadaodezhixu,fulaoxieyouerwanguchangqing,yurenleigongcunwang,biguojiagengyongjiu。renleibixujieshourujiadejiaodao,shenhuaduijiatingderenzhiyuyikao,renshirenleiwenhuadejiatingyuantou。

rujiashidongyajiawenhuadadaoshijiegaoduanshuiping,shiqijiatingjiaoseyinzhengmingergaodufuzeren(suiranwanjinyinxihuaerchuxianliushi): fuxiangfu,zixiangzi,fuxiangfu,qixiangqi。congxiaozaijiaxiaotiqinqin,zaiqinyoujiangandaoanquanderen,duitarenrongyixinren,nengxingcheng“titarenzhexiang”dedaode。youqinqingfazhanqingli,kexingchengjiayuandaodezhihui;duirendao、renxing、renshengchangleguaneryouxinxin;shaoyouxifangneizhongshenkede“wujiakegui”gan,jiaoshaoxiangwangchujia、chushi。

体育外围dongyarenzhisuoyinengbimianzhongshijiheian,henshaoxianruzongjiaomikuang,henshaoduirenxingbeiguanjuewang,meiyouxifangneiyangdezongjiaokuangre、jiaopaijianbukuanrong、jiliechongtu,bubiweishixianxifangfeizongjiaohuaernuli600nian,shiyinweijingshenjiayuanzhengherulefengfuchengshu、jiweifada、changyouxingfudefumuzinvzhijia,yinweiyoufadadejiatingdaode。dongyajiatingyibannenggoumanzushentiyujingshenshangshuangzhongdeanquangan、guisugan、guishugan、shenghuoyiyixuyao,nengbaozhangqinglijianpingheng、jingshenxinlidejiankang。

ruruomeiyoujiatingqudaijiaohuidaodehuaren,meiyouqinrenkekaozhichengrenmenduirenxingshandexinxin,meiyou“renjianjiatingshenghuo”dewendingpingchang,zongjiaojuebukenengzaidongfangtuijurenwenxingderujiazhixia。fumuzuxianzhijia,keyijiushirendejingshenjiayuan,erwuxuzongjiao-zheishidute、judaderujiawenmingchengjiu,shijuyoujiawenhuaruodian、jiazhexuemangdiandexifangrenshangnanlijiede,yeshidongyajiazhiguanyoubiyaoxiangquanrenleituiguangdeyidaliyou。

体育外围dongyawenmingzaojiuyinjiawenhuafadaerdatiwanchenglefeizongjiaohua。zheiduixifangfeizongjiaohuayiyishangdexiandaihuatigonglemofan、fangxiang、xiwang、yuqishi,ketizhenxifangrentuolizongjiaomixindexinxin。jiawenhua、tianxiawenhua,shidongyarensuzhidedutelaiyuan,zuyitianbuzongjiaotuichuliuxiadewenhuakongbai。xuduodongfangren,yixinyiyianxifangyangbanzhuiqiuqiangguoshixiandaihua。ranertamenquebingbuzhidao,xifangxiandaihuadeshizhi,zhuyaoshifeizongjiaohua、rendaozhuyihua。

dongfangrenbeixifangbipoerzhuiqiu“qiangguo-qiangjun”yiyishangdexiandaihua,xifangquezhuisuidongyaershixianfeizongjiaoshixiandaihua,-zheishixiandaihuaguannianzaidongxifangbutongmingyunzhongdejudafengci。renleiweilaishixianfeizongjiaohua,minzujiandepingdengyuhepinggongchu,xianranzhinengyoujingyanfengfu、wanchengjiaozao、minzujianhezongjiaojianmaoduncongbujiliededongyajiazhiguanlaiyindao。

体育外围dongfangwenmingdeshijianhaibiaoming,tianxiaweigong,jiangjiudagonggongde,zhuiqiutianxiayitonghetianxiadazhi,keyijiejueguojia、zongjiaobingliejiejuebuledequanqiuzhixu、minzujiandaode、zongjiaojiankuanrong、guojiajianzhanzhengdengwenti。xifangwenhuaguodujujiaoyuzhonglingyu,zongshiqiangdiaoguojia-jiaohui,budongdequanshijieshuipingshangdedaode-zhixu。xifangxuyaotongguoxuexidongyade“tianxialunlixue”,tongguozhutuixindetianxiadazhideshixian,laigaishanhetigaozijideguozujiandaode。

rujiazaijiatingyutianxiazhijianshixianledatong,zhuzhangjiangjiatingxingdaodezhixu,xianggengdadefanweituiguang,zhizhidadaotianxiadagongdegongdehetianxiadazhidezhixu。tianxiadazhi,shirujiadongyazairenleilishishangweiyidadaode、jiqibaoguidegaoduzhixuchengjiu,congzhongshixianguotianxiataiping。qijingshenshiyeyiyincierzaisandalingyujiandadaowuxian、yiyiguanzhi。dongyazongtishijieguan,wenmingdakuangjia,bixishi“shehui-geren”liangjimoshigengkuanguang、quanmian、wending、pinghe。

体育外围dongyarenyiwangzaijiating-tianxiazheilianggebenshengaodufengfudulidelingyuzhijian,lijiehexiandingguojia、shehuidengzhonglingyu。gudongfangdezhonglingyuwenhua,fanershizhongshoudaoxiangduifadadexiao、dalianggelingyufaziliangcedexianzhi,buxiangxifangneiyangshizhongrangzhonglingyuzhuyiwuxianfazhan。ruguoxifangweiqiangguoerrangjiating-tianxiakeyoukewu,zezhonghuawenmingkaofadadejiating-tianxiarangjujiandeguojiakeqiangkeruo。

ziqinhanyilaidezhonghuawenhuashishang,zhonglingyuwenhuaboruozaiyidingchengdushangshiyouyiweizhi: neishiweiletianxiadazhi-jiatingwenhuaweizhu,er“xuefanmieguo”dexiaoguo。dongfangdezheizhongtedianxuyaoshouxianyuyimingque,ranhouzaigongyunduidai,bunengrangtachengweiteshushidaiweiguojiazhuyifendoumubiaodeyishixingxishengpin。jishijindaizhongxinqiangguo,jia-tianxiawenhuayebujinjinzhiyoufensanjinglidexiaojizuoyong。bukendingjiating-tianxiazheiliangzhongwenhua,zezhonghualishibiangongbudiguo,rujiawenmingjiuqueshaojiazhi。

qingmozhiqianzhangqidetianxia-jiatingtizhi,shiguojiashezhixiangduihuangfei,zhonglingyuwenhuayusuzhiquyuboruo,renmen“zhizhiyoutianxia,buzhiyouguojia”;“zhizhiyoujiating,buzhiyouguomin”。zheizhonghepingdewenming,jinguanbenshenshenweiheli,queyinzhonglingyuwenhuatuihua,erbuzaishiyingzongheguolijingzheng,zhandoulijidadijianruo。

youciyinqidejunguocengmiandeyibaizaibai,lingwanjinzhongguorenxinshengkonghuang,sangshixinxin,dulisikao、wenhuazixin、lishizizun、wenmingzihaojunjijuxiajiang,zhinengyangshiergaoguxifang。zaibulejiexifangzhanlvexingcanquedeqingkuangxia,dongyarenjicanghuangquanmiankendingxifang,wutiaojianjieshouleqizhonglingyuzhuyi,wushilezishendujuyigedejiating-tianxiawenhuachengjiu。

体育外围yukonghuangzhongyinruweiguojiazhuyi,quanmianyongbaoxifangshi“shehuikexue”fanshi,shizhongguorencongciqiangpozijidequanbusixiangxueshujiaoyujiazhiguan,biandezhonglingyuhua,paoqi、cuihuileyuanyoudejiating-tianxiaziyuanyuzhanlvexingyoushi,chengwei“shehui-geren”liangjimoshizhongzhudongruzhudedongfangxinqiutu。dongxishuangfangqijin,xifangxiaaiaomanerdongyahuangluanzibei,shuangfangjunweinengzhengfujunhengdikandaizijiyuduifang。

jinguanjiating-tianxiawenhua,zaizhongguowanjinjiaru“zongheguolijingsai”、quanminzhuiqiuwenhuazhonglingyuhuazhihouxunsuliushi,danqiyiwangpeiyang、liuxiadesuzhicanyu,rengnengshidongyarenyiqiangburuo,youzongheyoushi,kezaijiliedezhonglingyuqianglijingsaizhongpidinaizhichaoyuexifang。sheci,renmenjiangwucongshuomingdongyageguoxunsujueqibeihoudewenhuasuzhilaiyuan,kanbuqingdongfangwenmingfuxingdehelixing,yijiheyidongyaweilaizaiwenhuashangnenggouyinqitezhangerzhongxinlingdaoshijiedeliyou。

体育外围kejian,dongyajingyingjindaiyilaifanguodezuidajiticuowu,zaiyudulisikaoyongqibuzu,meiyouxitongzongjieguoxifangquanjuxing、zhanlvexingdefumian,shuobuchuxifangyounaxiegenbenxingruodian、quexian,tibuchuzhenduixifangershenrudaozhexuecengcishangdeshenkepiping。-zheishidongyarenguodufuzhilexishizhonglingyuwenhua,naizhijiangqizhengchanghua、sheweizhangyuanmubiaohejinbubiaozhun,wushibiandizaojianpaoqizishenjiqibaoguierdutedejia-tianxialiangdaleiziyuandengleicuowudegenyuan。zheizhongcuowubixujinkuaijiuzheng。

dongfangrenduanqineibixushouxiantiyuwaiweizhonglingyu,qiangguoqiangjun。neishiweileyingdeguojiaqiangli,shi“weiqiangshicong”dexifangrenditouzunzhong。ranerzheiyezhongjiuyiweizhe,zhonglingyuhuashishouduanerfeimude。daodazhuanzhedianerhuitou,zhongxinzhangyangjiating-tianxiahepingwenhua,shichizaodeshiqing。dongyarenxuyaozheizhongzhanlvedajulishiguan,xuyaozhongzhenzixin,zhongduzijiagudian,kendingqianrendetansuojiqijingyanjiaoxun,huifuwenhuazizun,yiduanqijunguowuhuazhiqu,jiaohuanzhangqihepingwenhuazhishen。

人类未来的方向。东亚地区以外的家文化,其质与量总需大大提高,以增益日常生活的安宁幸福。宗教国族间的冲突迟早要有一个根本性解决,例如天下大治。家庭-天下类德目秩序,需要安置入一个足够宽广、包容、方便发展的伦理学系统。西方那种中领域过度发达,大小领域薄弱的现实,不能再予以正常化而当作典范,而必须尽早得到纠正,三大领域间的关系更为平衡。

体育外围quanqiuyitihuazaihuhuantianxiadazhizhongxinchushan。xifangjishuwuyizhongcuchenglequanqiuhua,xifangwenmingquequefatianxiadazhidesixianghejingyanlaitigonglingdao。xifangrenyouxilajichengxialaidechengbangshu,jinjinshanzhangpianzhiyiguoyididejubu。zheizhongzhonglingyuhuapianxiadezhixuzhili,bixurangweiyutianxiaweigong、jialiweizhidezhangyuanzhihui。xifangrenbixuzhuyirangjiating-tianxiafendejiaoqianweiduodeziyuan。sangongsansilunlixue,jiangshiweilaitongxingyutianxiadeyuanzelunlixue。

yushi,rujiadongyashanzhangdejiatingyutianxiawenhua,《daxue》siweiyunhandesangongsansilunlixue,zuoweijudaerbaoguiderendaoziyuan,keweihoujidujiaoshidaiquanrenleidezhangzhijiuan,huodejingshenjiayuan,huodewendingerxingfudeshenghuojiqidaodeguifantigongzhidao,keyijiuzhengxifang“shehui-geren”liangjimoshiduirenleisandalingyuduoweidushenghuodehaiyuan、niuqu、xiazhaihua。sandalingyunenggoujiangudewenming,dangrangengyoushengmingliyuhelixing。

tongguopipingxifanglunlidaodeshangdezhonglingyuzhuyi,dongfangrenxuyaotuchurujiajiatinglunlidaodededuli、jiben、bibukeshaoyupubianshiyongxing,zhichutianxiaweigong、tianxiadagongdaodedepushibiyao,zhongxinanpairenleiquanmianxuyaodedemujiqifenlei、fazhanjiaoyuxitong。tiyuwaiweiyaoweijiudongfangdaodezhixu,zuoxindezhongxinkending。zheijiangtongguotichu、lunzhengsangongsansilunlixuelaishixian。zheiyiweizheyizhongxindeshijieguan,tabuzaiyouyushehui、geren,ershicongsiweisanlingyuquanmiankandairenshengrenshi。

体育外围zhongxingerzhengfujunhengdizhongkandongfangziqinhanyilaidefengfulishishijian,zhongxindatishangkendingchuangzaolezheibujinbuxinglishidedaibiaorenwu,qingchuwanjinguodudezitiyuwaiweibiandi,mingquejiaduiyurudeshouyaoxing,kendingtianxiadazhidelishijingyan,jieshiheyidongyazhonglingyuwenhuawanjinbufada,jieshixilazhexuesanjie(sugeladi,bolatu,yalishiduode)yujidujiaozongshidezhonglingyuzhuyipianxiang,yong《daxue》siwei-sangongsansiqudailiangjimoshiyudanyigongsi,shidongfangsixiangjiedeyipidangwuzhiji。

、中领域主义

体育外围xifangrenlituzhipeiquanshijie,quezongshizhixianggaohaozijideguojia。qijunguo-wuhuachuantong,fenqingditiyuwaiweixiguan,yiweizheguozuneiwaideshuangzhongbiaozhun,heqiangquanzhengzhi。xifangrenzongjiaoshang、zhongzushangjianchi“tiyuwaiwei-tamen”zhibie;zheigengrongyirangguozujianfenlieerfeituanjie,rangzhanzhengchongtuduoyuhepingwending。tamenshizhongweinengrangjiating、tianxialiangdalingyuhuodechongfendefazhan,ershisandashenghuolingyuzhongweiduzhonglingyutebiefada。

guxilaren,wuxinyewunengyuguojiheping,zhinengyongjiuhuaqizhandouxingchengbang。tamenbachengbangzheizhongbeihoulailishizhengmingweiguoxiao、cuiruo、duanmingdeshenghuoxingshi,wurenweirenleishenghuodebixudanwei、hexinfangshi;bahufanerkanzuochengbangzhongkeqiangkeruo、keyoukewudechengfen,shijiaguiyupiruo,erjinjinxiashuyuguo,wanquanbunengjuyoudulixing。

youtai-jidujiaozaijinjinguanxinzishenjiaohuidetuantishangleisiyuxilaren,bingqieyuanzeshangbukuanrong、buyuanyibinglieyurenheqitadezongjiao、feixuanminzu;zhixiangchaisan、gaibianrenjialaiguifuziji。cijiaorangshengfu-shenfugaoyurendeshengfu,you《shengjing》luolierenjiandebaijiadianxing,jingtirenduijiadexiaozhong,genggulirenguifuhexiaozhongyujiaohuishenjiayushangdishengfu。

体育外围xifangzhengzhiyuzongjiaoyuantoushangshuangzhongdejiamangdian、jiaruodian,jianshaolechanshengyujiazhongdedaodepinzhi,jiangdilerendaoshenghuodexingfuyuxiyinli,zhujiuquanjuxing、zhexuexingderenxingwujie,xiazhaihualexifangrenderenshengshiye。xifangrenzaixila-xibolaijiazhiguanzhiyinxia,yibenshehui、benjiaohuiweihexinguanzhufanwei,yiqichengniangerenchengyuanweidaodezhuti,you“shehui-geren”moshikandai、lijieshenghuo。

shizhongchongshangtuantidaodezhixu,qiangdiaoaiguozhuyi-minzuzhuyi,zhongyubenjiao,kaojiaohuiqushijituiguangpujituantineidexingdelingyimian,shibunengcongjiatingxiaolingyuhetianxiadalingyuzhijian,youxiandikandai、guifanguojia-shehui-zongjiao-tuanti;bunengcongyoueryuqiqinrenjiandemiqielianxicongkuankandairendezhutijiqijiatingxingdaodezhixu。zheishixifangdejiazhiguanzhonglingyuhua,quefapushishiyongxing。

xifangwenhuazhongqueshao“shiyigejiaxiangyigejia”de“qijia”yishi,queshaodui“renleidejiacunzai”zhongdegezhong“qinrenjianhechengzhuti”derenzhi,queshaojiatingjiaosede“zhengming”zheizhongshouyaodedaodehuashijian,wangwangfuyujiayiguodudekesuxing。jiazaixifangfucong、xiashuyushehui、geren,queshaobenshendezunyanyuduli。jiachangbeigongnenghua、feishitihua、fushuhua,tiyuwaiweiyurendeshehuihuajiagerenhua,quedebudaoyongyitiyuwaiweibenshende“jiatinghua”,-xifangyuyanzhongpubianmeiyouzheiyangyigedongyarenhuigandaofeichangzirandecihui。

jiazaixifang,shijianshangkeduokeshao,keqiangkeruo,lilunshangkeyoukewu,ruoyinruoxian。xifangrenduijiatingdanweidebianjie、wanzhengxing、biyaoxing、zunyan、jiage、jiatingdaode、jiatinglunlixuedeng,qijinrenshi、fazhan、zunzhong、chengrenbuzu。xifangdejiawenhua,zongtilaikan,dadaboruoyurujiadongya。zheijianshaolexifangrenbenkecongjiadedaodedaodehua,qinglijianjunheng,anquanganguisuganmanzu,jingshenshangdeanningpingjing,yurenshijianshenghuodexingfu。

体育外围xifangrenziguzhijin,qingxiangyuyongshehuifanzhijiaguotianxia,shijishangjinrangzhonglingyuxingdanweibuduanpengzhang,poshitianxia-jiatingriyibianyuanhua,zaiyinloujiujiandiandunliangzhe。xifangrenyi“zhongjuli”renjiguanxizuoweiquanburenjiguanxidedianfan,zhuiqiu“zhongjuli”renjiguanxidechuliyishu。zheizhongyishusuiranguyouqineizaidegaodujiazhi,duzunzhihouyishirenjiguanxiguodushehuihua-gerenhua,queshaoshidangdejiatinghua、tianxiahua。

xifangzhuiqiuguoliqiangda、jiaohuikuozhang,jingchangweicifadongzhanzheng,erxuyaorendetuantixiaozhong-guominzhengdoujingshen。xifangshijieguguojiazhuyi、gerenzhuyifada,queyiguanqueshaotianxiadazhi、dagonggongde、guozuhexie、tianxiawending。daqixiao、qianglingruochengweishijiechangtai;youqiangguokuojiaoyangaijiayutianxiademangruo;wufachaochuzhonglingyuerguanxinaihushijieshangdewaizuwaijiaorenmin。cijizaisandashenghuolingyujian“xiaoeryidayi”,“yijunzheliangchou”。

体育外围xifangrendejingshenshenghuo,yiwangyituochushixingjiaohui,xianzairengzaixunqiuhouzongjiaodetidaiwu。jiaohuiyiwangdeguoduyapo,jiqilejindaixifangrenduiziyou、zunyan、dulitongyangguodudezhuiqiu。kaojiaohuiquanchongtidaixingjingshenjiayuan,yizhonglingyutuantizuoweishentideguisu,buchangboruodexiaolingyujiating,tidaidimanzuguishugan、guisugan、anquangan、heshenghuoyiyi;tuantilixingzhishang,qinqinganweiboruo;duiwaisiyisunhaiwaizu、yijiaoerdaochujiechou;zaineiquefajiatingdeanquankekaoxingfuerchanggangerenzhuyixinggudan。-zheidoushishenghuoyujiazhiguanguoduzhonglingyuhuasuozhaozhidechengfa。

xifangrenbudongyibuxuexidongyadejiating-tianxiawenhua,biaoxianchupianxia、ziman、yuaoman。xifangxuyaoqiangongfansheng,qianghuajiating-tianxiawenhua,gengpingjundizaisandashenghuolingyujianfenpeiziyuan。-yiqinglijiandeyitijunheng,qudaifenlidezhexuelixingjiazongjiaoqinggan;kaojiajiaojinzaodaodehuaren;kaonianzhangzhedebangyanggandongerfeizongjiaojielvlaiweibiliyourenquyudaode;yiliangjiaerfeibaijiadianxingyoudaojiatingtiyuwaiwei,yichaochuguozudetianxiadagonggongdelaikuozhanzijidedaodefanwei。

教会中领域化西方及其恶果。宗教教会,对西方的中领域化贡献很大。西方人以上帝为全能全善,却承认世间多恶。此即上帝要么不能免于恶而并非全能,要么容许恶而并非全善。但思想的不一致、逻辑矛盾并未妨碍西方人信这个神的全能、全善,拿他当作教会“大家庭”家长,敬称为“圣父”达一两千年。

ranershengfuduixifangrenjiandefuzizhidao,faneryoujudadefenliu、niuqu、zhijiezuoyong,biaoxianzaishengfuquanweishizhongyadaoshengfuquanweishang。shengmushiren,wanquanwufayuzuoweishendeshengfubinglie;zheifoujueleyinyangduideng,niuqule“diyijiating”yufuqiguanxidezuigaoyangban,kaichuanglexifangnannvjiandebunengpingdeng。

jiaohuilongduanlesuoyoujiatingchenghaodedaxiexingshi,xiyinzoulehendayibufenxifangrenduijiating、fumudeqingganyuxiaozhong。zaizheixieyiyishang,jiaohuiduixifangderenjianjiating,youchixudefentingkangli、zhonglingyuhua、tidaihuaxiaoguo。xifangwenmingshishang,zhidaowanjin,“shengfushenjia”jihuzongshizaijingzhengzhongqingyiyadao“shengmurenjia”。jiatingdepobai,haishixifangderendaozhuyililaicangbairuanruo,nanyiduikangzongjiaoshenxuedequanwei,nanyikanghengshangdishenjiadexiyinli。

xiaoxiedeshengfu,jingzhengbuguodaxiedeshenfu,gengbuyongshuoshengfu。shengjinggushizhong,baijiaduoyuliangjia;gulirenchushierfeirushi,gulirenlijiaerfeizaijia。xifangcongcicunzaizhejiatingjiaohuihua、jiaohuijiatinghuadeshuangzhongpianxiang,erhennanfenqingshenjiayurenjia。xiaolingyuzhenjia、zhonglingyuweijialiangzhejingchanghunxiao,liangzhongchicunde“jiating”huxiangsuzao,yizhishuangshuangbulunbulei。fenqingshenjiayurenjia,zaixifangzongshihenburongyi。

体育外围dangrenjiaburujiaohui,qinrenzuheburuzongjiaotuanti,shengfumuweixinburushengfumuweixin,qinshuxiongdijiemeiburujiaohuixiongdijiemeishi,jiaohuijiubianchenglezhonglingyuxingdetidaijingshenjiayuan。shengfuyadaoshengfu-biaoxianzaiyabolahanbixushazixianjishang-,kaishiniuqu、yihuaduiyujiatinglaishuojiweizhongyaode“fuzizhidao”。jiaohui,shixifangcongweichanshengrujiashijiatinglunlidaodedeyigezhuyaoyuanyin。

体育外围jiaohuizhonglingyuzhijia,biaomianshangbaohurenjia,shijishangkongzhi、liyong、duoyuanhua、gaizao、hequdairenjia。jiaohuikaojieguanxiaolingyurenjiadeziyuanlaipengzhangzishen,laifazhanzhuangda,yongjiucunzai,xiyinzourendejiatingshiqingganerzhuantourujiaohui。ruofeiyilai、jisheng、huntongyurenjia,jiaohuishishishangshinanyizaixifangneimeyanxuerwendingdicunzaide。“shenjia”gubixujingti、boxue、yihua、liyong“renjia”。

jiaohuiyunulizhiyiqi,jiduandijiantaguoxifangrendejingshenyuxingdongziyou、rengezunyan。zheishixifangneizhongburongyiqubieyujiaohuishenjiaderenjia,zaiqianshouhaiyuguodudeyapo,zaihouyoushouhaiyuguodudefankang。xifangjiatingzaiwanjinshenghuosushihuaqian,yizhinanyouzhengchangcunzaideqiji,rongyibeikanzuonulizhihuojiaohuidetonghuo。zheishixifangjindaideziyouzhuyi,jiangjiakanzuoyapoxingjigou,kanzuodishirendeziyouzunyandejudashufu,eryuyijiebei、fandui。

体育外围zaitianxiadeyiduan,xifangjiaohuishizongjiaojianbukuanrong、jiaopaijianhuxiangpaichi、minzujianmaodunchongtudezuidagenyuanzhiyi。yimianduifeixuanmin、yijiao、yizuxianejiebeidishilulve,lingyimianduixuanminhejiaotureaigulifazhanguanxin-zheishixifanglunlidaodeyinjiaohuierzhonglingyuhuadegenyuanzhiyi。zongjiaoshilijiang“tiyuwaiwei-tamen”zhibiebuduanqianghuanaizhijueduihua,jinyibugonggulexilayilaixingchengdeweiguojiazhuyi、chengbangshu、zhonglingyuzhuyi、chouwaishide“aiguozhuyi”jiqixiangbansuidetianxiamangdian,jiaoyudexifangrenshizhongqingxiangyujingti、dishi、jiebeiwaiguo、waizu、yuwaijiao。

sengsuliangjiejunyoutianxiadagongjidagonggongdedemangdian,xifangrensuiwufachanshengzhonglingyutuantijiandetuanjie、pingdengyishi,wushiyufoudingrenleituanjiehuotianxiatongyi,nuliyuduiyijiaohuozhongzujiandepohai、hexifangrenduifeixifangrendeyouyuegan、bianyixin。xifangzongjiao,youqishiweixifangrenqinzhandaliangfeixifangdiqulingtu,miejueyizurenmin,tigonglebushao“shensheng”deliyou。

liru,xifangrenjingchangweiletaobineibuchanshengdezongjiaopohai、zuifanweihaierdaliangyimin,zhuanjiazishenwenmingtuanjierenleishangdewuneng,erlizhiqizhuangdiquruqin、zhanlingbierendejiayuan,canrendimiejuedangdiren,quenayudangdirenminwanquanwuguande、benzuxinfengde“shangdi”zhi“xunuotiyuwaiweizheixierendetudi”zuoliyou。xifangrenyoucifanxiadetaotianzuixing,yijizongjiaoduizheileizhongzumiejue、zhanrenjiayuan、shalujielvejiyuguodewuchibianhu,beiyongyuandingzairenleilishidechiruzhushang。

体育外围youyuzhijinshangweishoudaochongfendejieluyuqingsuan,xifangzongjiaobenxingzhongbiaoxianchulaideminzuzisi、xuanminaoman,shenzhimeiyoufangaixifangrenjuyoudaodeyouyuegan。jiechuanzheibuchoueshi,duiqiyuyiqingsuan,rengranrenzhongdaoyuan。renleibunengjinyikaohedengdaixifangrenzijidezijue。dongyarujiazaifenxipipingxifangwenmingdezhongdayinanmianshang,bixudulizuowei、jijiyifuerzewupangdai。

宗教对中领域体育外围的积极性贡献。另一方面,“有一弊亦有一利”。教会对西方中领域内部文化体育外围,又有极大的贡献、成就与功劳。教会普遍地培训了西方人,使其学会团体内部陌生人间的善待之道,创造了大量专门的语言体育外围文化,造就了大量中距离人际关系间的润滑剂,鼓励人们以教会团体、社区邻居、无血缘的“兄弟姐妹”之家为精神家园与情感寄托。

体育外围jiaohui,shidexifangrenshenshouzhonglingyuwenhuaxunlian,jiweishanzhangzuzhi、liyongtuantibingxiangshouqiliyi。ruguozhijiaohuijiebei、dishirenjiadeyimianyubugu,zerenmenbixutongshichengren,xifangjiaohuizaizhangqilishiguochengzhong,weigududexiudaoyuanzhongdeyijishehuishangleisidewujiakeguizhemen,tigonglejikeyikaodetidaixingjingshenjiayuan,naizhishentiandun、cunzaidechangsuo。shenjia,queshizaixifangqiguodaitirenjiadezhongdazuoyong。

jiaohuibangzhuyangchenglezongjiaoshenghuozhongdezhonglingyuneibudelilejiaohua、xingweijilv、fengxian-zhichituantidexiguan、naizhizaishenlingmianqiandeyilvpingdeng;jiaohuitongguo“shangdixiangren”deguannian,gulichanshenglerendeshenshengxingyuzunyanguannian。xifangrenkefuxiaolingyujiatingduirenjingshendaodedemouxietianranxianzhierxingchengshehuihuarendechuantong,jiangzhonglingyuxingdetuantinenggoutiyuwaiweichengkanyuxinrendeanquandanwei、qingganjituo、haorenyurenhaozhichu,yangchenglejiyoujiazhide“tiyuwaiwei”xiguan,jiaohuiyucijugongzhiwei。

xifangrenjindaiyilaibiaoxianchudeqiangdadezhonglingyutuanjiezuzhinengli、gaodudezhongjulirenjijiaowangguanxidechuliyishu、tuanduihezuojingshen、tongguotuanduitichuhejiejuewentidejijizhudongyurenrenpuji、guozujingzhengnengli、xifangshequwenhuadegaoduchengshu、shehuishenghuozhongduodejijimianyuxiyinli,junlibukaijiaohuizhijie、jianjiedepeixun。

体育外围jiaohuibangzhuxingchenglexifangrenguanxinbenshehui、zhongshituantichengyuandezige、shenfen、daode、yuzunzhongmeiyigerendemouzhongzongjiaoxingzunyan,rexinzhonggonggongyi,shanyuchuliwuxueyuanlianjiedelinjuguanxi,shanyuliyongyuyan、youmo、guizezunshoudengzhonglingyushenghuorunhuaji,shenzhifazhanleyinle、diaosu、huihua、dengdaliangwenhuayishujiqiyoudian。jishibiaomianshangkanlaiduilidekexue,yihenshenkedishouyiyuzongjiaoduirenxiangxianglideguli、yijishangdichuangshitongyixing、yuzhouguilvtongyixingdeguannian。

shangjuzheixiechuzijiaohuigulidezhonglingyuwenhuayoudian,tongyangchuzixifangrenfadadezhonglingyushenghuotihui。ruguozheixiejiazhizhidewairen、youqishirujiadongyarenderenzhenduidai,xuexijieshou,tamenqueyebansuiyidaxiaoliangdashenghuolingyujunboruo、niuqudejudadaijia。zongzhi,wulunruhefadadezhonglingyuwenhua,dougongguojianbei,erbunengdaitilingwailiangdalingyudewenhua。zhonglingyudandufada,yuanburusanlingyuzongtijunheng。

中领域主义思想模式。体育外围中领域主义有其哲学-思想形式。希腊人提出“认识你自己”。而“反思、意识到自己整个文明的思想模式”,是“认识你自己”的最高境界。然而西方思想家们始终将自己囿于“社会-个人”型的两极模式之内而对此毫不自觉,-直到《家哲学》不久前,将这种西方人无意识却始终在遵守着的两极思维与评价的模式,予以揭露出来。这对希腊-西方哲学以反思为己任构成一大讽刺。

体育外围liangjimoshidebiaoxianxingshi,congxilashidai,congxilazhexuesanjiejiyijingkaishicunzai。tamencong“kongjian-yuanzi”moshihuodeqifa,erbaokuo“chengbang-gongmin”、“jiaohui-xintu”、“guojia-nanren”、“shehui-geren”huozhe“gongtongti-chengyuan”。zheishixifangzhonglingyuzhuyigezhongxingshizhongzuishenke、zuiquefazijue、congeryezuinanyigaibiandezhexuexingshi。

体育外围jieshixifangzhexue、lunlixue、siweimoshifangmiandeliangjimoshi,pipingqijingshenwenmingzhonglingyuzhuyihuadefumian,congzhexuehuozheshuowenmingzitiyuwaiweiyishideshuipingshangshuofuxifangsixiangjie,lingqiyuanyixiangdongyawenhuazhongdejiatingzhuyi、tianxiazhuyixuexijiejian,tigaojiatingwenhua-tianxiawenhuashuiping,shidongfangzherenbuketuixiedezhize,-jinguanzheishiyigemianlinwushuzhangai、mianduixuduoduishou、yanxiakanlaijinhubukenengwanchengdejianjurenwu。

中领域主义的定义。现在可以在上述的思想材料基础上,来界定中领域与中领域主义了。什么是中领域?从上面列举的几个西方人信奉和长期使用的两极思维模式来看,西方人重视的人类生活单位,限于“中领域团体”。所有中领域团体都分享的共性,是这种团体大于家庭小领域,小于天下大领域,居于中间,称为Community,或者说共同体。

体育外围zhonglingyugongtongtibaokuobuluo、chengbang、juntuan、jiaohui、tuanti、xinghui、shequ、shetuan,youqishiguojiayushehui。zhonglingyudanweihuasepinzhongfanduo,youxiehainengyigebaohanlingwaiyige,chicunshangkeyiyoujiaodadequbie。ranerjinguanyoubiaomianshangdeduoyangxing,shimouzhongtongyigaikuobuyidechu,zhonglingyudoudayujiating,douxianyuguozu,douxiaoyutianxia。zaizheigeyiyishang,meiyoujiatinghetianxiawenhuadechongfenfada、duliyishi,renmenjianghennanyishidaohuozhenengdingyichuzhonglingyuzhuyi。

体育外围suoweizhonglingyuzhuyi,jiushijinjinjiangjiatingyutianxiazhijiandezhonglingyutuanti,liruguojia-shehui,dangzuoshenghuodehexin,buchengrenjiatingxiaolingyu、tianxiadalingyuyoutongyangdeshenghuozhongyaoxing、danweidulixing;buchengrenjiatingdaodezhixu、tianxiadaodezhixuyuguojiadedaodezhixutongyangbibukeshao。zhonglingyuzhuyibuxiyiqiedaijia,laiguanzhubenguo、benshehui、bentuantiheqizhongdechengniangerenchengyuan。

zhonglingyuzhuyizhe,yifangmianjujue“yitianxiaweijiren”,buguanxinqitaguozu、qiyurenlei,buqiushijieheping、tianxiadazhi,buxiangxinrenleigeguozunenggoupingdengdihexiegongchu。tamenjiangbenguo-benshehuideliyi,zhiyuqiyusuoyourenleidezongtiliyizhishang。lingyifangmian,tamenzaibenshenneibu,xiguanyuxishengfurulaoyoujiqijiawenhuayichongshituanti。zheiyiweizhezhizaijiayutianxiazhijian,zaixishou-zhanyoulejiating、tianxiadeziyuanerqianghualedetuantizhinei,zhonglingyuzhuyizhejiunengmanzu。

zhonglingyuzhuyi,bazhonglingyutuantizhongchengrenchengyuandeshenfen,youqishiwushide、gongminde、shehuituantidechengyuanshenfen,kanzuorendezhuyaoshenfen,bingqieyoucidingyi“geren”。zheizhonggeren,yibanxiangduiyushehuierchengli,wangwangguoyushehuihuahegerenhua,queshaojiatinghua、tianxiahua,buneimeshiyingjiatingshenghuo、tianxiashenghuo,jinshanzhangyuzhonglingyuzhongdeshehuishenghuo、chengniangerenshenghuo。

体育外围zhonglingyuzhuyi,yushishijishanggengshanyupeiyangwushi、zhandouliqiangdeguomin,gengqinjin、shiyingyuwenmingdewuhuaerfeiwenhua,gengdishi、jiebeiwaiguowaizuerfeizhengqutuanjietamen。zhonglingyuzhuyizhehuishuo,tanlan、renjizhengduohuozhanzhengshishenghuozhongdeziranchangtai;heping,zhishiliangcizhanzhengzhijiandejianxie;guojia,shiduifuzhanzhengdezuijiazuzhi。zhonglingyuzhuyi,guyishijieyongjiuwuxu,geguozuzhinengzibaoweiqianti。

zhonglingyuzhuyizherenwei,zaixianedeshengcunhuanjingzhong,jiayutianxiabuzuyiyikao,nanchanshenganquan,erzhinengbianyuanhua。ranerzheibuguoshixifangrenlishishijianpinfadesixiangbiaoxian,shizaibudongdetianxiakeyidazhideqingkuangxia,bazhonglingyushenghuochangguihuadetongshihaizhengchanghuaqidaijia。zhonglingyuzhuyijinmilianxiyuwuhua;ranerwuhuabenshenquebingbushirenleishenghuozhongbibukeshaode。

zhonglingyuzhuyizhe,xifangzuiduo、zuidianxing。muqiantayizaixifangrendedongyaxueshengzhongxunsuzengzhang。neixiebeizhonglingyuchengrenchengyuandezigeyaoqiusuopaichidefurulaoyou,yugengyilaitianxiazhixulaihuodeshengcunanquandewaizuyijiao,zeyibanshizhonglingyuzhuyizhedejuwairen、duizhaozhe、heshouhaizhe。zhonglingyuzhuyizhedechengjiugan,kaoduizhaoyuqitaguozushehuideruanruo、shibai、beizhengfu,yijibenshehuineifurulaoyouderuanruolaidadao。yinci,zhonglingyuzhuyizhexuyaotaguotazuyufurulaoyouderuanruo。

中领域主义对大小领域的还原作用。体育外围按照中领域主义,人类的基本语言以“社会”,“个人”两词、两极为轴心。人的生活两分为社会生活与个人生活。人性两分为社会性与个人性。人的教育、发展两分为社会化与个人化。公与私,即意味着社会之公与个人之私,或者说国家之公与公民之私。社会主义与个人主义,或者国家主义与自由主义,虽然看似对立,实为中领域主义这枚钱币的一体之两面。

zhonglingyuzhuyizhekandaiheyanjiurenlei,yibandouyaoyizishensuozaidezhonglingyujiqiliyiheguanqiezuoweilichanghejibensuqiu,jianliqizhonglingyuzhuyishijieguan。zhonglingyuzhuyishijieguan,jingchangbujinyizhonglingyuweizhongxin,erqierangzhonglingyuzhanjudabufenshiye,bujiqitalingyuliuxiaduoshaoguanzhuyudi。zhonglingyuzhiwaideqiyushijie,changbeibianyuanhua、suoxiaohua,erbuguanxin,bulejie。

zhonglingyuzhuyizhekandairenleiyushijie,jingchangyuanzexingdiliangfenweishehuixingyanjiuyugetixingyanjiu。zheiqishijiushibaquanrenleiyanjiu,zhonglingyuhua。xifangrenguanyurendegeleiyanjiutongtongchengwei“shehuikexue”;“shehuikexueyuan”qishishirenleigefangmiandeyanjiuyuan,qizhongbaokuobeihaiyuanzhihoudejiatingyanjiuyutianxiayanjiu,jiushizheiyanglaide。

ciwai,jindaiyilaixifangzhengzhiyudaodegongshidejianlidouyilai“shehuiqiyue”,budongdeqizhixuzhili、lunlidaode、jiazhiguannian、xinyangxinnian、suzhixiuyang,benlaidoukenengjidadishouyiyuxifangbenshendejiatingshenghuoyutianxiashenghuo。xifangshenghuodeyiqiefangmian,yushijihudoushouhaiyuzhonglingyuzhuyidelongduan,erwufazaijiayutianxiafangmiandedaozirun、fazhanyuyingyong。jiating、tianxia,shizhonglingyuzhuyidezhuyaoshouhaizhe。jiating,beihaiyuanhoulijieweifushuyuzhonglingyude“shehuizhidu”huo“gerenqiyue”,huozhe“siyoucaichan”。

体育外围tianxia,zebeihaiyuanhoukanzuoyizhongguojishehui,yizhongguojia、minzu、zongjiaokeyiziyouhuodongyuqizhongdewurenwutai。jiatingyutianxiayushibuzaibeirongxuyouxiangduiyuzhonglingyudeduli,erzaiguannianshangtongtongbeinaru“shehui”、“jiti”fanchouzhixia,dangzuomouzhongzhonglingyudebianzhonghuofuyong。

体育外围dangjiating-tianxiaboruoshi,xifangsixiangjiayoushifanerhuisongyikouqi,renweizhonglingyutuantideduda,buzaihuishoudaoweixie,buzaihuibeiqitalingyufenzouziyuan,keyichengjiwengu、kuodaqibaquan。zaizheigeyiyishang,zhonglingyuzhuyiyiweizhezhonglingyuzaisandalingyuzhongyongyoubaquan,yiweizhelingwailiangdalingyudeboruopobai、fushuyilai。

体育外围xifangrengulirenmenweiyijixiwang、jituoqingganxiaozhong、jituoshenghuoyiyiyuzhonglingyu。zheihuicushijiatingyutianxiabiandeyuelaiyuebianyuanhua。erjiating-tianxiayueboruo,zhonglingyutiyuwaiweibianyuebibukeshao。-zheizhongexingxunhuan,huishirenleijiating-tianxiafanweineideteshuziyuan,jingguoniuqugaizaozhihou,xiangzhonglingyufanweiyuanyuanbuduandishuchu、jizhong,shiguojia、shehui、zhonglingyuriyipengzhang。

体育外围xifangrenduizijidezhonglingyuzhuyiquefafansi、zijue、zhexuepiping,“shehui-geren”liangjimoshisuipubianerwuxiandiqizuoyong,kongzhileyidaiyouyidaixifangjingying。shiyongzhe、yilaizhequeyishibudaoliangjimoshi,-zheishizimingyi“renshiniziji”weishimingdexilazhexuezitiyuwaiweifanshengchuantongdeyidachiru,shixifangsixiangjieqijinrengranzhengtigejupianxiao、xiongjinrengjiuxiaai、fansinenglirengranbuzu、tiaobuchumouzhonghezilaisikaodebiaoxian。

体育外围xifangzhonglingyuzhuyi,liyongdongyarenduibenshenneibujiatingwenhuayutianxiawenhuadezifapipanpohuai,yijingzhangquzhirudiruzhuledongyasixiangjie。weiguojiazhuyi,shehuikexue,shehuizhuyiyugerenzhuyi,zaidongyajiyizhaobudaoduishou。zhiyoudongyasixiangjiezhangqierjiankudijujiaoyufuxingdongyachuantongzhongdejia-tianxiawenhua,zhiyoutongguodaliangdejiatinghuayutianxiahuanuli,cainengjiejuezheileiwenti。

体育外围xifangrenmuqianyijingpingjieqianglierhuodeleshijieshangdechonggaoweixin。xifangrendeshenghuofangshi,muqianyijingyirenleibiaozhundeshenghuofangshichuxianzairenmenmianqian。xifangrenneizhongzhonglingyuzhuyidechengshiwenming,yijingbeijuedaduoshufeixifangrenyuyizhengchanghua,liweimofangduixiang、zhuiganmubiao。erbenshujiushiyaolunzheng,zhonglingyuzhuyidaozhipianpo,zhiyousandalingyujiangurenshicainengzhengchang。

三、《大学》四维三领域

儒家东亚的代表观念。儒家的本性,是反中领域主义的,体现在其文明框架之中。《大学》四维(身-家-国-天下),就是儒家东亚文明及其历史的框架和代表性观念。它同时也是儒家经典及其学术传统的诠释框架。这个框架,反映儒家的世界观,立场与方法,是说明东亚文明何以不同于其他文明的主要根据。

体育外围xianqinshiqijiyijingyourujiazaijingdianzhongmingquetichude《daxue》siweikuangjia,zhishaojuyouyixiajizhongdezhongdayiyi: shouxian,tashidongyawenmingchenggongerwendingdesiqiannianlishidejingyangaikuo;tashidongyarenanshenlimingdezhidaofangzhen;tasuzao、yingxiangzhedongyarendeshijieguanyujiazhiguan,shidongyajingyinglizhi、zuzhishenghuodekuangjia,heguidingyuhuodeshenghuoyiyidezhizhen。

zaizheigeyiyishang,kending《daxue》siweikuangjia,xiangyingyukendingzhonghuawenminglishishijianjingyandedati,yijikendingzhonghuawenmingshishangdedabufendaibiaorenwu。zheizhongkending,bushoumouzhongzanshixingdeyinsu,liruwanjinduizhonglingyuzhuyidefuguinulideyingxiang。

qici,tazhijieduizhao、jieshi、bochi、chengqingxifang“shehui-geren”liangjimoshidejuxianxing,tuxiandongyafangmianguanyujiating-tianxiawenhuadeduteyoushi,tuxianqizhongyunhanzhede、keyiyonglaijiuzhengliangjimoshizhongdashiwudefengfuziyuan。《daxue》siwei,shishishangkeyijiuzhengdihangaixifangliangjimoshi。zheishitasuojuyoudeyizhongzhanlvexingde、nenggouzhidaowenmingbijiaoyiyishangdezhongdayoushi。

disan,《daxue》siweijiqiyunhandesanlingyuxueshuo、youqishiqizhongdejiatingyutianxiabufen,shiquanrenleidouyinggaijieshou、rongyiyingyongdewenhuaneirong,shirujia-zhonghuawenhuazhongzuidute、zuiyouyuanzexing、zuiyouxiudegongxian,qipushixingbushouminzu、zongjiao、diqu、yujingjishenghuofangshideyingxiang。weilaifeidongyarenxuexidongyawenhua,jiangyiciweihexinneirong。

disi,《daxue》siweizhidaodongyaren、zhongguorenzijidiaozhengzijideshenghuo,bangzhujiuzhengwenmingzishenzhongchuxiandepianpo。liru,wanjinzhonghuawenmingzhizhonglingyuwenhuaboruodewenti,keyiyou《daxue》siweisuoyuanzedifanyingchulai,zheishiyifangmian。lingyifangmian,zhongguorenwanjinxianru“zhongxinfaxianguojia”derekuang,guodumofangxifangzhonglingyuzhuyi,yixuyao《daxue》siweisanlingyuxueshuo,laichentuoqipianpo,zhimingqijiuzhi。

zuihou,《daxue》siweisanlingyuxueshuokendinglezheiyangyigejiandandeshishi: renleidemeishimeike,douxuyaoandingqijiating,douxuyaoyizhonganjiadezhexuejiqizhidao。shijiedemeishimeike,douxuyaorenleiguozujiandehepinggongchu,xuyaonenggoubaozhangzheizhonghepinggongchudetianxiazhixu。zheiliangdian,wulunzhonglingyutiyuwaiweiruhezhongyao,wulunguojia-shehuiruhezhongyao,doufoudinghuogaibianbule。

chengshukekaodejiating-tianxiawenhua,bushikeyoukewudeshechipin,ershibibukeshaodebixupin。zheiyidian,shizhonglingyuzhuyibixukanzuoyizhongcuowudegenbenliyou,shirujiazuizhongdegaomingzhichu。erzhiyou《daxue》siweikuangjia,cainenggoutixingrenleizheixieyaodian,caizuyizhurenkefuzhonglingyuzhuyidejuxian。

《大学》及其四维三领域框架。儒家名著《大学》出自古代经典《礼记》,先秦即开始为人所知。自宋朝以来它被推为四书之首,成为最有代表性的著作。该著于几千年前,即明确规定出身、家、国、天下这四个人类生活的基本维度,将它们系统地组织在一起,形成为一个全面的文明框架。

体育外围《daxue》siweiguannianzhongduijiating-tianxiadetebieqiangdiao,yiweizhetianxiayuguozhijiandequbie,leisiyuguoyujiazhijian、jiayushenzhijiandequbie。siweizaishikongshangdehangaifanwei,juyouqiongjinxing。tasuirendekongjianhuodongfanweizhiyouxiaodaoda、zhujishenggao、bubukuoda,erzhongzhiwuyifujia。-zheilijiduizhaochuxifangyibuluo-guojia-tuantiweifanweidezhonglingyuzhuyikongjianguanxinfanweideyouxianhejubu。

congshijianshang,siweijifugairendechengnian、laonian,yougujiyounianjiqibukehuoquedejiabuchong;tabujinguanzhuyidairen,erqieguanzhuqianqiuwandai;tabujinguanzhuguoquyuanzu,erqieguanxinweilai。zheizhongshikongqiongjinxing,weixifangliangjimoshisuobujubei,nenggoukefuxifangpubiancunzaidechengrenzhongxinzhuyi、guojiadifangxingpianxiang。songrenzhangzaideyijuhua,“weiwanshikaitaiping”,daochule《daxue》siweihongdadeshikongxiongjin。

三大生活领域。《大学》四维框架,将人类的全部人间生活划分为重要性类似的三大领域。一是家庭中的、亲人间的、人际关系非常亲密的、赖以存在、讲究情理的近距离小领域。二是社会共同体中各家庭整体之间的、以及成年陌生人之间的、人际关系相对粗疏的、讲究法理而形成的中距离中领域。三是国家-民族-宗教-地区等大型单位间的、人际关系相对遥远的、却仍能在各大单位间互相联系、形成人类统一整体的、讲究自然和谐这种最终天理的长距离天下大领域。

xiaozhongdasandalingyubingliezaiyiqi,qiongjinerjunhengdihuafenlerenleideshenghuokongjian-shijian,hangailerenleiziyuanxuyaofenpeijinrudequanbuzhuyaomudedi: jia、guo、yutianxia,tishilemeiyigerenxuyaojubeidesanzhongxiangguanchengyuanshenfen。sandalingyugezibibukeshao,bunengyuyihaiyuan;sanzhegezidaodeyuzhixu,bunenghoucibobi。-zheixieyunhan,shi《daxue》siweiyouzigechengwei、huozheshuobixuliewei,dongxifangwenmingbijiaozhongde、juyouchaoyuexingdezuigaozhidaoyuanzekuangjia。

体育外围renleideziyuan,xuyaoweilesangelingyudedaodezhixuxuyaoerjiangjiubilidifenpei。quanburendesixiang、guannian、jiazhi,youqishineixieyouxifangrenzhuyaocongzhongdenggongyu-guojiashehuishenghuozhongzongjiechulaideneirong,doubixufangzhizaisandalingyujiqixianghuguanxizhongyiyijianyan、quantitongguo,cainengzaidiaozhenghoushidanganzhi。muqian,zaixifangjiazhiguanzhiyinxia,guoduodeziyuanbeifenbuzaizhonglingyuzhong。

体育外围sandalingyujinjiejuyoudulixing、zizuxing、yuanmanxing,baokuozaibenshenfanweineiweilebenfanweierteshudijianlifaguideteyouzunyan、biyaoxing、yuquanwei。rendeshenghuoyuwenhua,daodeyuzhixu,bixufenweisandalingyuzhongdesangedabufenlaikan,cainengkandeqing。renshijianshenghuozhiyouzheiyangsanzhongdanweihua,cainengdadaorenjianziyuanzizu,cainengxingchengzugoufengfuchengshuderendaozhuyi,cainengjianggezhongchushixingzongjiaolieweikeyoukewu。-zheixie,shi《daxue》siweisanlingyukuangjiayunhandehexinsixiang。

国家-社会不必过分突出。《体育外围大学》四维三领域论中,包含着一个特别对西方文化有针对性纠正作用的核心思想: 在正常情况下,居于天下-家庭之间的国家与社会,不必也不能过分突出,不允许它压制其左邻右舍的两大领域而过度膨胀,乃至被唯一化、永久化、变得最高。

renheguojiahuoshehui,douxuyaozijueqixiayoujiating,shangyoutianxiazheizhongmailuo,budewushihuoboxueliangzhe。guojia-shehuizhinengrangjujiandebenshen,zuoweixiaodaliangdalingyuliangzhejiandeyigezhongjie,yejishicongjiatingdaodatianxiayitongdezhongjianjieduan,bingqienenggoubianchengsuoweixiangduiyutianxiade“difang”,shoudaochongfenfadadejiatingyutianxiacongliangcejichudexianding、zhiyue、shanxue、pingheng。

体育外围meiyoudaxiaolingyuyuliangduandefada,meiyoujiatingyutianxiazuoweishouweilingyudefenbiechongshiyuchengshu,dandanzhonglingyuguojiajiqishehuixingshenghuo,zhihuipianxiahua、danyihua、yihuarendezongtishenghuo,huiniuqubenlaimianmushangderenxing。-zheiyijingyouxifangwenmingshizhongrenmenshizhongjinjinzaixunzhao,quezongshizhaobudaofeizongjiaodejingshenjiayuanzheiyidian,zongzaihuijiadelushangzheiyidian,yijixifangzhixiadeshijie,zongshichuzaiwuzhengfuzhuyidegeguofenzheng、yongjiuzhanluan、zongjiaochongtuzhizhongjiyujianjiezhengming。

xifangrenqingxiangyujiangguojiayongjiuhua、weiyihua,zhuyaoshimeiyoushixianguotianxiayitong、quefatianxiadazhijingyan,erduishixianzhangqihepingjuewang,zhinengyizhanzhengweishishichangtai,yiguojiazuoweizuidadezhixudanwei、anquandanweisuozhi。ciwai,yinweijiatingwenhuacongweifadaguo,jiatingzhongdedaodezhixujiqiweidadeliliangcongweijinruxifangrendetihui,yeshigenbenxingyuanyin。

东方化世界的指导方针。体育外围阐明《大学》四维这种更有普世性的框架体系,取代“社会-个人”这种两极中领域模式,恢复三大领域并列的重要性,刻划三大领域间伦理道德的类似与不同,让小大两大首尾领域参与决定中领域设置的宽窄、强弱,由此规划全人类的生活观、世界观、道德观、秩序观、与方法论,-应该是中华文明于其崛起中,从文化上引领世界文化发展的指导方针。

dangran,xifangrenduizhonglingyuwenhuadefazhan,jishimeiyou“chushenruhua”,yidadaolejigaodeshuiping,qizhongyongyoudaliangfeichangbaogui、tongyangpushideneirong。liru,zhonglingyuwenhuahuchishehuifengong,huchigongshangyeshenghuofangshijiqiyoudian。dongya-zhongguorenbujinyinggaizhidaoheshouyiyutamen,erqiexuyaozhangqixuexiheshijian,cainengzhangwozheixiewenhua。guanyuzheixieneirong,guanyuzhonglingyubenshendebiyaoxingheruhetiyuwaiweihaota,xuyaolingwaideyizhengbuzhuzuo,cainengjieshiqingchu。

体育外围raner,xuyaomingquedeshi,jishiduizhonglingyuwenhua、zhongjulirenjiguanxiyishudegaodushuipingbiaoshijingzhong,duijieshou、zhongxinfazhanyidingbilidezhonglingyuwenhuabaochikaifang,rengranbixujianchi,zhonglingyufanweineimeiyouyebukenengbaohan、rongnarenleiwenmingdequanbu。bunengyongzhonglingyulaijizhongquanburenleishenghuo。

《daxue》siweisanlingyudeguannianhetixi,yinggaishizhonghua-dongyawenmingzaiqiweidafuxingzhong,xuyaozaizuigaoduanguanzhu、jianchide。tashidongyaduishijiejinxing“dongfanghua”deyiju,shizhonghezhonglingyuzhuyideziyuan。youtadaibiaodongfang;liangjimoshi、zhonglingyuzhuyi、danyigongsiguandaibiaoxifang;zheishuangfangjianjinhoujiangzhangqijinxingjiazhiguanshang、shijieguanshang、lilunyushijianshangdequanmianjingzheng。tiyuwaiweixiangxindongfangdetixigengweihongguanyouyue,nenggourongxugenghaodezhengzhizhixu、daodejiazhi。

中华文明必须警惕自身勿再次落入中领域化邪路。东亚文明的核心中华文明,尽管目前中领域文化仍在恢复过程中,却还没有落入中领域化所导致的典型的侵略扩张,掠夺外部资源、国族性损人利己的境地。同时中华文明却已经能够冲破西方世界竭尽全力的围追堵截,迅速崛起。中国人将在不可阻挡地赶超、挑战欧美霸权的过程中,逐步为恢复其家庭-天下文化创造条件。

zheibiaoming,youyujubei《daxue》siweidehongweikuangjia,juyoujiatingsuzhiyutianxiasuzhidecanyuyiliubufen,zhonghuawenmingjishixuyaozhuanmenbukezhonglingyuwenhua,yikeyicongzhongbiaoxianchujigaodexiaolvyuchengjiu。rujiaduirenleijiatingyijijiazhongdaodezhixudequanmian、shenke、duyiwuerderenshi,duitianxiadazhi、tianxiadezhidechenggongshixingyuzhangqijingyan,luoshizheiliangzhezailishizhongerdadaodegaoduwenhuachengjiu,baokuosuopeiyangdedongyarendepubiandejiayuan-tianxiagaosuzhi,wuyulunbi。

体育外围rujiaguanyujiatingpeiyurendedezhidengjianshi,qiahaoduizhaochuxilalunlixuedechuantongtuoyan-yizhiyaodengdaochengniangerenmenjubeiledulidelixingnengli,nenggouzuhejianliqizhonglingyuchengbang,canyudaozhonglingyudegonggongshenghuozhongshi,caifaxian、tichu、hetaolunjinjinyuzhonglingyutuantiheqichengniangerenchengyuanyouguandezhihui、lunlidaode、hezhixujianlidewenti。

体育外围shishishang,dongyarenzongtilaishuo,duizhonglingyuwenhuabingfeiwanquanbulejie。jishizhenduixiangduiboruode、dongyamuqianzhengquanlihuifudezhonglingyuzhanguobinglieyujingzhengwenhua,dongfangrenyirengranyouyaoyuandexianqinshiqichunqiuzhanguodefengfujiyikeyipingshi,youmojia、fajia、bingjia、zonghengjiadengzhonglingyuzhuyixuepaideyaoyuanjiyi,keyishizhonglingyuwenhuahuifuqilaiyoujuyouxiao。duiyudongfangrenlaishuo,zhonglingyuwenhuagezhongneirongbingfeixinchuang,erwei《daxue》siweijiegousuofugaieryunhan。

dangnianpaoqichunqiuzhanguoyiguojiaweihexinshenghuodanweideyitao,nulishixianqinhanshidetianxiayitong,dangjinyouduiqiangguozhihoucaikeyizaicidadaodetianxiatongyiwenhuayuyihuifu,dangzuozhangyuanzhuiqiudemubiao,doushuxingshiyoudao,youyiweizhi,xuanzesuozhi,erbingfeiwugenwuyuan、wuxinzaocheng。tongshi,zhongguorenzongshikeyipingjieqijudade、daxiaoliangdalingyuwenhuadeewaiziyuan,laimibuzhonglingyuwenhuaziyuandezanshiboruo。

从五经,到四书,再到四维。中华文明历史上,曾经出现过两大文化转折点或者说升华点,而现在面临第三次。首先,从东周至秦汉间经过百家争鸣的竞争,和春秋战国的千年实践检验,儒道法等学说,以儒家为首,脱颖而出,成为公认成熟的文明价值观。靠儒家发展出发达的家庭文化,靠儒道法共同发展出天下大治,取得了极大的文明成功。西汉之罢黜百家,表章六经是这个阶段的文化成就的总结与标志。

diercizhuanzhedianyushenghuaqi,shisongmingshiqizhongguowenhuaduiyuwailaifojiaodexishouyingyong。rudaosixiangzaibaochile《daxue》siwei-xiuqizhipingdengzhengzhikuangjiadeqiantixia,congcijinyibufengfuleneizaidejingshen-lilunbufen,kaishiguangfanchuanboyuzhenggedongyadiqu,rangquantidongyaren,nenggoupubianshouyi。congwujingzhongtuchulesishu,shiderujiasixiangwenhuanenggoujianshaoyuedulianghezengjinpujixing,rongyibeifeihanzuminzusuozhangwo,bianyuxiangdicengrenminpuji,shizheigezhuanzhediandewenhuachengjiubiaozhi。

jinhouyigeshiqi,jiangshizhonghuawenmingxishouxifangzhonglingyuhuawenhua、tongshikefuqizhonglingyuzhuyijuxianxing,congxinsuzaorenleisandalingyushenghuojianguanxidedisangeshiqi。youyuyoule《daxue》siwei,youlesangongsansilunlixue,youlejiatingyutianxiawenhua,quanshijiefeidongyadiqudedaduoshurenmin,jiangbubiyidingzhangwohanyu,bubiyidingyaoqiuyuedurujiajingdiandeyuanwen。

体育外围feidongyadiquderenlei,zhiyaoqijingyingnenggouxinfu,bingqiejiandingdianzhao《daxue》siweisanlingyukuangjialaizuzhishenghuo、fazhansixiangwenhua、shixingsandalingyugezidedaodezhixu、zhuyisandalingyujiandejunheng,youqishixuexirujiaguanyujiatingyutianxiashenghuodeyishu,biannenggoushixianjiatingxingfu,shehuiwending,yushijieheping。zheiyinggaishuoshifuxingzhonghuawenmingsuoyaodadaodezuizhongmude、zuigaozhizhen。

四、单一公私与三公三私

西方的单一公私观混淆三大领域的公私德行。西方中领域主义,在思想上表现为两极模式,伦理道德上表现为单一公私观,秩序治理上表现为唯国家主义的城邦术。西方人的单一公私区分,是从“社会-个人”模式中作出来的,而反过来匹配和体育外围于中领域城邦术政治。

zheiyiweizhe,duiyuxifangrenlaishuo,gongjiguojiahuojiaohuihuotuantizhigong,sijizuoweichengrendegongminhuogerenxintuhuoshehuichengyuanzhisi。zheili,guojia、shehui、tuantidengshibicidengjiaerleisidezhonglingyutuanti,shiweiyidegongfang。gongmin、geren、chengniantuantichengyuan,zeshibicidengjiaerleisidezuchengtuantidechengfenyifang,shijinjinzhenduiqizhonglingyugongfangcaiyouyiyideweiyisifang。

zheiliangfang,gouchengzhonglingyudanyigongsideliangduan、liangji。tamenbiciduizhao,jidingyiduifang,youchengliziji。danyigongsiguanyugezhongxingshidezhonglingyutuantizhijian,bicilunzheng、huxiangzhichi、fenbiegudinghuaduifang。danyigongsiguankeyiconggezhonglingyuhuogeliangjimoshizhongyinshenchulai。lingyifangmian,danyigongsiguanhuiguotoulai,youxianggeliangjimoshihezhonglingyutuantitigonggongxinghehefahuazhichi。shuangfangyisunjusun,yirongjurong。

体育外围congyuanzeshangshuo,gongsiqufenduiyulunlixuelaishuoshifenzhongyaoerbibukeshao。gongdeyusidejiandequbie,duiyulunlixuelaishuoqueyoufanweiguangfandeyongchu。wentishi,dandanzaizhonglingyuzhongqubiegongsi,-zheizhongxilarendejianshishiwanquanbugoude。huanjuhuashuo,danyigongsiguanwucongbaokuojiazhongdexiaogonggongsideyutianxiadedagonggongside。xifangzheiliangfangmiandedaode,yushishuipingdixia。

zaigongdeyice,danyigongsiguanhaowudaolidihuntongtianxiadagongyuguojiazhonggong,huntongguojiazhonggongyujiatingxiaogong。zheishijishangshirangguojiazhonggong“chidiao”tianxiadagong,rangtianxiafushuyuguojia,queburangguojiashuyutianxia;yijirangjiatingxiaogongfushuyuguojiazhonggong、hua“zhongsi”wei“zhonggong”,quebubajiatingdangzuopeixunrenzuizao、zuijibendaodedeyuantou。

体育外围ranhou,tongyang,zaisideyice,danyigongsiguanyoubunengbuhuntong“guojiadasi”yu“jiatingzhongsi”,tongshijiang“jiatingzhongsi”huntongyu“gerenxiaosi”。zheishijishangshirangjiazhanggeren“chidiao”furulaoyou,bazhenggejiatingbianchengyibilishuyujiazhanggerendesirencaichan,shundaimoshadiaojiazhongdexiaogongxiaosizhibie,tongshihaifoudingleyoujiadanweidaibiaode“guojiazhongsi”。

danyigongsiguan,keyirang“jiatingzhongsi”yaoshenyibian,bianchengweiyizhongzhonglingyuhuahoude“shehuijigou”,yijirangjiahuajieyuguojiazhonggongzhizhong,buzaidulichengliweiyigelingyu。zheiyangbenlaideliangzhongbutongcengcishangderenleidanwei,jiuxilihutudihuajiechengweijinyoude、lishuyugerenfangmiandeyisile。

youci,zaigongfangyusifangdeliangdaleihuntong、haiyuanweiyizhihou,xifanglunlidaodesixiang,gongsiguanxitaolun,bianbunengbushiyibusixiangxiaaihua、daodechuanlingyuhuadehunluanshi,shiyibugongsiguanxishangbuduan“yiyihuasan”delishi,shishirenleishenghuosandalingyuzhongdeliangdalingyuyouxianeryin、buzaikenengyongyoudulidaodezhixudelishi。zheishiyigejudadecuowu。

xifangrenjiqizhongshixueshengxuyaodongde,danyigongsiguan,zhihangaile《daxue》siweikuangjiadeyixiaobufen。jiatinghetianxialiangdalingyu,douduliyuzhonglingyu,wufayoujinjinshiyongyuzhonglingyudedanyigongsiguanlaifugai,wufayouqijieshi、andunzijilingyuneidulideyitaodaode。xiao、dalingyudedaodedulixing,zhiyousangongsansiluncainengshidangshuoming。

三公三私论是一种迟到的确认。三公三私的观念,以及由三公三私体系重新看待伦理学、安排道德德目,确实属于新近提倡。但是这两个观念,更应该看作是一种对已有东方思想的迟来确认,也即是对东方伦理学通过《大学》四维所蕴含的隐性命题的显化,而并非真正意义上的新创、新起。这可以从下面几个问题及其思考,开始辨认。

zai《daxue》siweixiandingderenleisandashenghuolingyuzhijian,youshenmeleisiyubutong?qisandalingyufanweinei,shibushigezijubeihuozheshuoyaoqiuyouyitaodutedelunlidaode,gezibaohanyiduigongsijiandequfen,gezihanyouyizhongteshuchicun、yaoqiutedingzhixudegonggonghesifangshenghuo?-zheishizhexueshi、lunlixueshi、sixiangshishang,chulerujiayutongqingrujiazheyiwai,haihenshaoyourenshenjiuguodeyizuzhongyaowenti。

daxiaoliangdalingyusuoshejidegongsiguanxi,yiweizheguozuyeshidaodedanwei、daodezhuti,juyouzhenduitianxiadedagongdaodezeren。zheifuhechangshi。furulaoyouyeshidaodezhuti,qibicijiandejiazhongdexingduijiatingshenghuodezhengchangjiqizhongyao。suoyi,sandalingyushenghuojiqixiangguandedaliangbutongcengcidedaodezhuti,zheizhongdajiaoshisaibujinliangjimoshi-danyigongsiguansuojinjinrongxudegerenxiaoxiede。

jinhou,ruhexiangxifangrenhesixiangxihuazheyinrudaxiaolingyujiqidaodezhuti,yinruliangtaoxinerbushuxidegongside,ruhejiaoyuxifangjingyingzouchu“jinweiguozuzuigaoliyifendou”dekejiu,biandenenggou“yitianxiaweijiren”、“weiqianqiuwandaizhexiang”,shilunlixuedeyidatiaozhan。zhonghuawenming、rujiasixiangjiezaizheiyishiyeshang,duitigongsixiangshangdelingdao、lishijingyanshangdejiejianzewupangdai。

《大学》四维三领域关于三公三私论的蕴含。在迄今为止的东方公私观、儒家伦理学研究中,《大学》四维三领域及其三公三私伦理学蕴含,作为一个专题,尚未显化,有待出来而起到更大的原则指导作用。例如,虽然东亚人早就清楚地界定了家庭道德与天下道德的大量德目,但是仍未进一步明确概括为三公三私伦理学体系。这需要改进。

mingquejieshichusangongsansilunlixue,keyitongguoruxiadeluojixiansuo: jiran《daxue》zhichudesiwei,nenggoufanweichurenleishenghuodesangedalingyu,erqizhongdetianxiahanyoudagong,tongshidaode、zhixuyoushizitongnianjiali,rujiazongjiechuledaliangjiadedemu,zetianxiayujiaruheyeshejigongsiqufen、gongsidaodedewenti,biantuxianchulai。

jiutianxiayoudagongdesixiang,shaojialuojituiyan,biankecongerlejie,yutianxiabingliedeguojia、jiatinglianglingyuneibu,yishejizhong、xiaozhigong。huanjuhuashuo,gongsiqubieruguoyouyong,bixupushiyusandabingliederenleishenghuozhuyaolingyu。genju《daxue》siwei,henmingxian,“sandashenghuolingyutongdengzhongyao”。yushi,tiyuwaiweihaiyinggainenggoujinyibutuichuruxiadejielun:

体育外围dayuguodetianxia,xiaoyuguodejiating,fenbiebinglieyuguozhizhonglingyu;liangzhefenshudagongyuxiaogonglingyu。jujiandeguojia-shehui-tuantizhonglingyu,bingbuweiyi,yuanfeiquanbu,erjinshuyuzhonglingyu。zhonglingyuzishen,baokuoqidanyigongsi,bukenengqiongjinrenleidedaodeshenghuo、gongsiguanxi、daodezhixu;jishixifangrenjieliershizhongtuchuzhonglingyu,lingqizhebidaxiaolingyu,rengranbuxing。

体育外围tianxiahangaizheguojia,yiguojiaweizuchengbufen。guojiazehangaizhejiating,yijiatingweizuchengbufen。jiatinghangaizhegeren,yigerenweizuchengbufen。tianxiayuguojiajian,guojiayujiatingjian,jiatingyugebiejiarenjian,qishiyeleisiyutuantiyugerenjianneiyang,dounenggouxingcheng、keguanshangjuyou、yaoqiuchulidedang-suoshejidaodegongsishuangfangjianguanxi。

sanduigongsiguanxi,yincibunenghaiyuanweiyizhong。-zheigexingzhishangshuyurujiajianshidesixiang,huoxuqueshidui《daxue》siweideluojiyunhanyouxindefajuehuotianjia、yinshen。benwenchengdancixinfajue、tianjia、yinshendezeren,bingyuanyijieshougefangmianjichudepipinghuotiaozhan。danshizheizhongfajuetianjia,qishiheqingheli,qijichushizaojiucunzaide。

xiaotiqinqin,fufuzizi,chengjingshizhang,getixiuyang,junyuanziyounianjiating。jiatingzongshihangai、zhichi、baohu、rongliuyigegejiaren。quanjiagongyi,butongyugebiejiarendesili。zheiligongshejiyouliangzhongrenleisi,jixiangduiyuguojiazhonggongdejiatingzhengtizhongsi,hexiangduiyujiatingxiaogongdejiarengebiexiaosi。zheiliangzhongsi,zenmenenggouhunxiao?

guozudasi,jiatingzhongsi,gerenxiaosi,sanzhebinglie。tianxiadagongyujiatingxiaogong,yibunengbeidanyideguojiazhonggongsuohaiyuanhuoxishou。xilarenshikaobajiawaiquweiyibisirencaichanlaihaiyuandiaojiadanweide。danzheizhishiyigexuyaojiuzhengdecuowu,fuchule“hunxiaojiatingdaodeweichengbangdaode”zheizhongjudadedaijia,erfeizhidejichengdechuantong。

体育外围xifangsixiangjiamenjuranshizhonghulveruxiadezheixiemingxiandeshishi,-renzhenxiangqilaijianzhiyouxiebukesiyi: jiatingneidejiarenhuxiangzhijian,yijiquanjiagongyiyudangejiarendesilizhijian,xuyaobicihuxiangshandaideminganyuzhihui、chuliliyiguanxideyishu。zhongzhongsunrenliji-shejiweiren、sungongfeisi-posiligongdechengduidaodexingxianxiang,bibijieshi,tiantiandouyou,jiuzaishenbian,jiuzaijiali。

jieguo,zhiyou《daxue》yijirujiadejihuquanbujingdianzhuzuo,zaishijieshangweiyidi、fanfudiqiangdiaolejiatingjiqidaodeduiyurenleilunlidaodedejibenxing、shouyaoxing、yuanchuxing。renleidejibenlunlidaode,fuzexiguan,zhishizhihui,zhixuguize,baokuoyixinweigong、fenpeizhengyi、shejiweirendengpinde,zunshouguijudengxiguan,hejingaizhaoliaofumuqinrendengduitarendemingancaineng,doushizihechubuchengxingyuyounianjiali,shijiatingshenghuo、jiatinghuadechanwu,burongxutuoyandaochengniangerenkaishijianliqizhongjulituantishi,zaiguancha、taolun。-zheishixifangrenzhijinweizhenzhenglijie、erjixulijiede。

gonggongshenghuojiqidaode,zaijiatingzheigerenleixiaolingyuzhongdecunzaiyuzhongyaoxing,bujinsihaobuyayuzaizhonglingyuzhong,erqiegengzaizaoyu、youxianyuzhonglingyugonggongshenghuodaodedeyiyishang,xuyaoshouxianzhongshi、renzhenyanjiu。daodejiaohua,juebunengtuihoudaochengren-zhonglingyushenghuokaishi。tiaoguojiatingjieduan,zhihuisangshichufadian,danwuhuohunxiaorenleilunlidaodedeyibanjieshi。

希腊人无视小公、大公的错误。亚里士多德及由其代表的希腊哲学三杰的错误之一,在于把伦理学仅仅当作下属于城邦术的一个哲学分支,以这种办法突显了城邦的道德性,或者道德的城邦性,却事实上中领域化了、狭窄化了全部人的伦理道德,等于排除掉了家庭与伦理道德的首要联系,以及天下大公公德的存在余地。

yalishiduodebuzhidao,ruciyilaihuiduodachengdudijuxianhualunlixuedeshikongguanhuai,huizenyangdanwudiaoxifangrensuoshouxianxuyaode、renleizuijibendejiatingdaode,huizenyangdanwu“tianxiajiazhi”dengdezhidekenengxing。bolatu,sugeladi,zuoweiyalishiduodedelaoshiyuxianqu,zaizheiyidianshangyejibenyuyashileisi,ermeiyougaomingduoshao。qihoulaidejiebanren,yidadiruci。

jiudagonggongyulaikan,guojia,yiji“gongminshehui”、zongjiao、diqu、minzu、tuanti、baokuozaoqideyoumuyuliebuluodeng,douzaixiangduiyutianxiadagongshi,biancheng“dagonggongmin”,huozhe“dasisifang”。zhonglingyutuantizaizhonggongfanweineishigongfang,guranbucuo;danzheibingbuquxiaotadaoledagonglingyuzhong,youbianchengyigesifang,bingqiesuzhugenjudagonggongdeerjinxingdedaodepanduan、daodepiping。huanjuhuashuo,zhonglingyudanwei,youdaodeshenfenshangdeshuangzhongxing。

yujiatingdegongsishenfenkeyizhuanhuanyiyang,zhonglingyudanweijuyouzhezhenduida、zhonglianggebutonglingyuzhuanhuanshieryandeshuangzhonggongsishenfen。zheiyiweizheguoxiangduiyutianxiadagongshi,shidasisifang。zaixiangduiyuguojiagongmin、jiatingzhengtizheileizhongsisifangshi,guohuoshehuiyouyiweizhezhonggonglingyuzhongdegongfang。ruguojinyoudanyigongsiguan,zesuoyouzheixieyouyiyideneirong,douwuconglizu、wuxutaolunle。

xiangguojia、jiaohuizheiyangdedasidanwei,yuanzeshangbixuyishidaotongleidanweidebingliecunzai,bixuyouhuxiangduidaishidetuantijiandaodeyiwugan,bixuzunshoudagongdaode,erzaiguozujiaojianbicihuxiangzilv、shandai,bingqienenggouweilerenleidequantiliyierfendou。-keyishuo,xifangrenzhisuoyizaijindaixiangwaibushijiedasiqinlvekuozhang,sharenduodierwuebuzuo,jiuyuxifangzhonglingyudanweihaowudagonggongdeyishi、haowudaodezilvyishiyouguan。

体育外围dagonggongdezeren,shixifangzishizhizhongqueshao、shenzhishizhongzaixiayishihuibidelunlidaodetixi。xifangrenzaiguozuzhijian,bujincongbujiangdaodehudai,erqiesiwujidandisunrenliji,yilinweihe,tongshijianlishuangzhongbiaozhun,yibiancongburangzijigandaozuie。zheizai15shijizhihouxifanggegeqiangguo、baquanguodeguojixingweishang,keyishuoshifenmingxian,yiyiguanzhi,ercongwuliwai。

体育外围suoyi,sangongsansilunlixuedetichu,congzhangyuankan,yinggainenggouduixifangrenyijisuoyoufeidongyarenyousuojiaoyu,erzuizhongdadatigaorenmendetiyuwaiweidaodeshuiping、gaishanguojishang、zongjiaojiandexingwei,shidiqiushangdedafanweiguozujiandaodeguanxi,nenggougaishan;shitianxiadagonggongde,nenggoukaishizhidaogeguogezugejiaodeyanxing。

体育外围you《daxue》yishusuoyunhandesangongsansilunlixuegouchengyifang,youdaozhixifangxiaogongjiadeyudagongtianxiadaodeshuangshuangboruodedanyigongsilunlixuegouchenglingyifang,shuangfangxingchengleyizhongjuedingxingde、dongxifangwenminglunlidaodewenhuadeduizhao。zheizhongdongxifangzongtixinglunlidaodeduizhao,youzheizhongduizhaozhongbiaoxianchusheigengfengfu、sheigengpinfa,youzhuyushuomingrenleiweilaidelunlidaodelingdaoyuanze、zhixuzhilizhidaoyuanze,yinggailaizinali。

体育外围jintian,fanshibumanxifangzhonglingyuzhuyihaiyuanlunderen,tongshiyoulejie《daxue》zhongdexiuqizhipingguannian,lejieqiruhepingjunqiangdiaotianxia、guojiahejiating,yijicongjiachufa、zhubukuodadecixuzhongyaoxingzhe,lejiejindaiyiqianzhonghuawenmingdaxiaolingyuwenhuayadaozhonglingyuwenhuaderen,doubunanmianduisangongsansiqubiezheizhongxinlun。

muqiansangongsansilunlixuejiaoxin,zhuyaoshizhongguosixiangjierengranshuyukendingzishensixiangwenhuachengjiu,rengranzhuanzhuyufajuezishenwenmingdezaopo,buxiguanzaidafanweishangsuishijinxingdongxifangbijiao,buxiguancongzhanlvexingcengmianshang、zhexuecengmianshangpipingxifang,meiyourenzhenxunzhaohequedingzishenmanzhangdewenminglishizhongdelunlidaodechengjiusuozhi。

jiusangongsansilunlaikan,dongyashililunyuanchuangzhe,zuihaodeshijianzhe,tongshiyiyoumeizhongbuzu、bingbuyuanmanzhichu,biaoxianzaizhongguorenjindaiyijingzhangqibuzaishuxizhonglingyuwenhua,biaoxianzaijindai“zhizhiyoutianxia,buzhiyouguojia”,buzhidaoruhebaochizhonglingyuwenhuashidangshuipingshang,yijimuqianyijingbuzailejiejiatinglunlidaodedeshouyaoxingshang。

ranerxuyaoqiangdiaozhichu,《daxue》siweikuangjiabenshen,bingbubirandaozhizheizhongpianpo,bingbuwushizhonglingyudecunzaijiqilunlidaodewenhuaxuqiu,fanernenggouzaijiuzhenggeleipianposhifahuizuoyong。tongshi,zhongguorenjindaiyilaiduizijizhonglingyuwenhuadeboruo,fanyingshizhongguoji、guodu,meiyougongyundiduidaiyiwanglishizhanxiandejingyanjiaoxun。

体育外围genjuzhonghuawenmingjiqiannianlishizhongdefengfujingyan,genjuzhanzaizhongxinglichangshangduidongfanglishizhengmianjingyandezhengshiyuzongjie,tiyuwaiweixuyaozhongxinkendingzhonghuawenmingshijianjingyandelishidati,zhongxinkendingduichuangzaozheixielishifuzederenwumendeduoshu,tichuhuozheshuozhongshenrenleishenghuobenlaijuyouxiaozhongdasandalingyuderendaozhuyiguandian。zheilide“tichu”,yiweizhechangyixindewenmingbijiaokuangjia;er“zhongshen”,zebiaoshisuoshejidedongfanglilun,yiqianshijishangcengjingyouguo。

家庭伦理学与天下伦理学。体育外围目前这两门学问,虽然并没有直接完成、明显而系统的理论形态,尚未在东方思想学术界中显化;然而由此生发的思想界任务,却不能不是复旧中兼有创新,以创新影响复旧,依靠东亚强大的家庭伦理道德文化,形成三公三私伦理学,使它背后的儒家文化,能够显示出其针对西方文化对应物的战略性优势,同时能彰显东亚人发现的人类普世性真理。

dongfangxingdeduoyuangongsiguan,shiwenminglishijingyangengweifengfu、renjianzhihuiyurendaozhuyigengweichengshudebiaoxian。qizhongyunhandejiatingdaodeyutianxiadaode,youdiantebietuchu,neirongfeichangzhongyao,congliangduanbuqilexifangpianpode、jinshezhonglingyulunlidaodededanbo。tajinengjieshidongyalishishangdefanrongwending、muqianjingzhenglideteshuyuqiangda,yebiranzaiweilainenggouzengyiyuquanrenlei。

jiatingwenhuadegaodufengfuchengshu,jiatinglunlidaodedepubianfadayushixingtuiguang,shirujiadeshouyaogongjiyutedian。erbiaomingsandalingyugeziduli、santaolunlixuebixubingliecunzai、danyigongsilunlixuebugoubuzudezuihaobanfa,jiushizhanshijiatinglunlixue。

tongyigedaoliyeshiyongyutianxiashenghuo。tichutianxiaguannian,zhuzhangtianxiayitong,tianxiadazhi,tianxiayijia,tianxiataiping,shirujialingwaiyige、pingxingyujiazhexuedeweidahuishi。yinci,yixiajiangtuchujiatingxiaolingyulunlixueyutianxiadalingyulunlixuedeteshuneirong,biaomingzheiliangtaogongsidaode,zuyoufengfuxingyudulixing。

五、家庭小领域的伦理道德

体育外围zaikaishiyujindaide、shijiefanweineide“zongheguolijingsai”zhong,dongyarenmuqianmingxiandizaihoulaijushang。jinguanshehuihuayugerenhuachengdu、zhonglingyuwenhuadezongtifazhanshuiping、renmendeguojiayishiyuguominxiuyangsuzhiyuanyuanburuxifangren,dongyarendezonghejingzhengliqueyijingnenggouzongtishangpidioumeiren,chengweiweiyinenggouqianzaidiweixiexifangdeshijiebaquanzhe。zheizheimejieshi?

dongyarennenggouxunsuganchaoxifangren,nenggouzhangyuandiweixiexifangrenduirenleidezhipeiyubaquan,juebushiourande。likaiyourujiadutedihuchifazhanchulaidegaodufadadetianxiawenhua、jiatingwenhua,likaidongyarengaodudejiayuansuzhi,shangshuxianzhuangjiangwucongjieshi。zheili,dongyarendejiayuansuzhi,qiletebiezhongyaodezuoyong。

真儒必重家。东亚人的竞争力,来自家道德与家庭性素质的部分独步全球,特别发达。这种发达,能够补弱而增强东亚人的一般素质,包括中领域素质方面的暂时性弱点。例如,勤劳节俭、自强努力、谦虚好学、尊重历史与长辈、平和向上、顾及他人、善于忍让、顾全大局、能够为了长远而忍耐于眼前、能够为了集体而牺牲自己,-这都是主要由儒家在家庭生活中培养出来的素质。

xiangduihebijiaodilaishuo,rujiawenhuatebieshanzhangyuzhongshizhijia,qilishipeixunshidongyajiatingwenhuazaishijieshangzuiweifada。dongyarendejiatingxingzhihuitebiechengshu,renyurenjiangengjiangjiuhuxiangminganlijiekuanrong,jiatingshenghuogengrongyidadaoxingfu。rujiazongtishangdeleguanxiangshang、jijijinqu、xinrenrenxing、xinrenrenjian,shouxianjiyuqijiatingwenhua。rujiadezhixuzhiliwenhua,yifeichangshenkedidianjiyujiatingzhixu。

体育外围dongyawenhuazhisuoyimeiyouneimezongjiaohua,shiyinweidaduoshujiatingzhongdegongside,daduoshujiatingzhongdezhixu,rongyijiuzaijianeidadao。jiatingshenghuodechenggongyuxingfu,shirenduishijianshenghuonenganxin、youxinxin,erbubixiangwangchushi,burongyirangrengandaoguiyizongjiaodeqianti-“zheigeshijiechulefannaozhiwai,shenmeyetigongbule”。zhiyoushengfuzhenjiapobai,shenfuweijiacaixianshijiazhi。zhiyoufumuyuanjiabuzaikekao,jiaohuitidaijiatingcainengdaiweimanzurendeguisugan、guishugan、heanquangan。

体育外围dongyarenfazhanchujiweizhenguidejiatingxiaodaoyutidao,fazhanchuxiaotiqinqindedexingxitong。fuzizhidao、fuqizhidao、xiongdijiemeizhidao、anjiazhixue、zhijiazhidao,shirujiadongyadetezhang。tamennenggoujiangfurulaoyoujunhengdizuzhizaiyiqi、hexiedituanjiezaiyiqi、yukuaidishenghuozaiyiqi。dongyayiwangxianqiliangmu、cifuxiaozi、zhishirenren、chengxinshanliangtebieduo,jiushizheigedaoli。

rujiajiaodaoshidongyarendongde,daodeshicongxiaozaijiajiunenggouyebixujiuqinrenzhongxingchengde。qinqing、qinqin、xiaoti、jiajiao、jiagui,duiyurenjiandaodejiqifazhan,bibukeshao。jiatingshenghuoziranyaoqiuqinrenjianhuxiangshandai,zhuyijialidequanwei、zhongshizunzun。“qijia”shijiatinghua,gunengshijiarenjianguanxisongjinshidu,youzhangyouchi,dezhijianbei,dadaogaodudeyishushuiping。

congjiazhongdeqinqin,zaidaoduiwaiderenmin,keyizhongerzhiyuaiwu。congjiazhongzunzunkaishi,daoxingchengduijiazhongquanweidezhongchengpinzhi,zaituiguangdadaoshijiandepubianxinyi,zaidaojingzhongtianxiayitong,yijijingzhongdaibiaozheizhongpubianzhixudezhongyangzhengquandelingdaoquanwei,xingchengzhengzhishangdezhongchengpinge,feichangyouliyushixiandezhirenzheng、renmindezilvtuanjie。zheishishishangduoyouliangmin,ernengshixiannongjiazizhi,shixiantianxiataiping。

从家中亲人看,人性善。人性中,本有家庭性;人性首先和主要由家庭塑造-这是西方人性论迄今不大了解的。家庭性,表现在家中的亲人间有特殊而紧密的情感关联、精神上深厚的互相依赖、彼此幸福亦靠亲人互相保障。亲人一般对其他亲人,都是总体上希望他(她)好,愿意帮助其幸福的。对绝大多数的人来说,自己愿意亲人过好,同时亲人一般也是自己生活中对自己最好、最亲切而富有善意、最可靠的人,-这是不容否定的基本事实,是确认人性善恶的主要考虑。

qinren,yibanzongshizijishenghuozhongzuikekaozhe,zuizhongyaodebangzhuzhichizhe。renduibierendexinren,renyintarenerhuodedeanquangan,doushouxiancongzheizhongduijiazhongqinrendeguanxingxinren,erchangshididelai。qinshan,shinenggouzhengming“renxingyibanshishande”zheigeyaodiandezuiyoushuofulideshenbianlizheng,-jinguanyoushaoliangdeliwaiqingxing。duici,xifangzhexuejia、renxinglunjiayibanrenshibuzu,lunshubugou。

体育外围yigeren,mianduiquanxinquanyixiwangzijihao、congxiaobazijizhaogudadefumuqinren、xiongdijiemei,quedatanrenxingbene,zheishiduiqinrenshanyidexiedu,shiduitianxiagujinwushufumuaihuzinv、juedaduoshuxiongdijiemeihuxiangqinshanzheileipubianshanxingdewuduangongji,shiduirenleidechenggongcunzaisuozhengmingledexingshan-aixinqueshijiweiguangfan、jiweipubiandicunzaiyujialideshishidewulifouding。

体育外围zongjierenxing,yinciyouyigekaishiyunali,jiyunageshenghuolingyu,yijizuizhongluoshidaonagelingyudewenti。xifangrendezhonglingyuzhuyijiazhiguan,dangranqingxiangyubashehuilingyu、chengniangeren、tuantishenghuodeng,kanzuozongjierenxing、luoshirenxingdeshouyaochangheyuduixiang,zhishaoshizuizhongyaodechangheyuduixiang。zheishijishangshiyigecuowu,daozhixifangrenhulverendejiatingxing,xiaaihualerenxinglijie。

meiyigerendoushouxianchanshengyujiazhong,renxingyinggaiyiyoujiazhongdeyounianjinglizhongzongjie。shouxiancongjiazhongqinrenneili,erfeishehuishangdemoshengrenneilizongjierenxing,chengrenrucizongjiechulaiderenxingpianshan,yinciyouhelixinghebiyaoxing。dangran,yezhiyoujubeixiangduifadadejiazhexue,jiawenhua,tihuiguogaodudejiatinghuaderen,kandaodaliangshenghuoxingfudejiatingyihou,renmencainengrenshidaozheiyidian,caiyouganyurucixiangxindegenju。

tongyang,dechurenxingedejielun,yebubidengdaozhangdahoudaoshehuishangguancha、qudafanweiditongjichengrendeqingxing。zhixiaoshenbiandeqinrenhuai、edaiyouniandezijijiuzuyidechujielunle。shunbianzhichu,zhishaocongshengjinggushikan,youtairendangnianrenweirenxingyouyuanzui,xianranyujigeyingxiangjidadebaijiafanliyouguan。ruruomeiyouejiajitamenyiguoshendeyinxiang,yuanzuidejielunhuoxuhenzaojiunengyoubian。

suoyi,ertonglishan,bixucongguancha、zongjiefumukaishi。jiatinghexie、jiafengshangshan、jiarenjianbiandourongyijiangjiuxiaogongside。jiajiashangshan,fumujiaoyangdeyi,fuliangqixian,cainengtandedaoxiaozicifu,cainengyouyidaidaidexiaozixiansun,cainengshouhuorenyidaode。wusidaowengedezhongguowenhuageming,weileyinruxifangzhonglingyuzhuyi,weilejianguoqiangguo,zhongduanlezhonghuawenhuadejiatinghuachuantong。zheixianranshimuqianzhongguojichudaodeshuipingpubianxiajiang、rendeliangxinliangzhipubianzailiushi、yizhirenmenyuelaiyuegandaoxingelunbijiaoyoushuofulidegenbenyuanyin。

renleihenrongyirenshidao,zijiduiquanjiahao、duiqinrenhao,huigandong、jiaoyutamen,zidonggulitamenyouyangxueyang,congerfanguolaiduizijiyehao。jiazhongdeshanren,gushirenbiandenenggoushandezhuyaoliyou,mofangyangban,shimeiyigerennenggoudedaodaodehuadezhuyaoziyuan。qinrenzuirongyilingrenrenshidao,duirenhaojiudengyujianjieduizijihao。-zheiyidianduiyulunlidaodejiqizhongyao。

体育外围zheibiaoming,jiatingshenghuo,guanchahemofangfumu,duiqichengyuandedaodehua,duipeiyanglitazhuyi、xingchenggezhongdexing,youqishiduirenshinenglihaiyouxiandehaizi,youtianranerjudadebiyaoxing。zhengchangdejiating,tianranrongyitixing、jiaoyu、gulirenyoude。jiatingshenghuozhongzirancunzaidejiajiao,shirenleizhengchang、shanliangshenghuo、daozhidaodehuadechanggui。renheteshudejingjishenghuofangshi,douzhinengfushuyuheyinggaitiyuwaiweiyurenjia。

nongyehuogongshangye,shenghuozaichenglihuoyewai,duiyuyigejiatingwenhuadefadalaishuo,guigenjiedi,doushijishuxing、gongjuxing、fushuxingde。xifangrenyinweibudongdezheixie,erchangchangjiekouchengshihuayiyishangdewenminghua,jiekougongshangyebutongyunongye,erqingshijiating。yinci,xifangwenming,yinweijiawenhuadeboruo,bunengsuanshichenggong、chengshu、guifanerzhengchangderenleiwenming。

xifangzhuyaosixiangjiamen,yinweizijishidanshenhan,yinweishenjiajingyanduoyurenjiatihui,yinweireaishengfuduoyushengfu,jiatingshenghuopubianbuxing,duijiarenshibuzu。zheiyingxiangtamenxingchengguanyurenxingedeguandian,heshenjiashengguorenjiadeguandian。zheishuomingjiatingshenghuodetiyanhejingli,biqishehuishenghuolai,gengzhijiediyingxiangrendeshaneguanxingcheng。kejian,jiatingxing,renxingshanlun,shixifangshirenxinglunshizhongqueshao、xuyaojinkuaibushangdebiyaobufen。

家庭团结是人类团结的普遍样板。体育外围人类天生具有家庭依赖性,家人一般彼此善待,形成亲情;家中的公益、私利容易协调;人的家庭性一般趋善。-这几点解释了为什么家庭比较容易团结。虽然看上去家中每个人都很独特,家庭全体一般却能经阴阳、老幼、代际的互补,而实现和谐、团结、协作。这是一个普遍的事实。

jiatingtuanjie,fuqihexie,shejirenbuduo,niudaibushao,tianranrongyidadao。jiatingtuanjieduimeiyigerendejiankang、xingfu、shengcunlaishuo,duiyuquanrenleidecunzaimianyanlaishuo,duishehuizhonglingyutuantidetuanjiehetianxiageguozudetuanjienenggouyouyigemofanlaishuo,tebiezhongyao。dongyarenjiqizhenshide“butongerhexie”guannian,jibenshangshiqigaodufadadejiawenhuadejiejing、jiatingtuanjiejingyandefuchanpin。jiatingtuanjieduiyigehaizisuodadaoderenleihua、rendaohua、anquangan、xingfugan,yejiduimeiyigerendechengzhangchengshu,yingxiangzuida。

体育外围jiatingtuanjie,youliyuyeyaoqiuzhejiatingdezhili、jiatingneidezhixu。dongyadezhixuzhiliwenhua,dongyawenhuaduitongzhiguanliquanweidelijie、jianli、yuyingyong,yedoucong“qijia”、“zhijia”shijianzhongshouxianfazhanqilai。youyuyijiatingtuanjieweiyangban,dongfangbingbuxinshangqiangquanzhengzhi,ernenggoufazhanqinglidezhi。jiatingdadaozhilizhixutuanjiezhihou,youfanguolaichengweixinyidairenyongdai、zhichirujiademinjianjicheng,herujianenggouxishouderenyuan。

jiatingtuanjie,shiyiqieqitarenleituanjienenggoudadaodexinxinjichu,shiqitarenleituanjiejikeyiyeyinggaicanzhaodexianshiyangban。jiatingchengyuanbubibiciyizhi,bubirenrenyilvpingdeng。meiyigerendoudute,quantijiarenhezaiyiqiquehubuhexie,-zheigouchengleyigebutongyuzhonglingyurenrenpingdengyilvhuadepingdengmoxing。jiatingtuanjie,shidongfang“butongzhenenggouhexiegongcun”zheizhongjiazhidezhenzhengdanshengdi。jiatingtuanjie,yeshiguozujiankeyituanjiedexinxinjichuhemofangyangban。

yigerenruguolianzijidejiadoubunengshefadadaohexie,shihenshaohuiduituanjieqitarenleiquntinenggoujuyouxinxinde。congxifangxijushizhongkeyikanchu,xifangrenduirenxing、rensheng、rendaodegezhongbeiguanshiwang,jingchanglianxiyuqiboruoshibaierkaobuzhudejiatingtuanjie,yijixifangrencihouduidadaojiatingtuanjie、naizhiyibanrenleituanjiedebuzaizhiwanghuorongyishiwang。

ciwai,conglaimeiyourangzijidezhonglingyuzhixuzhiliwenhua,nenggougenbendishouyiyujiatingtuanjiedemofan,duixifangyibandezhengzhidaodehezhixuzhili,youzhongdadeyingxiang-xifangrenshidiaoleyigezuipubian、zuiziran、zuiyoushuofulide、guanyurenleiruhetuanjiehezuo、xingchengzhixudeyangban。

儒家开创了家庭伦理学。体育外围东亚儒家,发展了人类历史上最丰富多彩的家庭伦理道德,普及了大量家庭德目。通过“父父子子”等家中“正名”、“齐家”实践,东亚人对伦理道德的家庭基础性,有最充分、深刻的认识,和最广泛、成果最丰硕的实践。

体育外围ru,zaifeichanggenbendeyiyishanglianxiyu、lizuyu、chanshengzijia。zheiyidian,muqiansihaiweiyinqirujiayanjiuzhe、naizhixuduoruzhemenbenshendepubianzhongshi;huozheshuobeixuduoruzhe“shushierwudu”。-zheiyuxinwenhuayundongyilai,jiatingxingxiangxunsupobai、jiatingzhongyaoxingchixusangshiyouguan。

体育外围rujialunlixuegaomingyuxilarendedifang,zaiyukaojiatinghualaijinzaodidaodehuaren,eryuanyuanzaoyuxifangzhenduichengrendeshehuihuayugerenhua。rujiarenwei,zongfashehuibizhijunguoshehui,meiyourenheneizaideruodian。tabutongyuwushituantishehui,zaiyuyuanweihepingchijiu。xiaogonggongdeshisuoyoudaodezhongdeyuanshengtai、chufaxingshi。qiduozhongjibendemu,henrongyituiguangdaozongfashehuizhongqu。

体育外围rujiakandao,renzaiyounianjiunengdedaomuqindengqinrendehetixingbuzu,fazhanduifumuzimeideshenhouqinggan,jubeizuiweijibendexiaotidaode、rencizhixin(ru《sanzijing》zhongshuode“rongsisui,nengrangli”)。renyoumeiyouliangxin,nengfoujingchangjianchiliangzhicaoshou,hendachengdushangqujueyuyounianjiatingshenghuojingliyoumeiyouxiangyangdejiajiao,hejiazhongshifoucunzaizhangbeizhongdeyangban。shishishang,zheixieyinsuduichengnianrenyitongyangyouzhiguanzhongyaode、chixuxingdedaodeyingxiang。

体育外围rujiarenshidao,renleidejia,duiyurenleidecunzai、dexing、zhixu、hexingfulaishuo,shijibendanwei。jiating,shirenleizaishengchanzijideshentijiqijibenwenhuadefangshi。renleidecunzai,yijiatingweijibenxingshi、erfeicaiqushehuixinggerenxingshi,cainengdadaoquanmian、junheng、zhengchang、yongjiu。renleidejiatingxing,shirenxingdeshouyaoyuhexindebufen,shirenxingzhongdeyizhongyongjiuxingbufen。

体育外围rujiawenhuayinweiyuanyujiayouzhongshijia,fuhangezhongqiangjia、zhijia、qijia、gujiadejingyan、shouduan,ernenggoushidongyadejiawenhuazaishijieshangbiandezuiweifada。renjiawenhuajiqifada,youfanguolaigouchengrujiawenhuadeshengmingliyuantou,heshenghuoshijianjichu。zhengshizheizhongjinmiguanxi,zai“jiaweiwanezhiyuan”deshuofaziwusishiqifengxingyilai,shirujiagenzheqizuizhongdecunzaijidi-renjia-yiqishuaibaixialai。

dangruyujiazheiliangzhongshijieshangweiyideyinyangbingjuwenhuayingxiangjudashi,zhongguorenjihurenrenzhidaozhuiqiufucizixiao、xianqiliangmu。neishi,shanren、yiju、chengxin、liangxin,zongtishangjiaoduo。wanjindezhongguogemingguochengzhong,-jishijiushizaigejiuwenhuademingdeshihou-,zhisuoyiyouneimeduozhishirenren、youneimeduojianrenbuba、momofengxian、dingtianlidi、yongyuxisheng、yitianxiaweijirendeshirenxuezi、nongjiazidi,shijishangshichuantongderuyujiadewenhuashuangzhongxuntao、biciqianghuadejieguo。

家文化是中国人的素质之源。体育外围近现代中国革命之能有力地一边推翻旧文化、扶植新政权、完成了传统的改朝换代;一边抵御外人征服、恢复本文明的物质性实力;-其成功其实是讽刺性地靠吃那种以往传统家教培养而积累起来的、中国人的传统儒家文化教育造就的、家源素质“红利”老本,才最终取得的。

体育外围eryouyupeiyangguorensuzhideyuantouhuoshui-jiajiao、jiali、jiafeng、jiaxue、jiachuan、jiaxun、jiagui、jiaxiangwenhua、guxiangqingjie-,zhongyubeibuduandigeleming,zecigemingzhihouderenmen,wulunzaijixuzuoxieshenme,tamenbenrendedaodesuzhi,youqishijiatingxingdaodenenglisuzhi,douyinweizaiwuyicongyuantoudedaozirun、peiyu,erbiandemeikuangyuxia、yuelaiyuedile。zhonghuawenhuazhongdejiajiaohongli、jiazhongzhengmingdelaidedaodehongli,buxingzaoyishuailuo、sangshiduoshile。

体育外围muqian,dongfangdiquhunlingnannvdadaodeyibanjiatinghuachengdu,suixihuajiashenershuipingyuelaiyuedi;gezhongshenghuoxiguanguaiyi、hunhounanyimohedaoguanxihexiezhiren,shuliangrizeng。jingliguozugoudehunqianjiajiaoxunlian、nenggoulijichengweixianfuliangqi、yanfucimuzheyuelaiyueshao;chengjiayihoucailaijiatinghua,jiannanxuexiruheguojiatingshenghuo,budebufuchujigaodaijiazhe,yurijuzeng。

budongweifuzhidao、weiqizhidao、weifuweimuzhidao,budongdexiaotiqinqin,budongdechijiaxingjiazhidaode“xiandai”nannvmen,beipoyuelaiyue“shanzhang”lihunzhidao、baijiazhidao、xunqiutidaijiatingzhidao。gezhongzongjiao,douzaijiatingbuzainenggoutigongjingshenjiayuandeqiantixia,biandeyuelaiyueyouxiyinli,erchulaitigongtidaixingjingshenjiayuan。

体育外围jia,congtigongbaohuzhidi,jingchangbianchengxuyaobeizhonglingyuzhuyizhefangfandeduixiang,bianchengyoukenengbeiqitajiarenjiahaizhidi。youyubuzaipubianjiangjiuxiaodao,yiwangneizhong“yixiaozuozhong”,yishiqulejichu。xianzai,lianfuzi、fuqi、zhupu、pengyoujiandejibenzhongcheng,-gengbuyongshuoguyuanduijigoudezhongcheng,douyuelaiyuehanjian。

体育外围suoyi,jiangbujiangjiatingxing、jiatinghua、jiade-lijiao、jiazhongzhengminghecongjiakaishi,duirendenengfouchengxin、jibencaoshou、shenghuoxingfu、renjianwenhuawendingyufou、zinvnengfouzhengchangzhangdachengjiadeng,zhijieyingxiangjida。fanchuantongdejieguo,shirendesuzhihuoshuirijianduanliu。kaohoulaimeiyoujingguozheizhongjiajiaosuzhihuoshuizirunderenqufanchuantong,zelianjixufanchuantongdexiaolvhezhiliang,douzaijiangdi,yuanmeiyouyiqianjingguochuantongpeiyangderenneiyang,nenggoujiweiyouxiaodiqufandui、pochuchuantong。

体育外围qianniannianguorenyinweirengranbingbulejiezhonglingyuwenhua,duiguojiafazhi、xifangzhonglingyuzhuyibaoyouhuanxiang,yizhiguaizuifazhibuzhang,daozhidaodebaihuai。xianzaiyankanzhefalideyuelaiyuekuai、yuelaiyueduo,yijingbuzhiduolileduoshao,daodehuapoqueyujiayanzhong。zujianrenmendewusiyishi,dadadigulejiatingduidaodedezuoyong,tongshigaoguleguojiafazhidedaodehuagongneng,wangjile“daozhiyizheng,qizhiyixing,minmianerwuchi”deshenkeguxun。

六、天下之内必须有大公道德

必须用天下统一的观念取代理想国。柏拉图及其祖国,为了强化城邦才贬低作为私有财产的家庭。而强化城邦,则是因为外邦经常来犯而需要防备、或者说本邦出外劫掠需要武力;总之是因为到处充满不安全和需要暴力。由这种希腊逻辑中可以看出,西方家文化薄弱,直接缘起于为强国而作的牺牲,最终是因为天下的无法稳定。

体育外围tianxiadeguannian,yincijuedingxingdiyingxiangzhe“lixiangguo”guanniandebiyaoheshidangyufou。“lixiang”zheigeci,nengdandulianxidao“guo”shangma?haishilixiangbenxingshangjiuyaoqiujiatingyutianxiadedaodezhixudetongshishixian?kaoxilashidechengbangshu,zaiyigexiaochengbangli,jiunengshixiansuoyourenleidaodema?xifanglishishiruhezhengmingzheiyidiande?ruguoguojiabixujubeizhonggonggongside,neimetianxiaheyibuyinggaiyoudagonggongside?

体育外围xianran,shangjuwentishejizhenggezhonglingyuzhuyidezhixuzhilishifouzugoudewenti,shejilixiangguoguannianneizaidiqueshaodaxiaolingyudaodedewenti。keyimingquedeshi,ruguoshizhongbaochijiatingquedeyutianxiadagongquede,zerenleidaodecanqueyanzhong,juebukenenglixiang。zheizhengshilixiangguoguannianbukekefudeneizaidedaodejuxian。geguobixutongyi,tianxiaxuyaodazhi,cainengyongjiuxingjiejuebolatuqitutongguolixiangguojiejuedewenti。

理想国不可能实现,不值得追求。这是东亚《大学》四维三领域学说、三公三私伦理学、天下大治的理论与实践体系、中华文明史蕴含的基本结论。道理很简单: 希腊理想国观念,与天下一统状态下的大公公德观念格格不入,是反《大学》四维的。理想国是各争强权这种危险游戏中胜出的霸权国,是弱小国族的支配者、掠夺者、欺侮者、和奴役者。-在这些意义上,理想国代表非正义。

xifangtichulixiangguoguannianderenjibolatu。erbolatushiyoujiamangdianhetianxiamangdian、bingqiejinjinmixinchengbangjiqichengbangshuderen。tongguobolatuduixifangzhexuedeyiguanershenkedeyingxiang,tazijidemangdian,bianchengzhenggexifangzhexuechuantong、zhonglingyulunlidaodewenhua、chengbangshuchuantongdemangdian。suoyi,lixiangguoguannianjiyuliangdamangdian,youyizhongdingyineihanzhongjibaohandeshenkeduanjianzainei。lixiangguo,zhishilixiangjiating、lixiangshijie、jiating-tianxiawenhuaquexilezhihoudecangengshengfan。

体育外围lixiangguo,yuanzeshangyunxubingyikaobaolizhanzheng、yilinweihe、guozujiansunrenliji,zaitianxiafanweineisungongfeisi。lixiangguo,chuletongyiyubujiangdagonggongde,haitongyiyuwushijiating。yiguolixiangle,bieguojiudounanlixiang、bukenengzailixiangle,naizhibenguodejiatingdouyaojijikewei。yigelixiangguodechuxian,jishiduitaguodadaolixiangdezhangai,naizhishitaguoanquanwendingcunzaideweixiehefoujue。

zheishuominglixiangguobukenengquntichuxian,erzhinenganzhao“qiangdajizhengque”deyuanze,youmouzhongpinsizhengdouzhongzuihoushengxiaweiyideyigezuiqiangguolaidadao。xilaren-xifangrenshizhongjinjinzhuiqiulixiangdeguojia,huoguojiacengmiandelixiang,jieguoshizhongdouyoushangshu“lixiangguorangzhenggetianxiadouweizijiguojiadelixiangfuchuzhangqijunzhenghunluandedaijia”dewenti。lixiangguo,qishifoudingletianxiadazhi。

体育外围dongxifanglishishang,douyouzheizhongqingxing: yiguochengba,yijiaochengba,huolunliuchengba,qiyuguojia、zongjiao、minzudouyaoshouqifu、shouya。qiangguoweilezhengqiangyuguowai,neibuyiyaofuchuyuelaiyuejinzhangdedaijia。qiangguoneibufalvgengyan,junfeijunrengengduo,danyou、weixiegengduo,zhengshirifan,fushuirizhong,zongpabaofu,zongzaidanxin,jieguolianneibuzijirendejiatingshenghuoyebukenengzhengchanganningxianghexingfu。

zheiyang,renminbufenqiangruoguo,shenghuodouzongyougaodujiaolv,doubeipoyianquanjunzhengdengguojiashiwuweixianweiyao。renrenbeiyaoqiuwaichu,jiatingzongnanyituanyuan,shenghuoquyuguodushehuihua,falv-guizecengchubuqiong。xifangrenzongzaizhengquziyou,zongxiwangnenggengduodiziyouyupangdazhengfu、pangzafalv、kejuanzashui、guojiayiwu、ruwuxuyao、zhanzhengsiwangdeweixie,-jieshibaizhonglingyuzhuyisuoci。

体育外围danshi,yinweifendoumubiaoshizhengquzijiadandudeyiguolixiang,jieguojundui、zhengfubianyongyuanshouyao,ziyouyuqifanzadefalvbianyongnandadao,lianjiatingshenghuoyegubushang。geguoruguodoujinyizishendezuigaoguojialiyiweifendoumubiao,naizhidaodebiaozhun,zeduilinguo、waizujiuhuifengxingshuangzhongbiaozhun,bujiangshandai。ruguogeguojiandouzheiyangjianchiguozuzisi,neimeshijiehunluan、geguozuzhengxiongjiushibiranjieju。

suoyi,geguobingcun,gezhenglixiang,birangubushangdagonggongde,yuanburusuoyouguozutongtongtuanjielianhe,gengburutianxiatongyi。xifangrenzongnanshixianguojishangdechijiuheping,zongyoulishibuwendinggannaizhiwujiakeguigan,ertebiexiangwangjiaohui-shangdi,jiuyinweiqueshaotianxiatongyi、tianxiataiping、hetianxiadazhi。

体育外围lixiangguokaobaoliduijinjinyujiyoulideshijiezhixudeweichi,benshenjihaoziyuan,yibannanyizhangjiu。lixiangguozhinengyouqiangquanzhengzhi,yugeguobisaiqianglidaxiao。zheizhongbisai,cushiqiangguoxiangjinyiqiebanfa,pohuaijingzhengduishou,yibianrangsuoyouqiyugeguodoubunengzhenzhengwendingheqiangda,ershizijiyiyucaozong。zheijingchangposhizhengqulixiangguozhe,zhaojishoulonglianzijidoujiweitaoyandeeren,qudaojingzhengguojiaganjinhuaishi、guliqifenliedongdang、weikongqiguoneibuluan、pohuaiqiwendingxingfu。

yushi,gegeqiangquanshijishangbixuzhengxiangzuoeyuduifang,zhengxiangxianshizijizaitianxiadagonggongdefangmiandelieji,zhengxiangzaidagongquedeshangyadaoduifang,erbiaoxianchuzuiweibukandedilieguozujiandexing。zaizheizhonggezhengeliedeguochengzhong,qiangguojunciqibifu,huxiangqudai。kejian,jubuqiuzhi,pianzhiyiyu,zhinenggulidagongquede,shilixiangguojiqichengbangshudezhimingshang,shilixiangguoguannianbukenengpuji、zhangjiudezhuyaoyuanyin。

suoyi,guoneigongsidewulunduomefada,guozuzhengzhiwulunduomenianshenrijiu,dourengranshijiyutianxiafanweideyihancaiyoudejubuxingshiye。zhonglingyugongsidefada,bujinwubuyujiatinggongside-tianxiagongsidedequeshi,fanerhuiyiqudaizhedeshenfen,qinshihouliangzhedeshengcunkongjian,zhanyouqihefadeziyuan,tuidongtamendebuduanehua。

必须追求天下大治。体育外围解决天下无序、家庭破败的无道乱世,是限于一隅的中领域公私德所原则上无能为力的。天下无序、家庭破败,反而与强调国家构成互为因果的关系。总之,各国族的行为,需要超国家的标准判断。而没有天下统一,就不可能建立这种标准,不可能捍卫国际正义。

体育外围shishishang,zhengshiyinweigeguodouquzhengqubianchenglixiangguo,tianxiacaihuichixudaluan-yinweizhiyoulixiangdetianxia,cainengjiejueguojiajiandehepingxiangchuwenti。xifangrenyouyuzhonglingyuzhuyi,conglaibuzhidaoguojiazhishiyigedadaolixiangshenghuodeguodujieduan,eryinggaijinyibuzhuiqiutianxiayitong。zheiyiquexian,shixifangzhishijingying、xifangjingshenwenmingzuidadequexianyuchiruzhiyi。

体育外围lingyifangmian,youzhiyougaodufadadejiawenhua,cainengdadaolixiangdejiating;erzhiyouyoulelixiangjiating,cainengtishitianxiayijiazheizhonggeguozujiannenggoudadaotianxiadazhidemoshi。zhonghuawenmingduteerjiweifengfuchenggongdejiatingwenhua,weiqilingwaidutedetianxiadazhi、tianxiazhengzhishijiantigongleyixiadeshenkeyuanli: zhiyouyoujiatingxiaozhituiguangdaotianxiayijia,quanrenleicainengshixianwendingdezhangzhijiuan。

zaizheigeyiyishang,bijiaoeryan,lianxiyutianxiadazhi、jiayuandehuadedongfangyitaolunlidaodewenhua,suiranzaizhanguofuxing、tianxiadaluandeduanshiqi,-ruchunqiuzhanguoshiqi,yijixifangruqindongyazhihoudejinxiandai,yishixiandebuheshiyi,quegengshuyurenleizhangyuande、gengnengwendingcunzaixialaidehongguanxingrenleidaodewenhuatixi。renleilixiangdeneirongheshixian,bixuyouyezhinenglianxiyudagonggongde。

体育外围shijieshangfeixifangminzuduixifangzhuiqiulixiangguoshifouyanxian,shijishangfanyingletamenzishenjianshihezishenzhixuwenmingshijianfengfuchengdudegaodi。duixiaaidirenweizhiyouxiangxifangrenyiyangqujianguoqiangguocainengshengcun,shenzhifeiguobuzuyizhangjiushengcundeminzulaishuo,dangranyixifangrenweishi。zhiyudongdetianxiadazhi、jiatingwenhuafada、rurujiadongyazheiyangdeweidawenming,neijiuwanquanshilingyihuishile。

xifangrenxuyaodongde,zhenzhengdelixiang,zhinenglianxiyushijieyidadaoheping,zhinenglianxiyujiatingyishenghuoxingfu,zhinengkaotianxia、jiatingyiqibangzhuxiandingqijiandeguojia-shehui。ranerzheixiesixiangzaixifangrengbucunzai、zhishaobuchengshu,eryoudaicongdongfangyinru-jinguanmuqianxuduodongfangren,yiweizijilishishangchuleshibaicuowuyiwaishenmeyemeiyou;yiweixueximofangxifangyiwai,biewuzhengshikezuo。

所以,将理想仅仅联系于国,根据东方文明的观点,这根本就是错置了理想。理想国,意味着对理想家庭、理想世界的间接否定。由此可见,如果人类的理想中本应包含天下太平、家庭安定、理想世界,那么理想国,是从定义起就原则上不可能理想的。或者说,理想国是从本性上就不可能道德健全的。

bolatudelixiangguo,bujincongweizaixifangshixianguo、huozheshuowendingcunzaiguo,erqieyizhizaijingshenshangwudaoxifangren,wudaoxifangrenguanyulixiangdequanbusixianghesixiangshi,hailiandaiwudaolequanshijieneixieqianchengdexifangwenhuamofangzhehexifangjiazhiguandexuesheng,shiqihushijiayutianxiazailixiangguanzhongbibukeshaodediwei。lixiangguoshizhonglingyuzhuyibirandaozhidecuowu。

城邦术不是、不可能是正治。从理想国观念体系中,只能推出城邦术这种仅能偏治国内的中领域主义秩序治理。城邦术是希腊文明的核心。Politics应该译为“城邦术”,而不能译为涵义深远的“政治”。

kongziyi“zheng”jie“zheng”。zhiyoujiangjiudezhi、tianxiaquanzhi、jiaguotianxiasandalingyujianzhi,caisuandeshangzhengzhi。cizhongzhengzhi,bingfeikongxiang、lixiang,ercengjingzaizhonghuawenminggedachaodaizhongfanfushixianguo。zhongguoyinlingshijiezhihou,tianxiazhengzhiwenhuahuihuanfaqingchun,zhongxinbiandeyuelaiyuebaogui、youyong。

erchengbangshuxiangduiyutianxiadagonggongdedesanda“buzheng”,xuyaoyansuzhichu、yanlipiping。diyigepianerbuzheng,jidabuzhitianxia、xiaobuzhijiating,jinnengzhijujiandeguo。sandalingyupianzhiqiyi,jipianerbuzheng。duirujiadongyadezhijiahezhitianxia,xifangrenbuzhidao,buzaihu,budongde。duizheiliangzhongshenghuo,shenzhiwushiqidulixinghedaodezhixuxuyao,ershituyong“chengbang-gongmin”moshijiqiyuyanjiayihaiyuan。

体育外围diergepianerbuzheng,shejiguoneiwaiqubie。chengbangshupianzhiyizuyiqun、yiyuyidi,weiguoneishizhi,buguciwaidedaqianshijie。zhixiaoerdaluan;lituzhipeishijie,quezhinengguanhaobenguo。zhiluanliangbufenwanquanbuchengbili。-zheishichengbangshuzai“zhengpianzhizheng”yiyishangdedierzhongpianerbuzheng。

disange,yinggaijiaoxieerbuzheng。fanshiguojia,doushizhanguotixizhongdeyiyuan。erfanshizhanguo,doubudebucanyuzongheguolijingsai。guchengbangshuzhinengshipower politics,jiqiangquanzhengzhi。zheiyudezhiyiyishangdezhengzhiwuguan,shikaobaolidexiezhi。ciji“zhengxiezhizheng”yiyishangdebuzheng。xifangjishishiziyouminzhuxianzhengguojia,yifenxiangcisanbuzheng。benlaishuzhijia-tianxiawenhuadezhongguo,zaiwenmingyichanzitiyuwaiweichouhuazhihou,yeliushilejiayutianxiasuyang。

体育外围“bumouquanjuzhe,buzumouyicheng”。chengbangshujiuzhimouyicheng。buanjiajiubukenengshenghuoxingfu。chengbangshuzegulijiangxiladejiawuhuaweiyibisirencaichan。chengbangshukaochenzhangzhiguodeyitao,laifugaijiayutianxialianggelingyudewudewuxu。zaiguowaisiyisunrenliji、jiechouerweijibenguoanquan;zaijiaquefahexieqinmideqinqingyuxingfu,gudanerjingshenshangwujiakegui,jiushichengbangshuliangdaxiantiancanjijixifangrenzhaozhidechengfa。

体育外围chengbangshu,shixifangzhonglingyuzhuyideyuantou,zailishishanghuoluantianxia。yingmeifadedengxianzhengminzhuguojia,yongzhonglingyugongdedetaolunqiongjinlerenmendedaodeguanhuai。ranhoupohuaiqidagonggongde、qiwumiejuewaizushi,baokuowushizaotabenguoneidejiatingdaodeshi,keyi“wugu”dihaobuyouyu,rangrenshuodoumeifashuo。feixifangguozu,yinzishenzhonglingyuwenhuashuipingburuxifang,xiande“zuiyouyingde”,huogaibeiqifu。chengbangshudaode,guchengweixifangrenjiatingquede、youqishitianxiafanweineiguozujianquededezuijiayanhu。

chengbangjishizaixifangyejinouercunzai,congbunengzhangjiu。bicibutuanjie,beiwailaizhengfuyihouwufafupi,shixilawenmingduanmingdesiyin。lusuoreaichengbang,quezhinengyanzhengzhengdikanzheminzuguojiadaochuqudaichengbang。lianminzuguojiayeduanmingdaoyaoyououmengqudai。deguoshixifangdeyigedaguo。ranerminzuguojiajieduan,shizhongchongmanshibai,budaobainian。zhidaokaishitiyuwaiweiherongruoumeng,caiwendingxialai。zhongguorenhaimeiyoutiyanguoxianzhengminzhuzhidedongdangwuxiao、danchunguojiadebunengwending,muqianmixinta,biaoming“waixingbineixinggengyouxinxin,xintubixianzhigengkuangre”。

体育外围xifangrenqiuzhixuzhili、daodeyuantou,buxingbeichengbangxianruweizhu,weizhezheigemeiyouxiwangdexiaodanweituantuanzhuanerbunengziba。congzhongshijimokaishiqishangshengqi,zhiweiduoliyawanqidadaoqianniandingdian,ranhoujiushiliangcidazhandeyiluoqianzhang、zhongxianyeman。zujianxifangrenduiqichengbangshu,qishiyeconglaidoumeiyouzhenzhengzixinguo。-kanyikanluosudechanhuizhexueshi,jiuzhidaole。ruhejieshibeioumanzujiajidujiaoqingyihuimiegudianwenming,yijiliangcishijiedazhanxifangzhongxianyeman,-zhongguorenduicizewupangdai。

xifangrenzaizhixuzhilishang“zongzaitansuo,fazhanchuangxin,buduanjinbu”,yefanyingyizhihaiweizhaodaowendingchangguideganga。zhongguorenxianqinjiudongdezhiguoxiangduiyupingtianxiazhishishouduan。jindaibeipogenzhexifangqiangguo,yiqiangguolailijie“xiandaihua”,shishuzaicitongyitianxiaqianbiyaodewanlu。guzhuanzhuyujianguo,zhinengshizanshixianxiang,bunengdangzuoyongjiudemubiao。jieluchengbangshuxiangrongyuguozushidedechoue,jianshaochengbangshuduizhongguosixiangjiedequanmiankongzhi、shenduwuran,shiyibixiuketi。

中领域生活、国家政治有可能最终变得可多可少。由以上对理想国和城邦术的讨论,足见在人类生活的三大领域中,国家或社会,并不具有西方人所赋予的那种存在上、道德价值上、公私区分上、公共生活上的最终性、唯一性、乃至优先性。道理很简单: 除了人的生活都从家庭中的幼年阶段开始以外,中领域生活,也仅仅在天下大乱、战国并列、各国不得不被迫进行“综合国力竞赛”这种特殊状态下,才显得特别重要。

体育外围zhonglingyudezhongyaoxing,yibanlaiziyulingwailiangdalingyudeboruo,tongshihuifanguolaicujinqigengjiaboruo。guo,tuanti,buluo,jiaohui,guranshiyigetianxiadaluanjumianzhongxiangduiyouxiaodeanquandanwei。yigeminzuhuotuanti,dangchuzaizhouzaogezhongweixian、weixiezhixiashi,bixulijiaojianzu、zhuchengqiangguoyizibao。-zheishiyiselierenhexilarenxingchengxifangshizhonglingyuzhuyidelishigenyuan、xianshiliyou。danshi,zheitiaosilucongyuanzeshangjiushizai“jiangerqiuqici”。

体育外围yinweibuluo、chengbangguo、jiaohuituantizaitianxiadaluanshideanquanbaozhangxiaoying,yinweizheigebingbujuyoushenyuanyiyidejiazhizishengduizhao,zhonglingyuchengweixifangrentebieguanxindeduixiang、zhongdiantiyuwaiweidedifang、errenzuoweiyigongyu。yiguo、shehui、tuantidengzhonglingyuweiweiyigongyu,yincijishixifangrencongweiyouguozhenggeshijiefanweineideanquanganbaozhangsuobichulaidefuchanpin,youshiduitianxiadaluanwunaijieshoudeyizhongshenkedebeiguan、buxing。

ranerdongfangrencongyuanzeshanglaikan,bufenxiangzheizhongbeiguan、buxing。dongyarenbingbuyibeipozhongshizhonglingyu,laijianjiechengrentianxiadaluandezhengchang、chengrenqibukebimian。xiangfan,dongfangrenyijijidefangshi,jiejuedaguimoderenleituantijiandegongchu-anquanwenti。yucixiangjiao,qianghuazhonglingyujinshituierqiuqicidebanfa。zhonghuawenmingtongguoshixiantianxiayitong、tianxiadazhilaijiangdizhonglingyudezhongyaoxing。tongguozheizhongbanfa,zhonglingyudezhongyaoxing,kenengxiajiangdaodiyutianxiadalingyuhejiatingxiaolingyu。

体育外围zhonghuawenmingshishang,tianxiadazhiduocishixian,shizhenggezhonglingyuwenhuadouyoukenengtuihuaduonian,yijingbiaominglezhonglingyuwenhuadexiangduiduli、keyoukewuzheiyidian。dongfangdelishishijianbiaoming,dangjiawenhuayutianxiawenhuagaodufadashi,renleishenghuojiqizhixuyudaode,keyidadaogaoduchengshuwending;qizhong,jiangyoukenengxiaomiezongjiao、guojiachongtu,eryouchongfenfadadejiawenhuachulai,jieguanxiangdangdayibufenrenleideziyuanjiqishiyong,baokuojianlidaodeyuzhixu。

dongyarenyincichizaobixuyishidao,zijishanzhangdejiatingshenghuohetianxiashenghuo,zijishanzhangdejiatingdaodehetianxiadaode,shiliangtaobiyaodeshenghuo,liangtaozhenzhengderenleidexing。jiating-tianxialiangdalingyudechengshufada,shijingguosanqiannianzhangqilishishijianjianyandekekaojieguo,shifeichangpubian、feichangbiyao、jiweibaoguidewenmingchengjiu。

体育外围dangran,zhonglingyuzhongyaoxingdexiajiang,xianzaikanlaibixuyouyidingdexiandu,erbunengrangtadeyouguanwenhualianzhengchangcunzaidoushoudaoyingxiang。dangyigerenjuyouzhongxiaoliangdalingyudeshuangzhongchengyuanshenfenshi,zheigerenhuiyinweiliangzhongshenfen、liangleiziyuanjiandezhanglierhuodeyidingziyoudu。zhonglingyujiqichengyuanshenfenjiucilaikan,benshenshiyoujiazhide。liru,zhonglingyuwenhuadeboruo,cengjingshiwanjinzhongguorendeneizhonglianggelingyujianzhanglijichushangdeziyou,biandehenshao。

体育外围danshi,muqianxuyaoqiangdiaode,shidaxiaoliangdalingyudedulicunzai,yijizhonglingyuyudaxiaolianglingyuyuanzeshangdepingdenghuobingxingbubei。kejian,zhonglingyutuantinengweitedingrenquntigonganquanzheigeshishi,gulilexifangrenduizhonglingyuzhuyishijieguanshixingyongjiuhua。dongluanweixiedeyongjiuhua,duitianxiayoukenengyitongdewuzhihewuneng,daozhizhonglingyuyouxiandechangtaihua,hegongsiguandeweiyihua。-zheijiushixifangzhonglingyuzhuyiruhexingcheng、ruheyingxiangqigongsiguandeluojixiansuo。

三公三私使大小领域文化发达。体育外围中华文明的实践,大体上可以说是按照三公三私的逻辑指导发展的。其中,中领域主义一直因家庭-天下文化而趋于薄弱。大公文化取代了中公文化,故即使在三公三私伦理学框架下,三大领域生活协调发展也没有完全作到。近代中国人感叹自己“只知有天下,不知有国家”,这是需要明确、需要重视和加以解释的。把这种感叹仅当作无知、愚蠢,本身才是最大的无知与愚蠢。

jiujindaizhongguorenhualeyiliangbainian,laixuexi、lijie、shixingjianguoheqiangguo,xuehuijianliheweichiguojiasuobixudezhengdang、jundui、falv、zuzhi、tuantijingshenhejilvyishi,bingqieqijinzaizheifangmianrengranchajumingxian,zongtibenzhuolaikan,zhonghuawenmingyuqianjindaishiqi,gengjinhuyigejiatianxia,erfeizhenguojia。

danshizaibeiquanmiantuoruchunqiuzhanguoshidejindaizhanguozhengxiong、xifangshizongheguolijingsaizhiqian,zhonghuawenmingshishishangyouliyouxiangxin,qiciqiandezishentixiqiajiushiwanchengledetianxiayitong。erweiledadaozheizhongtianxiayitong,yayizhonglingyuzhuyishizhideyubiyaode。tianxiayitong,buyidingyiweizhejiangsuoyourenleihaowuliwaidi、shishishangtongtongnaruyizhongzhixuzhixia。tazhixujiangsuoyouyijingzhidaoderenleijiqilingtunarutongyizhixuzhixiajiugoule-zheigesixiang,liangqichaojiyijingmingque。

yinci,tianxiayitong,yuzhongguohunzhanyiyang,shiyigejiangouxingguannian;tacunzaizheyoujiadaozhen、zhenzhenjiajiadefanfuguocheng、huozheshuobuduanwanshandeguocheng。ruguoxifangrendeshijieguannian,suizhexifangguojia“duishijiedezhengfu、kuozhang”erbenshenzaikuoda,neimedongfangdetianxiayitong,yekeyisuizhetianxianeiguojiashuliangdekuodalaicongerkuodazijibixufugaidefanwei。zheiyidian,shixuduotianxiasikaozheshangweizhuyierbixuzhuyideyaodian。

dongfangzhangqicunzaidezhongyangyubianchuideguanxi、suoweichaogongxitong,qishijiushiyizheizhongzhenjiatianxiayitong、youjiatianxiaxiangzhentianxiaguodudeshijianweirenshijichuerchanshengde。tayuxifangjiyuzhengfueryoudeshijiekuodaguannian,bunengtongrieryu。yushi,xifangrenyesihaomeiyouliyou,laidanxinzhonghuawenmingshidetianxiayitong,huibianchengxifangshideyiguozhengfushijieerchengba。muqianhejinhouhuizhangqichuxiande、xifanggeguodanyouzhonghuachengbadexinli,doushi“yizhonglingyuzhuyixiaorenzhixin,dutianxiadazhidejunzizhifu”。

体育外围tianxia-guojia-jiatingzheisandalingyuzhongdeshenghuojiqixiangduijiazhi,yushizhishaozai“doutigonganquan”deyiyishang,yinggaihenenggouquyupingjunhua,buzairongxuzhonglingyudanweijuyouteshuxinghuolongduannengli。xifangrenduiyuzheizhongqingxingzehuozhebulejie、huozhebuyuanyizheiyangxiang。yushi,xifangjihubukenengchanshengsangongsansidelunlixuehegongsiguan,bukenengbimianqilunlidaodewenhuashangchuxiangenbenxingpinfa。

体育外围xifangrenyouyujianchiliangjimoshi,bujinjinzhiyouyigejiamangdian。tamenbazhenggerenleiwuzhong、quanshijie、tianxiazheizhongdalingyudecunzaijiqixiangguandedagongdaodewenhua、dagongzhixuzhili,yenaruliangjimoshilaikandai,jieguojiajinlezijidelilunmangdianmingdan。yifangmianshitukongzhitianxia,lingyifangmianliantianxiaguanniandoumeiyou,gengbudongdetianxiadazhi,-zheishixifangrenduibenshendelingdaoshijiezige,jinxingleyizhong“zitiyuwaiweiquzigehua”、zitiyuwaiweifeifahua。

体育外围xifangzhonglingyuwenhuadejiduanfada,yuqijiatinghetianxialingyudeshuangzhongmangdian,shihuxiangcujinerbuchangde。erjiangbenshudaxiaolianggelingyudeziyuan,bushidangdijizhongyuzhonglingyu,-zheikeyidangzuoshiwunengyugengjunhengdeshenghuodebiaoxian。kaomangmutuchuyidalingyu,tongshixishenglingwailiangda,kaosixiangpinfaerjinzhidaozhonglingyuzhuyi,yinggaisuanchengjiu,haishishiwu?jinhouyinggaiyuyituiguang,haishijinxingxianzhi,hequdai?

七、重新定义公德-私德

gongdeyuside,zaidanyigongsiyusangongsansidebutongbeijingxia,yiweizhefeichangbutongdeneirong。ruguoanzhaodanyigongsiguan,zegongdesidedouxianyuzhonglingyufanweinei。zheishi,zhongguorenhuixiandeji“wugongde”ye“wuside”。-liangqichaojiucengjingzheiyangduanyanguo,bingqiecizhongduanyanponengfanyingzhonghuaminzuqingmoqijinzhonglingyushenghuoshangdeshengshu,hexiangguandaodexiuyangdeboruo。neime,zhongguorenshifoujiushiquefarenhegongsidaodedeminzuherenmin?

dangranbushizheiyang,bingqieqiaqiaxiangfan。guanjianzaiyubixuhuandiaodanyigongsiguan。genjusangongsansilunlixue,zhonggongdegongsidaode,buguoshiquanbukenengdegongsidaodedesanfenzhiyi。zhongguorenbushanzhangzhonggonggongsidaode,quejiweishanzhangjiating、tianxialiangdalingyuneidegongsidaode。yinci,zhenzhengdewentishi: danyigongsiguanguanguoyuxiaxiao,wushilejiating-tianxialingyuzhonggongsidaodedekeguancunzaiyujiqizhongyao。

xiamianxiankanyikandanyigongsiguanxiagongdeyusideguanniandejuxianxing。anzhaodanyigongsiguan,gongdedeshenbeizhe、daodezhuti,keyizhi“shehuizhidu”。gongdededemu,ji“fenpeizhengyi”。zheijiushishuo,dangshehuijigouzaijishehuichengyuanfenpeiziyuanshi,bixuzunshougongpingzhengyidedaodeyuanze。zheizhongluoersiyiyishangdegongde,shishehuijigoushifoujubeidedaode,eryugerenwuguan。

体育外围zheili,daodezhutibaokuoleliangzhong: gongmingerenyushehuijigou,erbuzaixianyuchengniangerenyizhongle。xuyaozhichu,xifangrendadaozheizhongjianshi,shinianshijiwanqideshiqing。zaicizhiqianxifangrenyijingyibandixingchenglexiamianzheizhongrenshi: “shehuidezhengzhi,gerendedaode”。huanjuhuashuo,daodezhutiyiwangyizhixianyuchengniangeren,bingbubaokuoshehuijigou。

anzhaodanyigongsiguandeside,qizhutishichengniangeren。luozaishehuichengyuangerenshenshangdeside,yejiliangqichaoxiwangzhongguorennenggoujubeidedongxi。-ruguoyigegongminhuozheshehuichengyuan,xiguanyuzunshoufalv、tuantishenghuoguanli,shuxizhonglingyugonggongshenghuo,zhangwolegonggongshenghuozhongdeyuyan、renjijiaojiyishu,zongshijinliangshandaiqitachengyuan,weihugonggongzhixudequanwei,reqingweishehuigongyitiyuwaiwei,zijueweishehuichengdanyiwu,leyufengxianshehui,zongzhidongderuhejianguoqiangguodengdeng,zheigerenjiujuyouzhonglingyuside。

bijiaoshangmiantidaodegongsidaode,gongdedezhutishigongfang-guojia、shehui,sidedezhutishigongminsifang,shixiangduiyuzhonggonggongyudegongmin。gongdejiyaoqiuyushehuijigoudefenpeizhengyi。sidejigerenzaizhonglingyushenghuozhongdegonggongxiuyangyupinzhi。xuyaozhuyi: zheiliangzhongdaode,doubuzhijieshejijiatingshenghuo、tianxiashenghuozhongdegongsidaode。

体育外围side,zaiguxilashidai,changbiaoxianweixilarentichangdesuowei“meide”(arete,huozhevirtue)。er“meide”yibandouyouliyushehui-tuantideshenghuowanshan。liru,yongqizuoweigerenmeide,jiushiyouliyuguojiaqiangshengdewushishenshangdegengzhixianggongfangdemeide。suoyi,danyigongsiguanbeijingshanglijiedeside,shijishangshixianyuzhonglingyufanweineidedaode。

体育外围shangmianzheiyanglijiedegongsidaode,jibenshangwufagujijiatingyutianxialingyudegongsidaode。genjudanyigongsiguan,jiatinggenbenshuyusidelingyu。neime,jiatingshifouyeshidaodezhuti?side,jiujingjinjinyidangedechengniangerenweifuzaizhe,haishiyekeyiyoujiatingzhengtizuoweifuzaizhe?bingqie,gerenxingdeside,jiujingshizhenduijiatingzhigong(xiaogong)de,haishizhenduiguojiazhigong(zhonggong)de?

xianran,danyigongsiguanwufaqufenjiatingzhongdegongfangyusifang,zhinengjiangerzhejiayihunxiao,yiqilierusifangfanwei,congershuobuqingsidebeihoujiujingshishenmeyangdegongdebeijing,huozheshuozhinenghunxiaoxiaogongyuzhonggongdezhongdaqubie。tongshi,danyigongsiguandengyuchengren,jiatingshenghuozhong,shikeyiwanquanwushedaodede;jishishejidaode,yezhinengdangzuoshehuishenghuolaishejizhonggonggongsidaode。

体育外围zheishi,ruguotongyixilasuoweigerendemeidejiside,neimejiatingshibushidaodezhuti,lirumougejiatingzhongdequanweizaifenpeijianeiziyuanjimeiyigejiarendeshihoushifoujiangjiugongpingzhengyi,shimeiyigejiarennenggougedeqisuo,jiuwufaxingchengweiwenti,jiuyulunlidaodewuguan。danshizheishiwanquanbujiangliertaobixianshide。jianeiyushehui,tongyangdishejifenpeizhengyi,rutongtiyuwaiweiqianbianyijinglunshuguodeneiyang。

youcikejian,ruguobuxianchengqinggongsiqufenyoujizhong,neimelunlijiajianghenrongyibaxiaolingyujiatingzhongdegongsidaodeyuzhonglingyuzhongdegeren“side”jiayihunxiao。zheileihuoluan,yidanzhuanrusangongsansilunlixuedebeijingzhishang,zezhengge“gongde”、“side”guanniantixi,jiuhuizaiyigexindehongguankuangjiazhixia,zaiyixiliexindingyizhong,zaisanduigongsiqufenzhijian,biandefeichangqingchumingbai。

家中私利公益关系要求小公正义。私利与公益俱在,公益通过分配变成私利,-这些是家庭生活中的基本事实、平常现象。这也是家里需要公德,能够产生公德,存在小公公共生活,需要分配正义,也需要秩序治理的理由。个别家人的私利,与全家的公益,既能相对分清,又可以互相损益。其中,损公肥私与舍私为公,都有可能经常发生。总之,公德私德,必须首先从家庭里,在幼儿的生活中,就开始讲究。

体育外围jiazhongziyuandefenpei,ruchichuan、linghuaqian,libukaifenpeigongping。jiazhongmeitiandemeidunfan,meijianyifu,doushejiyouquanweizhuchidefenpeishijian,doushejifenpeigongpingyufou。yigejialidequanwei,zaiduiqizhongdelianggehaizifenpeiziyuanshi,nengfouzuodaogongpingzhengyi,nengbunengyiwanshuiduanping,huijuedingxingdisuzaozheilianggehaizichuzaixingchengzhongdegongpingguannian,yijihaizimenweilaiyoumeiyou、youshenmeyangdegongping-zhengyiguan、gongsidaode。

xifangzhiyoudanyigongyudeguannian,zhiyouzhonglingyuzhuyi,yincizhiyouruluoersishide“shehuijigou”defenpeizhengyilun,zhiyouguojiadezhixuzhiliquanwei。zheizhishejilerenleiquanbuyouguanlingyuzhongdesanfenzhiyi,erqieshi“banluchujia”,-jimeiyoushouxiangujishijianshang、kongjianshangjunzaixiandexiaogongjiazhonglingyuneideyuanchuxinggongpingjiqizhuchizhe。

jiuzheifangmiankan,quanweijiarenhuozheshuozhangbei,qitongguofenpeijiazhongziyuanerduihaizidezhengyiguandeyingxiang,zaoyuhedayushehuizhiduduiyuchengrendetongyangyingxiang。jiatingyujiarenjianmingxianhuxiangyilai、mingyunyugong。danshizheibunengchengweiwushijiazhongfenpeikeyigongpingyekeyibugongping、youniangongping-zhengyijiaoyukeyichengyekeyibai、jiazhongquanweikenengyouyekenengwu、jiazhongquanweijubeixiaogonggongdehuozhebujubeizheizhonggongdedengqubiedeliyou。

xiaolingyusili-gongyizhijian,queshixiangduirongyihuxiangtuoxie、xiediaoyizhi,renmenyexiangduirongyirenshidedaozheizhongxiediaoyizhideyoudian: duiquanjiahaode,yeduitiyuwaiweibenrenhao;fanzhiyiran。zuoweiduizhao,gongminyushehuijiandeliyixiediao,liyiyizhi,yinweishejidesifangshuliangpangda,faneryaonanyixie,jianjiexingdayixie,erbutairongyikanchu。

zheijiujieshileweishenmehaizijinguan“lixingnenglibuqiang”,quezuyizaijiazhongbijiaogongpingderichangshenghuozhonglijiejianeixiaogongdegongping-zhengyiguannian。zongzhi,jiali,caishixingchenggongdeguannian、zhengyiguanniandediyigedifang-jinguanjinxianyuxiaogonggongde、jiazhongzhengyi。

xifangjiatingxitongzhangqibeinulizhiniuqu,zhangqijinjinshejijibuhelidedengjizhi,erbunengtihuihelidedengjizhi(ruzhangyouzunbei),xifangjiazhongdefenpeizhangqiyinweinulizhidejiazhangzhierxiandezhuanduan-zhuanzhi,wushegongpingzhengyi,zhongyushixifangsixiangjieshizhongyouyugezhongduijiatingdepianjian,congerwanquanhulvelejiatingzhongshejidejibendaodexianxianghexiangguandeyaoqiu。zheishixifanglunlidaodewenhuayizhongjibendeshiwu。

jiazhongsiligongyijianderongyixiediao、jingchangyizhi,youliyuxingchengyizhongyouzhituiguangchulaidesixiang,jirenmendeliyi,shixuyaohenenggouzaijiheyugetizhijian,jiayixiediaozhenghede。congcifangdalaikan,shehuigongminduiguojiahao,yejiudengyujianjiediduizijihao。dangeguozuduiquanrenleihao、duiquanshijiedetongyicixuhao,yejiujianjiedizaiduizijiguozuhao。zheilideluoji,jiushirujiazaoyijingshuoqingde“daodeyoujiawaitui”yuanze。

suoyi,xiaogongjiadezhongdegongsideshuipinggao,youliyutigaozhonggongguojiadegongsidehedagongtianxiadaodezhongdegongside。jiadaodedezheizhongyuanchuerketuiguangxing,jiatingshenghuodeziranxing,xianranduirenshirenshifounenggoutianranerziyuandiweigong,duiquerenlitazhuyidepubian、ziranhepingchang,duiquerenrenleyujuyoudaode,youjuedingxingzuoyong。-jinguantongshixuyaozhuyi,ketuiguang,buyidingzongshihuituiguang。

重新定义公私德: 三大领域均包含两种公德与一种私德。按照上面所讲的一系列道理,公私德必须从家庭生活中,从孩子的幼年生活经历中,开始规定。这也就是根据三公三私伦理学来规定人类的公私道德。

体育外围youyujiatingneidegongyifenpei,shejirugongpingzhengyizheiyangde、yijiatingweizhutihuozheshuofuzaizhedexiaogonggongde,suoyi,gongdeshouxiancongjiatingzhongkaishichuxian。zheishi,shejidangejiarenzheizhongdaodezhutide,bianyouliangzhongjibendaode。yizhongshigebiejiarenshenshangdexiaogonggongdexiuyang,lingwaiyizhongshigebiejiarenzhenduilingwaiyigejiarenzhijiandesidexiuyang。

体育外围yushi,gebiejiarenshenshangdeside,jijiatingneirenlianggejiarenjianbixubicijiangjiude、sifangduisifangjianbukequeshaodedaode,duicixiamianhuijulizi。ergebiejiarenshenshangdexiaogonggongdexiuyang,zeshidanduyigegerenshenshangde、weizhenggexiaogonggongyizhexiangde、weilezhenggejiatingdezhengchangernulijubeidegerenxiuyang。zheili,gebiejiarenshenshangdebutongdeside、gongdedegongxing,zaiyudaodezhutidoushixiaosidesifang,shijiarengeren。

jiuxiaosisidelaikan,lianggejiarenjian,jikenengbicisunrenliji,yekenenghuxiangshejiweiren,haikenengxianganwushi。zheizhonglianggejiarenjiandeguanxi,xiangduibutongyuyigejiatingchengyuanyuqiquanjiadeguanxi。xiaosisidedehexinneirong,jikongzisuowei“jisuobuyu,wushiyuren”。ergebiejiarenzuihaojuyoutiyuwaiweiyujiatinggongyidexiaogonggongde。biaoxianzaisirenshenshangdexiaogonggongde,butongyubiaoxianzaisirenshenshangdexiaogongside。

xuyaozhichu,jiazhongqinrenjiandexiaosiside,bingbushiyongyu“suoyoujiarenjieyiyipingdeng”zheizhonggenglaizizhonglingyuzhuyidejiading。lianggejiarenzhijiandeguanxi,doushiteshuguanxi,douyaoqiuteshudemingzi,yijixiangguanerteshude“zhengming”。zheixieteshudemingzijiqizhengminghuodong,fanerduoshubuneimeshejipingdeng。gezibutongerxiangfuxiangcheng;laoshaobuyi、yinyangduili、ernenggouhexiehubu。zheidoushigengrongyichuzijiatingdeliangrenjianguanxi,erxingchengjiarenjianside。

zhongguorendedaodezilv,shouxianlaiziyouyiduiduijiarenjianteshuguanxizhongxingchengde、teshudesidepeixun。rushejifuzide“ci-xiao”、shejixiongdide“you-gong”、shejifuqide“he-shun”。youyushuangfangjianbingbujuyouneizhongzhonglingyuzhuyiyiyishangdeyuanzishipingdeng,erjinyouyinyangshiduideng,yinciyifangduiyuduifangdedaodeyiwu,doushiteshude、jibende、bibukeshaode。

体育外围zheiyuguojiafalvxiadelianggepingdenggetigongminjianxingchengde、wanquanleisidehuxiangduidaidezhonggongside,feichangbuyiyang。houzheqishijiushizhonglingyuzhuyilijiexiade、bufennannvlaoyou、budongdejiatinglunlixueshisuolijiedehufanshipingdeng。bixuzhichu,zheiyanglijiedepingdeng,benshencunzaiyanzhongquexian,bunengnalaizuoweigenju,bunengjuyijinxingchaochuzhonglingyufanweidedaodepanduan,youqishibunengnalaizhijiaojiatingzhonglunlidaodedetiyuwaiwei。

体育外围xiaosisidedoufushuyutedingdeguanxi,lianxiyujiatingjiaosedeteshuxing,bingqiekeguanshangyaoqiujiazhang、nianzhangzhemendeguli、jiaoyu,yishenzuoze。tayaoqiumeiyigerenrenzhenkandaimeiyigeqitaqinren,jiangjiuzaimeiyigeqinrenmianqianzijijiaosedezhuanhuanyijixiangyingdedaodezerendezhuanhuan。jiangjiuqinrenjiandehuxiangshandai。jiazhonggebiejiarenjiandesidexiuyangguocheng,tongshiyeshizhenggejiatingdegerenxingjiatingdaodehuafangmian。

体育外围lianggeqinrenjian,youyuqinqingdezhanhe,yibanhenrongyichuhaoguanxi。danshi,yezhengyinweilianggeqinrenjianqinmiwujian,meiyitiandouyoudaliangdeshiqingfasheng,maodunyirongyidaliangchansheng。xiaosisidezhisuoyizhongyao,zhengmingjiatinghuazhisuoyishizuizhongyaodedaodehua,jiubiaoxianzaizheizhongcongxiaokaishi、meitianrichang、qianqianwanwanxiaoshiqingdeliangrenjianguanxishidangchulishang。erzhongzhongxiaolingyujiatingside,yidanxingchengjiuhuixiangdangwengu,chengweijiweiyouyongdehaoxiguan、haodexing。

rujiaduicileijiazhongside,youjiweijingshendeyanjiuzongjie,shijianchengguo。huanjuhuashuo,rujiabingbuyibandixiangxifangrenzaishehuizhongneiyang,jinjinzhidao“renyilianggepingdenggongminjian”ruhechuhaoguanxi,xingchengside。xiangfan,rujiakandaolebingqiechongfenyishidaojiazhongmeiyizhongliangrenjianguanxidedutexing、yuzhongyaoxing,erweizhizhidingxiangyingdutedejiazhongside。

fuzi、muzi、xiongdi、jiemei、poxi、wengxu、yesundengguanxi,queshixuyaoyiyiyanjiu,fenbiedutedichuhao。“xiao、ti”dengjiazhongside,fuzizhidao、fuqizhidao、xiongdizhidaojiushizheiyangcongdutezhongpubiandixingchengde。-xifangrenshenmeshihoudongdeguo、youguozheixie?

rujiabingfeibuzhidaojiarenjianguanxiyoukenengouerchubuhao,naizhixingchengbeiju。danshirujialilaizhongshidaduoshuqingxing,zhongshidati、zhongyong、yupingchang,bingqiejuyicuchengrenmenjijidikandaiqinrenjianguanxi,yileguandetaiducuchengjiarenjianhexieguanxideshengcheng。anzhaozheizhongfangxiang,juedaduoshujiatingdoushihaode;ercongzheigejibenshishidejichushang,yezuyidechuyibanderenxingqushandejielun。

体育外围xiangfan,xifangrenshoudaoxilashenhua-xijuzhongejiadianxing、yijishengjinggushizhongdaliangejiadianfandepianpoyangbanjiaoyuzhihou,wangwangrongyiyipiangaiquan,duidaduoshujiazhonglianggejiarenjianguanxidechulichenggong,duilianggejiarenjianguanxidedaodepeiyang,dougandaojuewangerbunengxinren。

体育外围rujiayuxifanglunlixuedebutong,zaiyudongdejiatingdaodekaotiyuwaiweidelai,kaojiatinghuaertigao,bingfeitianshengjiucunzaihuobucunzai。rujiaduiqijianenggoujianquanjiadedaodezheizhongleguanzhuyitaidu,zuizhongjijidigulixingchengchulailedongyaqiangdadejiatingwenhua。zheizhongqubie,houlaihaidaozhiledongxifangliangzhongwanquanbutongdefandaodejiaoyuguannian。

qinrenaiqinren,erxiaofuhuonvxiaomu,fuqijian、xiongdijianhuxiangjingaierfuze,lianggejiarenjianhuxiangqianrangerzhaogu,douzairujiagulidejiatingsidefanweizhizhong。huoxuyourenhuishuo,fumu、zinv、fuqijianliangliangyouai,jiarenjianbicitebieqinmi,shirenleipubianjubeide。-jiucijibenshishi,youshenmekeshuodeni?weishenmeyidingyaodaligulitamenni?

体育外围wentizaiyu,zhengshizheixiejiatingxingsidehehuxiangguanaifuze,shirenshijianshuliangshangzuidaliang、shenghuozhongzuipubian、jihushejidaomeiyigerenmeiyitianyiyanyixing、yijuyidongdedexing,nenggouduanlianchumeiyigerenzuiweijibendedaodeganyuzerenxin。zhengshizheizhongpubian、yongjiudezerenxindepeixun,shizheixiexiaosisidexingzhidejiashan,zuiweizhongyao,zuiyinggaishouzhongshi。

个别家人身上的小公公德体育外围。前边谈到了家庭整体作为道德主体的小公公德,即家中的分配正义。除此之外,每一个家中的个人身上,也必须具备小公公德的修养。这种公德修养,在于能够为了家庭整体着想,能够将家庭公益一般地置于个人私益之前,也即作到必要时自己能够舍己为家。

体育外围shejiweijia,shiyizhongshejiweigong。tapoleisiyuzhonglingyuzhonggongminweileguojialiyi、tuantiliyierxianzhiziji、naizhixishengzijidedaode。ranerzheishilianggebutonglingyuzhongde、weileliangzhongbutonggongyidegongde。shejiweijia,shixiaolingyufanweineide、gerenshenshangdexiaogonggongde。ruguojiatingzhengtidegongdeshidiyizhongxiaogonggongde,zegebiejiarenshenshangdexiaogonggongde,jiushidierzhongxiaogonggongde。

jiadebaoman,yejijiarengerenshenshanggongsidejianbei;tongshi,jiatingzuoweiyigejitidaodezhuti,youjubeifenpeizhengyi。zheijiushijiatingfanweineigongsidedouyoudelixiangqingxing。zheiyeshijiatingnenggouquyulixiang,renleinenggouzhiwangshixianlixiangjiatingdejichuhuozheshuogenju。lixiangjiatingdeguannian,shijinzhidaolixiangguoguanniandebolatujiqixifanghoujizhemen,suowanquanbudongdede。zheixierenyoubiyaorenzhenxuexirujiafazhandejiatingxinglunlidaode。

tongguojiatingshenghuo,peixunchumeiyigerenxiguanxingdeduidaijiatingxiaogongdezerenganyuzerenxinzhihou,-genjuzhonghuawenmingmanzhanglishizhongdeshijijingyan,-zeguofashenzhikeyoukewu。-zheiyijingbeizhongguolishisuofanfuzhengming。suoyi,wenhuashangnengfoumingquechengrenxiaogonggongyudecunzai,nengfoubaxiaogonggongsidenalaijingzhongfayang,yiliyuxingchengjiazhongxiaozhi,huizaiwenmingzhongdelunlidaode、zhixuzhilifangmian,zaochengjudadebutong。

小、中、大三种公共生活。一旦能够接受如上所述的家庭伦理学、小公公私德系统,人们将可以也必须接着来肯定中领域团体生活、天下生活中,都应该有同类的伦理道德系统。而当人民具备了三套公私道德系统,就能够过好三种公共生活、三种私生活,同时建立其居间相关的秩序及其权威。

kejian,genjudanyigongsiguan,gonggongshenghuojinyouyizhong,shuyuzhonglingyutuantineibu,youchengniannanxinggongminmensuolongduan-shiyouyanzhongwentide。tiyuwaiweixianzaizhidaole,gonggongshenghuo,bingbudengyushehui-tuantishenghuo,bingfeijinshejichengniangongmin。jianggonggongshenghuojinlianxiyuzhonglingyu,shiyizhongxila-xifangwenhuazhongdepianjian,xuyaoyuyidapo,yuyijidadekuozhan。

体育外围xiaozhongdasangelingyuzhongdegonggongshenghuo,dangrangezifeichangbuyiyang;qizhongdegongyisiliguanxi,gongsidaodedemu,shejibutongdesanzhong“juli”。benshuhoumianyouzhuanzhanglunzheng: jiurenjiguanxilaishuo,jiazhongdeqinrenzhijianyoujinjuliguanxi,guozhongdejiatingzhijianhuozhechengniangerenzhijian,youzhongjuliguanxi,tianxiaguozuzhijianyouzhangjuliguanxi。sanzhongbutongjuli,xingchengheyaoqiusanzhongbutongdechuliyishu。baqijiandejulichabiemosha,tongtongyuyizhongjulihua,shiyuchunerchidunde,jiangshifenbuliyulijiesangongsansilunlidaodexitong。

zheilideguanjianzaiyuxuyaojingti,bunengyixifangrendexinlixiguan,nalaijiudangzuorenleiyibande、biaozhundexinlixiguan。lunlixueyinggaiyixiaolingyujiating、yijiatingzhongdelunlidaodeweiyouxian-yinweirenmenbushixianzuochengren,zaiyouyounian;bushixianjinrushehui,zaijinrujiating;bushilaodaledezijisuzaoshaoxiaodeziji,ershizaizheisangefangmiandouqiaqiaxiangfan。

体育外围yinci,zheilidehexinsixiangshi: jiatingshenghuo,shehuishenghuo,tianxia(huozherenlei、wuzhong)shenghuo,shisanzhongbinglie、pingdeng、dulideshenghuo-jinguanrenmenduitamendejieruyouxianyouhou。zaizheisandabutongshenghuolingyuzhong,douhanyougongsiqufen,douyaoqiuyouteshuyitaogongsidedezhiyueyijizhixudejianli。sanzhongshenghuoteyoudegongside,burongguibing;basanzhongshenghuojiqidaodeguijieweiyizhong,shidaijiajudadehaiyuanluncuowu,shizongjiaonenggoudeyifada、rendaozhuyiboruodezhuyaogenyuan。

dongfangdesangongsansilunlixue,keyiqudai、yinggaiqudai、bixuqudaidanyigongsilunlixue。youyujubeirendaozhuyiherenjianzizuxingzhi,sangongsansilunlixuehaikeyishixifangdezongjiaolunlidaodekaishituixiu。danshisangongsansilunlixuedeliluntixi,muqianbenshenyehaichuyubeiyunhanzaidongfangchuantongzhongdezhuangtai,xuyaomingquechanfachulai。zheibaokuoguanniandexinchuanghuoyinjin,jiashangyiwangrujiaguanniandezhongxinbiaoshu,heduikenengpipingdehuiying。

meiyousangongsansilunlixue,dankaoxifangshidanyigongsilunlixue,jiangshuobuqingquanjiagongyiyugebiejiarensilijiandedaodeguanxixingzhi,shuobuqingyigehaiziweishenmekeyizaijiatingzhongjiuhuodedaodedexunlian,xingchengshejiweigonghuozhesunrenlijidedexing,shuobuqing“jiazhonggerenzhisi”yu“jiatingzhengtizhisi”zheiliangzhongsizhijianjiujingshishenmeguanxi,shuobuqing“guojiazhonggong”yu“tianxiadagong”zhijianyoushenmequbie,shuobuqingguozudadanweijianshifouxuyaodaodehudai,yijizheileidaodeshifouyeshidaode、congheerlaidewenti。

体育外围xifangdanyigongsiguan,congxilashiqi,shijishangxiangdangyujianggengduozaijiashenghuodefurulaoyouyunruobingcan,paichuchuledaodeshenghuo,bukanzuodaodezhuti,jiangqibunengbuyikaodejiatingduiqidaodezhutidebuchangbufen,paichuchugonggongshenghuohegongdehuoquzhiwai,jihudengyubuchengrenfurulaoyouweizhengchangren、buchengrenqinenggouzaizhonglingyugongyuzhiwaideshenghuozhongyoude。zheidangranlianxiyunulizhiduijiadeduhua。

jiuzhonglingyuneibulaikan,jiatingzhengti,yeyinggaishigengzhuyaodeshehuizhonggongfanweizhongdezuchengdanwei、zhonggongsifang、huozheshuozhonglingyufanweineidezhuyaoxingweihedaodezhuti。xifangrenmeiyoukandaozheiyidian,zhuyaoyinweizongxiangbaqizhongdejiadanweiyuyidasan、haiyuan、zhijiediao,huazuogerendefushuwu,huazuogerendecaichan。

体育外围congdagongfangmiankan,guojia、minzu、zongjiao,doushitianxiadagongfanweineidedaodezhuti。tamendoutianranchengdanzhejingweishijietongyidaodebiaozhundequanwei、bicizunshoudagonggongdedezeren,dousuzhudagonggongdeshuipingshigaohaishididepingjia,bingqiexuyaoyouciquedingyigejidingdeguozuzongjiaoyoumeiyou、youduoshaozigezaishijieshangdanrenlingdaotongyiguochengdezhize,jubeidaodequanweidewenti。

体育外围yihandeshi,xifangrencongxilakaishi,duidagonggongdeyaomekanbujinqu,yaomejiushikanjianleyebuzhenzaihu,buyuanyizhenduiwaiguozueryaoqiubenguozushixingdaodezilv。xifangrenyoubiyaoxingchengdalingyutongyouzhonglingyudeguannian,xingchengjiapeihetianxia、jiangzhonglingyuxianzhizailiangzhezhijiandeguannian,yizengjinrenleidewending、heping、hefanrong。

zhonghuawenmingdelishishang,cengjingfanfudishixianguotianxiadazhi、jiadehuarendedahaotaishi。xifangrenxuyaoxuexi,xuyaomingbai。zhonggongguojiayudagongtianxiadeguanxi,zuiwendingdejiejuebanfa,jiushi“tianxiayitong”、“xuefanmieguo”、guojia“shengquhua”、daxingjiatingwenhua、yikefuminzuzongjiaodejuxianxingyanguang、duiwaipaichixing。zaizheigeyiyishang,yiwangzhonghuawenmingdelishijingyan,duohanbaozang,zhidexuanyang。

sangongsansilunlixue,shijishangyijingweiyiwangdezhongguorensuozhangqishijian。jieshizheizhongduoyuangongsidedongfangsixiang,jiangtayuxifangdanyigongsiguanjinxingduizhao,huoxucongmoufangmianlaikan,shuyulilunyuanchuang-yinweiyiwangbingmeiyouduoshaorenzheiyangdimingqueshuoguo。raneryuqishuozheishiyuanchuang-yizhongyoukenenggenjubuzudeshiye,burushuoshijieshi-tabeikaozhejianshidedongya-zhonghuawenmingdefengfulishidaodeshijianjingyan。

体育外围muqianshijieshangsuoqueshaode,shiguanyusantaogongsidelilundemingqueshuoming,shiguanyuxifangdanyigongsiguanjuxianxingdeshidangkehuayupipan,shiduoyuangongsiguanheyinenggouerqiebixuqudaidanyigongsiguandelunzheng。xuyaoshuomingdeshi,tichusangongsansilunlixue,bingbushiyinweimofangxifangrenzhongshidanyigongsiguan,ergenzheqiangdiaoyizhongbutongdetixi。

sangongsansilun,yushidequebushiwanquandechuangxin,ershisiweisanlingyukuangjianeijiuyouyunhandeshifang。xianzaitichusangongsansilun,zuizhongyaodeshiyaojiaoyuxifangrenjiqidongfangxuesheng,dongdezunshoudagonggongdeyuxiaogongjiade。yinci,meiyousangongsansilunlixuebuxing;renleibixuzunzhaozheiyilunlixuelaishenghuo。

三大领域公德与私德的伦理学定义。现在,可以做一个总结。体育外围可以说,存在着普适于人类三大领域的三类公私道德。第一类原则是三种公方作为道德主体的道德。这意味着,家庭主体、国家主体、天下主体都必须对其属下的成员,实行分配正义。这里,西方人关于中领域社会机构的分配正义研究,是有贡献、需承认的。

dierleiyuanze,shisandalingyuzhongdemeiyigelingyufanweinei,sifangduisifangjianbixuzunshougezideside。jiarenduijiarenjianzunshouxiaogongside。jiatingduijiatingjian(yijigongminduigongminjian)zunshouzhonggongside。guozuduiguozujianzunshoudagongside。guanyuzheiyileisidedeyuanze,shejimougongyuzhongliangchengyuanjiandebiciduidai,takeyiyougengweizhijiedebiaoda。

就三大领域中的三类私德看,两个成员性的道德主体双方间,必须遵守善意的互反性。善意互反性意味着,任两个道德主体之间,例如两个家人之间,都应该互为对方着想,互以对方为重体育外围。这条原则,当然也同样适用于中领域中的任两个道德主体,例如两个家庭之间、两个成年公民之间。它还适用于大公领域中的任两个国族之间、两个不同的宗教之间的道德关系。一般地说,善意互反性,是同样适用于三大领域中的成员私德的人类私德原则。

第三类原则是私方身上的公德原则,例如公益与私利间关系的处理原则,可称为公德原则。家中、国中、世界上,各自都有范围内的公有资源分配问题。在家里,有个别家人的小私私利与全家小公公益间的关系。在国中或者说任何一个中领域中,有某家私利(某个成人的私利)与国家或集体公益之间的关系。在天下,有某个国族、宗教的私利与天下各国族教间共同的大公公益之间的关系。根据公德原则,在处理私利与公益关系时,必须均衡而兼顾,以公益为重

huangefangshizongjie,zairenleishenghuodesandalingyuzhong,fenbiedouyaoqiuyousanzhongdaode。yishigongfanggongde,jisanlingyuneifenbiedefenpeizhengyi。ershisifangside,jisandalingyuzhongdemeiyigelingyunei,lianggesifangbiciweiduifangkaolv。sanshisifanggongde,jizaisandalingyudemeiyigelingyuzhong,gongyiyusilijian,jiyaogongsijiangu,youyaoyigongyiweizhong。

体育外围muqianxuyaoqiangdiaozhichudeshi,renmenzuixianlejieshangshusanleigongdeside、zuixianshijiantamendedifangyushijian,yibanshizaiyouniandejiazhong。shishishang,gongdesideyuanze,doubixushouxianzaiyouniandejiazhongjiuyuyimingque、narujiaoyu。

八、近代“重新发现国家”的艰难,以否定天下-家庭为代价

jindaizhongguorenhualehenzhangshijian、fuchulejigaodexianxuedaijia,caizhujianrenshidaoshijieyijingcongtianxiayitong,daotuihuizhanguojingzhengdeluanshi。jixujianguoqiangguo,jixuhuifuguojiazuoweitizhiyikao,yiyingduiyouxifangrenfaqidexinzhanguozhengxiong,-zheigejielundedadaojiweibuyi。zhiqijinri,duizheiyidianjielundequeding,yijijiangtaqueliweiquanmingongshi,rengranzaijinxingguochengzhong。

zhongxinfaxianguojia,shiyigejiannandeguocheng。zhenggezhonghuawenmingdewenhua-jingshenyuxinli,rengranchuzai“zhitianxiabuzhiguojia”dezhuangtaizhong。congtianxiadaotuihuiguojia-zheigeguochengbenshenjiweijiannan,daijiacantong;tarangzhongguorenduiqizhongyudaode、laizibenshenwenhuadezhangaiyukunnan,qingxurongyijidong,naizhibiandeshikong。

体育外围yushi,yixiangjingzhongzijilishideguoren,fenfenjiliebeipanzhonghuawenmingshi、dongyajiazhiguan、《daxue》siweiyuanze,fangqilejiatingyutianxiawenhua,jiangjiatingkanzuo“wanezhiyuan”,jiang“tianxia”dangzuodilizhishihunluanzaochengdecuowu,erjitidiyitouzharuzhonglingyuzhuyi、weiguojiazhuyizhizhong。

体育外围jindaizhongguojijinpaimen,quanmiangezhileyiwangdezuigaozhidaoyuanze-《daxue》siwei,quanmianfangqileyiwangyonglaizhidaogerenyishengfendoudezuigaoyuanze-xiuqizhiping。tamendaduobaidaozai“guojia-gongmin”liangjimoshimianqian,fangqipipingchengbangshudedaodesanbuzheng,bujinbuzainenggouzanyangjiating-tianxiawenhuadeweidayuzhengque,erqieduitamenyuyizhudongdecuihui。

yangwangxifang,duiqiguojiawenhuazhiqiumofangerbuganpipingderen,zailejiexifangguojiawenhuadezhanlvexing、zongtixingquexianzhiqian,zaiduizhaoxifangquexianernengmingquezishendeyoudianzhiqian,bianchengrenziji“baiburu”xifang。huihen、paoqizijizhangqishanzhangdetianxia-jiatingdaodezhixu,quanpanfuzhixifangweiguojiazhuyiwuhua,zheishibingweishensishulv、sangjinwenhuazixinshiqidexiangfa。taquechengweirenmenshijishangzunfengdezhangqizhidaogangling。xishizuopaiyuyoupai,doubazhongguoyiwangdechengjiu-yongtianxia、jiatingwenhualianshouqudaiguojiawenhua-jindangzuozongtierlishixingdeshiwujiaoxun。zheishuoming,zhongguorenjindaiyilai,queshibeixifang、ribendapa、dameng、dahuangle。

yitianxia-jiatingweizhongxindehepingshenghuo,benshenmeiyoushenmebuhao。tianxia-jiatingwenhuafada,yuzhonglingyuwenhuaboruo,zheiliangzhejianyizhiyoujianjiedeerfeibirandeyinguolianxi。danshidongyadezhonglingyuhuaboruo,bushiying“zongheguolijingsai”zheizhongxinde、youxifangrenfaqideshijieyouxi,xuyaoyigetizuiyang。xinzhonglingyuzhuyizhemenyushizaidaxiaolingyuzhong“zhaodaole”zheizhongxishengpin。

zhonghuaminzude“xinmin”menyushiwangji,sandalingyujianbingfeibugongdaitiandeguanxi,bingfeinisitiyuwaiweicainenghuo。tamenzhudongwangjile《daxue》siwei,wangjilesandalingyukeyibinglieyishizhongbinglie,erbaquxiaochuantongdejiatingyutianxiawenhua,dangzuolejianguoqiangguodeyigeshouyaobufen,naizhidangzuochenggongqiangguodeyidaqianti。congci,zhonghuawenmingzhongdejiatingyutianxiawenhua,kaishizaoshoueyun。

guodufoudingzijiatianxia-jiatingwenhuadewenmingtese,yiweizheguodufoudingzijiwenmingziqinhanyilaidelishihekejiqujiazhi。guorendewenhuazixin,wenmingzizun,dulisikaodedingli,duizishenlishishijian、lishirenwudezunzhongkending,yushixunsuxiaowang。jiudaode-zhixushangdeyuanzezhidao、sixiangziyuanlaikan,zhongguorenmuqianbuqingxiangyudongoujiushixioubeimei,erbuzaiyidongfanggudianweizhizhen。

体育外围sixiangjiezizhouyuqinhandetianxiaxiongjinshangguisuo、daotui,zhongxinzixianyuguandongliuguozhiyideyiguoxiaogejuxinlizhinei,jiangtiyuwaiweizhongguo,buzaidangzuotiyuwaiweitianxia,erjinzuoweitiyuwaiweiyigeqiangguo、yige“minzuguojia”。zhongguorenyijingcong“yitianxiaweijiren”zhe,xiang“yiqiangguoweijiren”zheduoluo;tongtongguishunyu、toujiangyuxifangshidezhonglingyuzhuyi。

duirujiadongyazuiweiweidaerteshudechengjiu-jiatingwenhua,zhongguojingyingbujinrenqiliushi,erqiezhangqizhudongwuminghua。ruoganrujialingxiu,rukangyouwei、xiongshilideng,jingfenbiefaqiduijiatingdezhengmiangongji,shixingrujia“feijiatinghua”。cishudianwangzudebeipanxingjing,benyingshikonghuangzhongdezanshicuoluan,muqianqueyixingchengchuantong,zhanyoutongzhidiwei。jieguo,jiayurudeguanxi,yijingconggenbenshangbiandemohu、niuqu、hunluanbukanle,ruyijingbiandejinhuyujiawuguanle。

体育外围yushi,xifangyigeguohunzhantizhiqiangjiayudongfang,zhonghuawenmingzecongzishenyuanyoutizhishangjiejiedaotui,nulicongtianxia-jiatingtizhiyuxintai,tuihuaweiguojia-gerentizhiyuxintai。yibianyigemingtuifanqianchaodetianxia,yibianbuzaiyixintianxiadaihuanjiutianxia,erzhidasuanyiqiexianyujianguoqiangguo。qijinduiyiwangzhonghuawenmingshidepiping、zhuijiu,doucunzaijigudangxia、foudinglishi、gejupianxiao、wumiezuzongdepianpo。

体育外围wentizaiyu,qinhanzhihou、dongzhouyiqiandetianxiadazhi,yuchunqiuzhanguohedangjinxifangdegeguohunzhan,xingchengxianmingduizhao。duicidongxifangwenmingjiandedashixingqubie,juebunengyibandishuo,zhanguohunzhanbitianxiayitonghao。xuduozhuoyudaode-zhixushijiandezhishifenzi,chidunyuluanshirenmindeshenqietongku,buzhidaozijizhuoyushijianhuiruheyingxianglilun,budongdetianxiatongyijiajiatingdaodezhixudegaodujiazhi,jinyibansuizhengzhifenlieeryoudexueshuduoyuanhua,jiukendingluanshierfeinantongyi,shiqingzhongdiandao,tuolibaixing,shumucunguang。

ruguoshuoxifangweilechengbang、jiaohui、shehui、tuantidengzhonglingyudeqiangda,yayilejiatinghetianxia,neimezhonghuawenmingweiletianxiayitongdezhixudaode,zaiyouqiangdajiatingwenhuadexiezhuxia,yeyouliyouduizhonglingyuwenhuajinxingyazhi、jingti、qudai,baokuoboduoqiziyuan,fenpeijijiatinghetianxia。daolihenjiandan: qiangguojinjinshiyinweitianxiadaluan。tianxiadazhijiyunhanfoudingqiangguo、guojiaduli。

dongfangrennenggouweitianxiaersheguojia,nenggouweisheguojiaerfazhanjiating,shouxianbiaomingrenleishejidesandashenghuolingyujian,queshicunzaizhegezidedulixing。zheishisandalingyujiande“cixiaobizhang”chengweikeneng。zhongguolishishangxuanzeyayizhonglingyuwenhua,shizhonglingyuwenhuanenggouzhangqiboruo,eryitianxiayujiatingwenhuadeshuangshuangfadalaiqudai,-shouxianshiyizhongdutedechangshiyuchengjiu。

wulunshilishishanghaishixianshizhong,yiyouhendayipixifangren,yizhizaikukuzhuiqiu,xiangshizijideshenghuo,nenggoujinliangtuoliyuguojia-zhengfu-shehuidejinmiguankong;daliangxifangsixiangjia,duiguoyujingxi、fuza、qiangdadezhonglingyushezhi,shenganqihai。ruozheixierenzhidao,zhonghualishishangdeshizijingying、putongnongmin,dounengzhangqixiangyou“ziyousanman,wuzuzhiwujilv”、zhangqihepingzheizhongzhonglingyutuihuasuoyunxudeziyouzhixu,yinggaihuibiaoshixianmu。

suoyi,zhonglingyuwenhuashoudaodaxiaolingyuzhanyougengduoziyuanzheizhongyazhi,zheiduiyurenleilaishuoshiyouzhengfuliangmianxiaoguodeshi,juebujinjinshixiaojide。congzhengmiankan,xuefanmieguo、ruohuazhonglingyutuantiwenhuabuliyudifangduli,youliyugonggutianxiadazhi。fengfuhuajiatingdaode,keyiqudaiyibufenzhonglingyufalvwenhua,yishijiating、gerendedaogengkuansongdelijiaoxianzhixitong,bimianfazhideyanlijiangying。

dangran,ruguotianxiabingweishijishangdadaoyitong,guolijingsairengzaijinxing,bieguoyouzhengzongdeguojiashezhiertiyuwaiweizhinengduizhiyihepingdetianxia-jiatingwenhua,zedangranwuliyuguojijingzheng,nanyiduifuwaizuderuqin、shaosha、jielve。jinliangbainianlaizhongguorensuoweizhifendoude,keyishuozhuyaojiushiyoutianxia-jiatingtizhituihuiguojiajunzhengtizhizhizhong,yibiannengqiangguoerzhangyangguomingexing。

体育外围danshi,zheibingbugaibianrenleisandalingyujiandexiangduidulixing、bingliexing。guojiazhuyihuozhonglingyuzhuyi,jiyufazhitixidequanlixinggerenziyou,zaizhonghuawenmingzhongbingfeicongweicunzaiguo。xianqinshiqizhonglingyuwenhuajitebieqiangda。ruchunqiuzhanguonianjian,cengyou《sunzibingfa》dengzhuzuo,youfajia、mojia、bingjia、zonghengjiadengpianzhongzhonglingyuwenhuadexuepai。ranertebieqiangdiaojiating-tianxiawenhuatiyuwaiweiderujiawenhua,rengrankeyiyuzhibingxingbubei。shishishi,zhonghuawenmingzaizhuanrudaxiaolingyuzhuyizhiqian,cengjingjingliguozhonglingyuzhuyidezhangqifadashiqi。

zaichunqiuzhanguoshidai,dongfangshizhonglingyutuantiwenhuacengjinggaodufada,gexingcengjinggaodugaoyang。zhishizaitianxiayitongzhihou,zheixiecaikaishiruohuaxiaoshi。cihou,zhonghuawenmingbianzhangqimianlin“zhenjiatianxia”zheiyiteshude、shuyudalingyuwenhuafanweineidelaihuidongdangtiaozhan。zhonglingyuwenhuadeyinweibuzaineimexuyaoershuailuo,shisuizhetianxia-jiatingwenhuadechenggongyufanrongerchuxiande。

体育外围zhengshiqinhanyilaitianxiayitongjiajiatinglijiaodehezuochenggong,caishidezhongguorenkeyixiangshouzhonglingyuwenhuadebuzaizhongyao。daonianshijizhongqizhongguorendezhonglingyuwenhuahexinbufen-junshidongyuan、zhengzhizuzhinengliyousuohuifuzhihou,zejishixifangzuiqiangguo,yetongqiegandaoletadeqiangdazuzhidongyuanli、hejijuzengjiadezhandouli-liruchaoxianzhanzheng。

tianxia-jiatingzhongxindehepingshenghuo,benshenfeichangzhidexiangwang。jishiweileqiangguoerduizheilianggelingyuxiangduihulve,yibubiyuyifouding。ranerjijinzhuyizhezaishangshushuangfangjian,qiangxingjianliyinguoguanxi,haoxiangbuba“tianxia-jiating”moheiyuchouhua,zhonglingyuzhuyijiujianlibuqilai。zheixianranconglilunshanggaoguledaxiaolingyuyuzhonglingyudemaodunxing,digulesanfangdegezidulibingliexing。

wangrenzhiguo,bixianquqishi。zaidafangxiangbuqingchu、dajuguanbingweijunhengjianlideqingkuangzhixiaziwulishi,zejinhuzhuiqiu“wenhuawangguo”。“fengjianzhuanzhi”dehunluanguannian,jiashang“huangdijiedadao,xuerenjiexiangyuan”dejiduanmohei,benshixinhuangyiluan、bujishensishulvshidefaxie。bazheizhongquanyikouhaonalaidangchengzhidaofangzhenzhihou,wuqiannianzhonghuarenwujiqichuangzaodelishi,baokuo“tianxia-jiating”shiwenmingshijian,bianzhinengchengxiandeyituanqihei,yiwukequ。

fudichouxinshidipochudongyawenhua、lishishijiandequanweiyuzixin,zhinengchedigaoluandongfangrenzijidesixiang,quxiaodongfanglishishijianjingyandezhengmianjiazhi,quxiaodongfangrenzaidangjinshijieshangdewenhuafayanquan,quxiaodongxifangwenhuapingdengduihua、zhengchangbijiaodekenengxing。zheishenhualedongfangrendewenhuazibei、zengjiafeidongfangrenduidongfangdeqingmietaidu,congerzengtianwushudongya-zhonghuawenmingwenhuafuxingdaolushangdezhangaiyukunnan。

qijinweizhidepojiulixin,yushi“shadibumanyiqian,zisunchaoguobabai”。neiyoujijinzhuyiguorendezhudongpochu,waiyouwenhuadiguozhuyidejilisongyong,-zheizhongliyingwaiheshidipohuaidongfangwenhuachuantong、quanwei,xiaolvziranhengao。jieguo,juedabufendangjinzhonghuazhishifenzidexinlikongjian,zhishijiegou,douchuzaixiouyudongouzhijian,shaoyoubentuwenhuadeqinrun。dongfangwenhua,hunbufuti。

zhanwububaidailaideneixinkonghuang、kongxu、liushenwuzhushidejiduanxuanxie,zaipishangzhuanglie、lishizhengquedewaiyizhihou,qicanghuang、jingji、bingjiluantouyimianmubeiyangaile。bianzhongweixi、xitizhongyong,chengweitangerhuangzhidezhangqizhizhen。bentuwenhuadejiazhiyulishikeyanxuxing,genbenmeiyounaixinzaixikanshenxiang。xifangdaolujiweishijiechaoliu,chengweiyipixihuapaiwudaozhongguodezhizhen。

yushi,yingshilishangdawuweidouzhengdeyingxiong,tongshiyoukenengshiruanshilishangdemihuopanghuang、qurufucongzhe。yifangmianxiandeshiminzuyingxiong,lingyifangmianyouditouyuxifangwenhuadiguozhuyi,chengweiqibuzijuededaibiao、xuanchuanjia,-zheizhongrensuozaiduoyou。qineixinshenchu,shijishangyizhiyougenbendekunhuo,juliedezhengzha。duiyuzhongguoyushijieyinggaixianghechuqudewenti,shaoyourenzhenzhengxiangqingguo;danquebuhuiyingxiangqifoudingzhonghualishishidechongfenxinxin。genzaixifangrenpiguhoumianxueximofang,-zheizhonglinshijucuofanerbianchengweiyiyoubawodegongshi。

zhongguojindaijingying,yushizhinengzaiduidongfangyousuojichengyuchedixihuazhijian,yaolaibaiqu,zouyibukanyibu。tamenzaimianduizhonghuawenmingyudongfanglishishi,zongshigengrongyijuedezijiachuantongzheiyebuxing,neiyebuxing。tongshi,youbingbuzhenxinganqingyuandijinjinzhuisuixifangren,buxiwangxifangrenyijingqiongjinle“shijiedechaoliu,renleidezhihui”。zizunerxinyoubugan,tongshiyoubunengkendingzijiarenhejutidedongxi,-zheizhongjiujiecongcizhemozhedongfangdezhishifenzi。

waibiaoyingyongjifen、neilikunhuonaizhiruanruobukandexihuapaijingyingmen,jiangqiangliedeqinggan,huazuoduizishenwenhua、yiwanglingdaorendejidubaoyuan、guogaoyaoqiu。tamenbiandiqizhonghuawenminghebentulingdaorenlai,genjuteshutigaoledeyaoqiubiaozhun,gubiwairengeng“youxiaodaowei”、nengzhuazhuyaohai。yushi,jingguojishiniandefenfanuli,jiangzhongguorenjiqiannianjileiqilaidehuihuangchengjiu、wenhuazixin、quanweizizunheyingxiongrenwu,zaibuguoyibailainianzhong,chabuduoshizhidangranwucun。

muqian,zhonghuawenmingyuneidejiaoxueyanjiujigou,jidabufenwanchengxihua;zheixiejigoujidougandangdongfangchuantongwenhuadeshitijiepoushi、liuxixueshengdepeixunyuketang。tingzhijingxue,tingzhichuantongdedujingdian、xuelishi、mingdaode、lizhixiang、zhongcaoshou、xiuqizhipingjiaoyu,youqishizhongduanlexiaotirenlidengjiatingxingdeminjiandaodehua,zhongduanledongfangjingshenwenmingdehefaxinghewenhuachuantongdeyanxu。

yipipizhonggerenerqingjiating、weiguojiaerwangtianxia、youxueshiwudexing,youzhongcaiwudazhi,younengliwucaoshouzhe,congyidapixixuezhongzhenzhongbeipeiyangchulai。zheixierenduidongfangwenmingdeyiwangchengjiuyiwusuozhierhaobuzaihu,duizishendezuxianshijianjiqizhudaorenwumeiyoujingyi,zhihuimainongpimaodexixue。tamendexiazuoxingwei,shizhonghuawenmingdeshijiexingxiang,biandecongweiyouguodiandanwuguang。yuhantangsongqingrenbiqilai,dangjindezhongguorenyangshixifang、zicanxinghui、quefazizun,zaishijiewentanshanghaowutese,yaquewusheng。

“juxifang,pandongfang”、“xuexifang,gaidongfang”、“naruyouxifangdaibiaodeshijiechaoliu”,duizijiawenhuayichanyipipanqingchuweizhu,suichengweisixiangxueshunulijiandegongshi。xuejiesixiangjielixizhisheng,xinganqingyuandizhengdangxifangguannianerdaofanzi,jingxiangxuanyaodaoxifang“dujin”jingli,yizhichuantongwenhuadebaoliulianxiridongyawaiweidiquderihandengdidouburu。

xifangdezhangchu,yijingmeiyouduoshaoneirongbuweirensuozhi、bubeirenzantanle。danshidongfangrenzhong,zhenzhengxiagongfulejielexifangwenmingzuoweiyigezhengtisuojuyoudezhanlvexing、quanjuxingdefumian,lirujiamangdian、tianxiamangdian、sushijiazhiguanmangdian、duoyuangongsiguanmangdiandecunzaijiqifuzuoyongzhe,yijiyoucicongxinchufa,zaiyicihuiguotoulaizhongkandongfangwenhuaderen,weishuliaoliao。jujiaoyuxiyoudongliezhe,bujiqishu;jujiaoyudongyouxiliezhe,quzhikeshu。

dongfangrenzhong,duixifanglunlidaodewenhuajinxingquanmianfansi,nenggouheganyutichuyoulidefenxipipingzhe,youqishaojian。jieguo,shaoyourenzhenzhengjunhengdikandaidongxifangwenming,erduoyourengenjubuzudigaokanxifang,digudongfang。sixiangjieneiwai,xianzaiyoujigerennenggouheyuanyizhanzaizhongguolishiwenhuadelichangshang,juzhongyigexi,jixifangzhexue、lunlixuedezongti,jiyukanchengyoulide、quanmianshenkedepiping?

ranerfanshixitongdiqulejiexifangdezhanlvexing、quanjuxingfumianderen,douhuifaxianzijibunenghuibijizhongshenkedebianhua。shouxian,wulunshitanlunxifangdegujinhaishidongfangdegujin,meiduorenshiyitiaoxifangdezhanlvexingquexian,zerenshizheguanyurenleiwenmingmuqiandezongtipingjiatuhua,jiuhuifashengshiguanquanjudediaozheng、gaibian。renmendeshijieguanhuizengjiajunhengxing,huizengqiangduidongfangsixiangdezunjing,zengjinqueren、pipingxifangzongtiquexiandezixinxinyuyongqi。

xiangyaolejiexifangwenhuadequanmao,muqiantebiexuyaofeixifangrencongqiyuanyouerdutededongfangwenhualichangshang,zhonglierrongrudeshijiangudiguancha,qinshen、zhijiedigaikuoxifang,erbunengjinxiangxinxifangsixiangjiezijidefansi。xifangrenzijidefansizhongcunzaidaliangmangdian。ruguogenzhexifangrenzouerjinruqimangdian,jiuhuiwangjizijibenlaifanershimeiyouzheixiemangdian、shikandehenqingchudefeixifangren。

体育外围jinjinjiarudaoxifangrendetaolunzhizhong,xuanzeshouxianyouxifangrenzijiquedingdemoulichang,yinengjieruqizhenglunzhongcourenaoerzixu,shenzhixigaiguzaitingdao“nuobeier”、“hafo”zheixieziyanzhihoubianlijirouruan,neizhinengbianchengbeixihuazhezhongkeyoukewudeyiyuan。shishishang,xifangrenduizheizhongyijing“xunhua”lededongfangrenjiqiyanlun,bujinwuxujingzhong,erqieyouliyoubuxieyigu。

xifangzhenzhengqueshaode,shilaizidongfangdeshenkepiping、teyougaikuo、zhengyantixing、liangxiangduizhao。erdongfangzhenzhengqueshaode,shijielibianrendongfangdebenlaiwenhualichang,xuanzhi、chuanyueyiyoudedaliangchengjian,fuyuandongfangwenhualishishangweidarenwujiqishijiandeyuanmao、yuanyoujiazhiguan。erruguozheiyangzuole,dangranrongyirangrengandao,zaichongpojindaiyilaijileidedaliangkonghuangxing、jiduxinxuzhuangtaixiadefoudingmohei、lishixuwu、yuanjiacuoanzhihou,zhonghuawenhuayuanmaohuichengxianchuyifanbutongdeqixiang,qizhongduolexuduobaozang、zhengmianxing。

shangmiansuoshuodeneiyangfanzhuanguolaideshijiaojiqisuihoudedongxifangbijiaohuodong,shuyuyizhongxindeshiye: “judongfang,panxifang”;“lejiedongfanggudai,yigexifangxiandai”。ruciyilai,yuanbenjinyouerzhanjuzhuliude“juxifang,pandongfang”、“xuexifang,gaidongfang”deshiye,jiuyouleduilimianhezhihengzhe。-zheilisuoweigenjudongfang,jiushizhigenju《daxue》siweisanlingyuxueshuo。

zhiyouzheiyangdongxizhiheng,liangmianpingdeng,jiantingerming,buzaipianxinle,caiyoutiaojianjunhengdibijiaohedechudongxifangwenhuadejielun,qinglichushuangfanglunlidaodewenhuazhongdezaopoyujinghua。yihandeshi,danshizu、shiyekuan、youquanrenleixiongjin、youqianqiuwandaiguanhuaideren,dongxifangdoupianshao,muqianshangbukenengchengqihou。

体育外围rujiadewenchuang-jiatingwenhua-beipohuai,suibuzairongyichanshengyizhijianding、xinnianchenzhe、zhenxicaoshou、botongjingshi、suoxiangwudi、yitianxiaweijirenneiyangdedazhangfu、zhishirenren。erbunengdulisikao、xiongjinpolixiaxiao、suidaliuchuipengxianxue、weihunfanerzhixuezuoshizhe,yigedawentiyejiejuebulaiquezongshimanzuidahuadepingyongzhongren,panduanrenhewentidoubunenggoujianggerendelihaideshizhizhiduwai、zhihuisuifengyaobaifuyongyumouxiaaimenhuzhongdexiaoren,manyandoushi。yushi,zhongren、xiaorenzhijian,chongyingtianxia;yongsujiazhiguannian,huichengkuangchao。

体育外围xifangduidongyachixudejunshidaji、zhengzhiyapo、jingjilveduo、wenhuaxiuru,xianranbuzhirangdongfangrenguopojiawang,erqieyouchengxiaodaobeixuduorenxiguanle。zuoweijingshenbeixunhuazhe,zheileirenjiangxifangrenyinwuzhierduidongfangxuewendeqingmiedigu,neihuayuzijineixinshenchu。bujinbuzaigandaobuping,erqieshuofuzijibuduanqianxuxiaqu,naizhibudebiaoshibuman。qinuyanmeigu,xueshengxintai,yangshixifang,qianchengmofang,daolelijingshudai、xingshiduoyang、jizhongnanfandechengdu。

体育外围jishiyijingyourengandaolexifangrendezichuizilei、xuzhangshengshi、hewenguoshifei,gandaolexifangdexuduosuoweimingren,zaifabiaodaliangbiandidongfangdeyanlunshi,qishiliandongyawenzi(gengbuyaoshuogudiansixiang、jingshizhuzuo)doumeiyounenglizhangwo,xuduodongfangrenrengranbuganchusheng。wenhuaxinlishangchuangshangjishen,jingshenshangzigubuxia,sixiangguiyuanjianjin,buxizihuizufen。

muqianxuduodongfangjingyingdejingshenxianzhuangshi,congzhangqibujiyulejiexifangdefumian,daoyijingbuxiguanzaiquzhengshiqifumian,shenzhibuganxiangxinqizhenyouquanmianxing、zhanlvexingdefumian。congzhizhidaoxifangdeyoudian,daoxianru“lejiexifangjiuyinggaijujiaoyuqiyoudian”,yizhiduiyiqiepipingxifangdezuoweidoufangan、chengweimouzhongjingshencuoluanzhe。

xinlingbeixihuazhe,congbuduandijileilejiexifangyoudiandefangfangmianmian,dao“waixingbineixinggengyouxinxin”,“xintubixianzhigengkuangre”,“dongfangrenbixifangrengengrenkexifang”。tamenpaoqiledongfangshengren,quejiangzijishenshangdedongfangshishengrenchongbai,toushedao“xifangshengren”shenshang,suishuerbuzuo,yinweidaotong。duixiandai、houxiandai、gudaidexifang,lunliumobai。dongfangdulidesikao?-taibuqiangong。

体育外围dongfangdezheileijingying,shijishangyijingbiancheng“xiangjiaoren”。xiangjiaorenduixifangjinghua、dongfangzaoporushujiazhen。qi“xueguanzhongxi”,zhuyaoshejizhongzhibeilie,xizhiyouliang。qixinmuzhong,shiyimeiyou“xifangyeyouzaopo、dongfangyeyoujinghua”、“pipingxifangbudengyuwenhuaaoman”dengchangshinenggoubeirongrendeyudile。zuoweixifangwenhuajiazhidexianmuzhe、weidaoshi、bentuxuanchuanjia,tamenshipohuaidongyawenhuazixinxindezhulijun,shishidongfangwenmingweixinbuduanliushidehexinliliang。

duixiangjiaorenlaishuo,wulunhuagujinweizhongxi,huohuazhongxiweigujin,zongzhishiyiyangde: jin、xishengguozhong、gu,zhong、guxuyaoshiyingjin、xi。danshi,《daxue》siweiwanguchangqing;liangjimoshiyoushiyoude,zheizhongfeichangmingxiandeduizhao,queyouweixiangjiaorenmensuobunengjian、naizhibuganxiang。

wulungujinzhongxi,fanrendoudexiushen,qijia,zhiguo,pingtianxia,zheiyinggaishichangshi,yinggaishichizaoxiangquanrenleipujiderenrenshenghuozhisuobixu。jintianjinjinzhidaoxiyouzhonglie、mangyuhoujinbogu、xiujishirenzhe,zhiyoukaomingtianchuxiandeshuxizhongyouxilie、zhonggui《daxue》siweizhe,cainengdedaobanping、jiaoyu,erhougubojin、xiuxishizhong,laiweizheigeshijietaohaizhangqiquefadewenhuagongdao、wenminggongping。

dongyarenjiujingyoumeiyou、youshenmewenhuatezhang?dongyarendeteyousuzhishishenme,congnalilai?weishenmedongxifangrenwenhuashangyouhendadebutong,youshidongyarenquebixifangrengengnengchengshi?rujiadongyazairenleilishishangzhangqijuyushijielingxiandediwei,muqianyouyouzaizhiniuerdekeneng,-zheijiujingruhejieshi?youmeiyoujieshi?-zheishixiangjiaorenmenjujuekaolv、yemeiyounenglihuida、ranerduiyuzhenggerenleideqiantu、duiyuruhequedingrenleidezhexuezhidaoyuanzezhiguanzhongyaodedongxi。

体育外围jieguo,dongfangrenzaimofangxifang、guolijingsaideshijianshangyijinglingxifangrenwangershengwei,lilunshangduishuomingzijiquerengranbuzhisuoyun。wulunshenmedawenti,doushaoyoulaizidongfangrenerfuyouzixindehuida,shenzhishaoyoushituconghongguandedongfangjiaodujiayisikao、yanjiu、huidadenuli。tongshizai“xiandaihua”demingyixia,“juxifangyigaidongfang”、“zhaoxifangzhengquechadongfangshiwu”dexiangjiaorenyouxizebushouyingxiangdizhaochangjinxing。

zheixianranshibujianglide。haiyouhunhunee,duoruwenmingfazhanfangxiangshangguoduxihua、shenghuofangshishangguodushehuihuajiagerenhuazheizhongxianjingdekeneng。gaijindediyibu,jiushixitongdijieshishangweibeirenshuzhidexifangwenmingquanjuxingfumian,dadaoduixifangwenmingdejunhenghuarenzhi,yiduanzhengshirendeshijieguan。duimangmuleguanxifangzhe,duirengranzaiqinglvdihuimiedongfangwenhuayichanzhe,zheizhongxindeshijieguan,nenggoujinxingshanyiditixing,biyaodijinggao,hexinladechaofeng。

、方法五论

youqianbiandelunshukeyikanchu,sangongsansilunlixue,youchengqianqihoudexingzhi。jiuchengqianyimiankan,zheizhonglunlixueshijiuyoude;tajibenshangwanzhengdiyunhanzai《daxue》siweisanlingyuxueshuozhizhong,zaoyijingbeiqingmoqianderujiawenhua、zhonghuawenmingsuozhangqishijian、shijideyi。jiuqiqihouyimianlaikan,zheizhonglunlixueyouyouzhenduixifangdanyigongsiguanlunlixuelaishuodequanxinxing、kaichuangxing、gemingxing,yiweizheyidaxindelunlidaodedelilun、jiaoyu、puji、shijianshiye。youcichufa,zheizhonglunlixueshejiruoganfangfalunwenti。

yushi,jiufangfalunkan,zhishaoyouwudianxuyaoshuoming。shouxianshiliangtiaokandaizhonghuawenmingshidelichangyuanze。diyi,cunzaizhedongyaren-zhongguorenduzifaxiande、kaoyanchengshueryoushiyongyuquanrenlei、muqianhaimeiyoubeituiguangdaoquanrenleidepubianzhenli。zheiyitaopubianzhenlixuyaobeiquanrenleijiayigaoduzunzhong,xitongxuexi,renzhenbuduandituiguang,yingyongdaorenleideshenghuoshijianzhongqu,laizengjinzhenggeshijiedehexieherenleidexingfu。

jiangshangshuyuanzehuanyanzhi,jiushixifangsixiang,yijiqitafeidongyasixiangwenhua,yuanmeiyouyebukenengyijingqiongjindiaonenggouyonglaipubiandizhidaorenleisixiangdequanbulilunyuanzejichu、renjianyouyongzhihui、lunlidaodeyuanze。dutedichanshengzidongyawenming-zhonghuawenmingdiqudezhihuiyulunlidaode,dangdongxifangsixiangduilishi,buyidingchayuxifangdebufen,faneryougaomingdedifang。

体育外围dier,zhonghuawenmingdelishi,wulunshiqinhanyiqianzhuisudaosandaishiqidediyijieduan,haishiqinhanyihouyizhidaoqingmodedierjieduan,douchenggongdayushibai,jingyanduoyujiaoxun,eryinggaiyuyijibendekending。muqian,juedaduoshuchuangzaolezheilianggeweidalishiergongdayuguoderen,mingshengdoubeibaihuaile。tiyuwaiweiduicitichuqiangliedekangyi,tichangweizheixierenjiqichuangzaodeweidalishiboluanfanzheng、pingfanzhaoxue。

体育外围dongfangsixiangjie,youbiyaocongcishouxiangenjudongfangdechuantongwenhua、lishijingyan、daibiaorenwu,laixingchengpanduanqiyushijiejiqirenwudebiaozhun。zheijiushishuo,zaijiurenleidefangfangmianmianzuochubijiaohepanduanshi,juebunengzaijinpingxifangdebiaozhun。fouze,wulunzuoshenmebijiaohepanduan,doutanbudaoyinyangduideng,dongxijiangu,gongyunshidang。

yiwanzhongguoren,tiyuwaiweidezuxian,baokuozhonghualishishangdezhengzhi-xueshujingyingmen,zaiwuqianniandemanzhanglishizhong,juemeiyoubaihuo。tamenzaizijishenghuozhong,baokuoqinhanhouyizhiqingmodeliangqianyunianzhong,juebushijinjinfanxiacuowuhuozuie。qizongjiechulaidezhengmianjingyan、jijixingjiaoxun,shiweizhuerxuyaorenzhenduidaidebaoguicaifu。tiyuwaiweijintianbixuzhongxinkandaihexuexizheixieqianren,duiqibaoyoujingyi。-zheiyinggaishimeiyoutiaojiankejiangde。

体育外围juzhongyi“ge”xi,genju《daxue》siweisanlingyulaipanduanxifangde“shehui-geren”liangjimoshi,bujinshikenengde,erqieshiyinggaide,haishilisuodangranhebibukeshaode。zheizhongleixingdezhongxibijiao,qijinjiweiquefa,xuyaodalifazhan。ermuqiandezhuyaocuowuchaoliu,jiushiyiqieyixifangdedongxiweibiaozhun,lianzhongguosixiangshi、rujiasixiangshidouyaogenjuxixuebiaozhunqupanduan。zhongguoren,keyibubizaichuchuyangshixifang,eryaoxuehuipingshi、naizhibiyaoshifushixifang,tongshizhongxinjingyangzijideqianren。

qicishilunshuolaiyuan。beisongsixiangjiachenghao,cengpanxuewenweiyuanziliangtou: “wuxuesuiyoushoushou,dantianlierzishizijiatitiechulai。”jintiandezhongguosixiang,xirenchuanlai、zuzongshoushou、jieshichengshuozhejuduo,qielichangshangduoyijuxifangerfanguandongxifang。dongfangrenzijidulidepanduan、gaikuo、xinchuang、tichuzhexiangduitaishao-zijiatitiechulaidechengguotaishao。

zhiyuchoushenchulai,jiujinzhanzaixifangdeduimian,pingzijiawenhuazuobiaozhun、zishenwenhualishijingyanzuojichu,erdulidiguancha、quanmianerbuduandigaikuo、zhangqititiechuyizhonghongguande、zhengfumiandouhangaizaineidexifanggaimao,bingqiecongerxiugaiduizhongfangdexiangduidingwei,zegengjiaquefa。benwenjiqisuoshudeyanjiu,shishuyuhoumianzheigesuoquefangxiangshangdeyibufentiankongnuli。

体育外围bizheyiwei,zhiyouzhimianxifang,jinruqineibu,zhangqierjiujindijileititiechuyipijiweihongguande、youquanjuxing、qiongjinxing、kuawenmingxing、zhengfumianjiangudedaguimogaikuo,cainenghuodeyipibiyaodegaiguan,cainengzaizheixiegaiguandezhidaozhixia,gaijinqijinfengxingde“juxifang,pandongfang”、“xuexifang,gaidongfang”dengpianmianxingyouxi,huodesikaoquanrenleiwentidehongguankuangjia。

zheixuyaoduixifangxiamakanhua,jujiaoguancha,fanfutiwen,buduangaijin,zhangqichensi,hebuduanxiugaidizongjie。zheizhongsixiangjiaerfeijinsixiangshijiaxingzhidediaochatitie,meiyouxianchengdedongxikeyiyilai。zhiyubizhongjiuqing、weinanraodao、tuoxieashi、zhuanyejuxian、fabiaoyali、shengcunfenxin、quefanaixin、pazidangtoudengjiekou,dangranyushiwubu。

pianzhongyushoushou,huangfeiyutitie,jianjiefanyinglejindaidongfangrenxinmuzhongqiangliedeshibaigan、yijiminzuwenhuazixinxindejufuxiajiang,fanyingledulisikaoxiguan、duzigaikuodeyongqipubianzaisangshideshidaitedian。wuxingquyuxianshi,bunengmingandijiuxianshizhongdeguangfantedianjinxingbuzhuo、zhijiegaikuo、hecongerfansi,suichengweiyizhongxiangguandeshibi。yinci,muqianchulesixiangshixingzhidegongzuoyiwai,youqixuyaoqianghuasixiangjiaxingzhidegongzuo。

体育外围jiexialaishejidedisantiao,shiruhelijie“genju”。genju,keyishiquebubishirensuoyiyan、shisuoyiding、shisuoyiyou。guancha、tiyanxianshi,buduandigaishanduixianshidetiwenyuhuida,buduanduizheizhongwendadejieguojinxinggaikuotilian,yeshiyougenjudeshiye,yezaichanshenggenju。liru,genju,xianshizhongjiuyou,jiashangqizhongrengranyixikebiande、yiliuxialaidelishiyichan。zheizhonggenju,bijingdianzhongheqianrendeyiyouyishuo,gengweiyuanchu,tongyangbaogui。xiangfan,youyuyishuo,fanhuishufuchuangjianhexinzhi。

haiyoufanlidewenti,shidisitiao。jueduishiyongerwuyifanli,-zheizhongluojiduirenjianshiwuyanjiulaishuo,jibenshangmeiyouyong。youyongdesixiangyufangfa,jingchangbuguozhuazhuzhuliu、huofenqingzhucieryi。neiyiweizhe,renheyouyiyidejielun,doumianlinbilijiaoxiao、quekenengshuliangkeguandefanli;renhedaodeshangdeshan,wangwangdouyoumouxiezuoweidaijiadee,bansuizaice。

体育外围bugufanli,fenqingzhuci,zhimingdaju,buduanquanheng,shijixuyaoyongqi、dingli,youbixuzhandejiaogaocaizuodedao。yinweijigezhongkouxiangchuandefanli,biandanqiefangqi,jiekoujinyanshenxing,yizhiwushidashi,buzhidaju,cishibuguobijiaogaojide“yiyezhangmu,bujiantaishan”zheliu。gujinzhongwaidedabufengaojian,doukenenghuiyinciyaozhediaode。

liru,xiongdifanmu、nisitiyuwaiweihuo,shenghuozhongjiweishaojian。ranerxifangzongjiaowenhuabataanzaiyadangxiawashengchudediyiduirenleixiongdishenshang,jiubianchenglelingrenzhenjingdedianxing。jieguo,zheizhongyicizuozhu、diandaozhuci,zhijieduansonglexifangrenfazhanshiyongyudaduoshuxiongdide“ti”daoyudi,chengweiyigecantongde、wenmingdaodehuashibaidejiaoxun。

benwendejuedabufenlunduan,doukenengyouzuiduogaoda40%defanli。ranerzhiyaowendingdigailvguoban,tiyuwaiweibianhaobuyouyudidangzuoqushiyuyizhichu,duanranjianchiyouguanjielun。zhuadafangxiao,qujingqiquan,-zheigefangfalunyuanze,jiangguanchebuxie,yingyongdaodi,-wulunyouduoshaotaotaobujue、yizhengciyanzhe,fanfuqiangdiaoneixieshuyuciyaodefanlibenshen、fanfushenshuoqiruhehairentingwen。

zuihou,diwutiao,benwenzhongzhuyaodexinsixiang、hexinguannian,wangwangyibutongdebiaodaxingshi,jiayiyouyidezhongfu。zheiyangzuoyouzhongdadeyichu。yourenshuo,huangyanbeiqianbaibianzhongfuzhihou,huibeirenwurenweizhenli,-zheiguranlingrenyihan。danshiqibeihouderenshixinli,shileiside。zhenlibenshen,yefeiqianbaibianzhongfuerbunengweirensuozhi,nanyibeirenjieshou。zhiyoufanfuzhongfu,cainengtingguanerziran。

youshi,yigexinguannian、yizhongxinsixiangzhongfushuliangbugou,jieshuobuxiang,zhenghaojiushitamenyibeiwujie,qizhongyaoxingyibeihushi,naizhizongtiyiyubeibianyuanhuadeyuanyin。yinci,benwenzhongzhongyaodexinsixiang、xinguannian、xinlilun,fanbeijinghemailuolveyouzhuanhuan,biankenengzaitichulaijiayizhongfushenshuoyibian。zheizhongteyidebuyanqifan,shixuyaotixingduzhezhuyinaizhiyuanliangde。

xifangdedanyigongsiyurujiadongyadesanlingyudaode,shidongxifangzuiweishenkedejiazhiguanqubiezhiyi。ruguorenmenjixusheyuxifangweiguojiazhuyichengbangshu、zhonglingyuzhuyizhexuelunlixuedeyinwei,wushidaxiaoliangdashenghuolingyudeduliyuteshujiazhi,wushisangongsansilunlixue,zeweidongyajubeidejiatingdaodeyutianxiagongde,huijixubeichouhua、maimei、erliushi,zhonglingyuzhuyijiangjixusinve。zheishirenleizhangyuanwufachengshoudewenmingsunshi。

体育外围chulejiazhexuezhiwai,haixuyaoyibuchengshuerxiangyingde、you《daxue》siweijinxinggaoduanzhidaocainengxiechude、guanyutianxiadagonglingyudexitongzhuzuolaibulingyigekongque。youlexiaolingyuhedalingyudechengshusikao,tiyuwaiweicainengzhenzhengyoucailiaolaibaojiachuyuqijiande、xifangrentebieshanzhangdezhonglingyu。xiaolingyuyudalingyudeqiangda,daibiaozhedongyawenmingdeyouxiulishijingyan。zhiyouyikaozheizhonglishijingyan,dongfangrencainengzhenzhengyoulichangqupingshuoxifangneizhongjujiaoyuzhonglingyudewenmingchuantong。

体育外围congdalingyuyanjiuhaimeiyouchengshuzheiyidiankan,xianzaijiuzheshoubiaoshusangongsansilunlixue,xiandejichubuquanbujianshi。ranerlingyifangmian,weilejianlixiangtianxiadazhizheiyangdedongfangxinghongguanquanjuzhixuzhiliwenhuadelilun,tiyuwaiweibixuyuxianpochuxifangshide、danyigongsilunlixuedejiazhiguandekenengzhangai。congzheifangmiankan,xiankuangzhenglunlixue,xianduanzhengjiazhiguan,xianpipingzhonglingyuzhuyi,keyidangzuoshidanglunshutianxiadalingyudeyizhonglilunzhunbei。zheiyekeyisuanshiduixianyu“dalingyuyanjiu”zhuanzhudechubanertichusangongsansilunlixuedeyizhongbianhu。

比较方法论

对话的必要性和可行性: 关于“仁”概念的思考

吴泓缈*

内容提要: 以形而上学的方式对“仁”进行定义,十分困难。本文用了三种语言学方法来逼近“仁”的“本意”,它们是“概念网”,“联络图”和“原型理论”。无论是定义方案还是语言学方法,都来自西方,用于中国特有的概念,一定有很大的片面性,但也很可能揭示某些因“身在此山中”而看不见的盲点。弗朗索瓦·朱利安教授认为,对话的任务之一,就是利用异文化所特有的视角来揭示本文化的盲点,倘若不能修正之,至少有助于体育外围意识之。

关键词: 体育外围仁 孝 对话 定义 语言学原型理论

一、引子

tantaozhongxiduihuadekeneng,tiyuwaiweixiangcongtiyuwaiweigerendelichangtanqi,yinweizheizhonglichangzhenghaoshejidaozuoweiyigezhongguorendetiyuwaiweiduifulangsuowa·zhulian(françois jullien)jiaoshoudezhexuesikaojiqifangfadechanshiyulijie。

shouxianchengren,tiyuwaiweidelichangbijiaoxiaai,danziyiweitaqueanhelezhuliansuochangdaodefangshi。“sanrenxingbiyoutiyuwaiweishi”zheijuhua,feichangqingchudigaikuolezheiyilichang,ji,1,tazhezhisuoyishitazhe,jiushitabidingyoutiyuwaiweisuomeiyoudedongxi,erzheidongxibidingzaimougefangmianlaishuoduitiyuwaiweiyouyong;2,tiyuwaiweishifounengchengweitazheshi,neibushitiyuwaiweikaolvdewenti。jinyibutuili: tiyuwaiweizaiyutazhedajiaodaoshi,tiyuwaiweibuhuiguoduodiqujijiaotazheshenshangdequedian,yinweitiyuwaiweiyijingjuyoulezuoweixueshengdelianghaoxintai(zhizhuyitazhedemaobing,kenengshizibei,kenengshiwuzhi、pianjian,yekenengshibieyouyongxin,huohaoweirenshi)。youcikejian,duihuashibiyaode,shiyouyongheyouyide,youqishiwei“tiyuwaiwei”de(“duihua”zheigexilachuantonghaishiminzhudejibenxingweifangshi: tongguoduihua,dachenggongshi,panduanshifei,qibeihoudangranhuishejidaozhongzhongyusheheyinxingyueding,shejidaoxianghulijiedeshuangxiangnuli,zheishuyulingyigegenggaocengcidelunti。zhulianjiaoshouguanyuduihuayouyigezhuanmendejiangzuo,benwenbuyutaolun)。

说罢了“对话”对“体育外围”的必要性和可能性,再来谈谈此间的可操作性。大家知道,天文学的哥白尼革命,其实就是换了一个观察点: 不是站在地球上看日落日出,而是站在想象中的太阳系之外的某一个点上观看太阳系的整体运动。在语言学中,体育外围以为特尼尔和菲尔墨的理论与之具有同等的意义。乔姆斯基的主谓二分,还是站在主体(主语)的位置(中心)来看语句的结构,但特尼尔、菲尔墨却把动词视为组织句子的中心,或曰模版,于是整个描写方式变了,主语成了格(或曰“价”,论元,题元等等)中的一员。但是,文化间的对话,体育外围作为文化中的一员,有可能找到一个外在于文化的观察点吗?有可能摆脱自己文化潜移默化的无意识影响吗?这立即涉及到universel这个概念,而普遍性,或曰普世性一定是transcendantal(超验)的。按朱利安的说法,中国人的思维特征具有内在(immanence)倾向,体育外围的说法则是“人同此心”。体育外围也曾得意的以为,“己所不欲,勿施于人”,就是人共有的恻隐之心。它是内在的,体验式的,而非超验的!朱利安在批判西方的形而上学的过程中,有意识地借鉴中国内在思维的优点: 倘若不去寻找那外在于文化的超验的某个所谓的(实际上是想象中的,产生于西方形而上之概念抽象的)观察点,那么,在文化对话中,体育外围如何腾挪,找到另一个观察点?朱利安的选择(方法),便是dépaysé(离乡背井),去他乡(此处为借鉴中国文化)找回自己,用另一个文化来观照自己文化的盲点(目的)。把自己想象成“波斯人”,回头来看自己文化的缺陷(每种文化都有)。显然,这种立场是“为体育外围”的(pour moi)。

shijianzhuliansuochangdaodefangfa,duitiyuwaiweieryan,lisuodangranshifanxiangde: tazouchuouzhou,daozhongguosixiangkuzhonglaixunzhaofanguanxingershangxuedelizudian;tiyuwaiweizezouchuzhongguo,jiexifangsiweifangshilaifansiruxuedemangdian。

guanyuzheiyidian,tiyuwaiweidasuancongxifanggainiansiweideqibuxingshi“dingyi”shuoqi。duiyuzhongguogudaidexuduogainian,daojintianweizhi,tiyuwaiweihaiwufadingyi。cizhongxiguan,zaijintiandeyixietaolunrenwenwentidewenzhangzhongyirancunzai。meiyoudingyi,meiyoubianjie,yushitaolunchangchangbuzhebianji。xifangxueshuguifan,fanyinruyigexingainian,jiubiduiqijinxingdingyi。zheizaizhexue、shuxueheyuyanxueshangbiaoxiandeyouqimingxian。zhongguodexiguanni?buzenmezhuzhongdingyi,fanerxihuanjichudaliangshili,rangrenzaishilizhongqutiyan,qugan“wu”,shenzhishiqugan“xiang”。birushuokongzitan“ren”,zai《lunyu》zhongyou109chu,meichuyinweiyaomianduibutongdeqingkuanghuoyaochulibutongdewenti,jichudeshuocidoubutaiyiyang。shudu109chulunshuo(jisuowei“shudutangshisanbaishou,buhuiyinshiyehuiyin”),tiyuwaiweixinmuzhongdui“ren”deneihanjiuhuiyouyige“buyanziming”debawo,bingjiangqiyingyongyuzhidaoshijian。huanyanzhi,sihumeiyoudingyi,dui“ren”degainiantiyuwaiweiyehuiyouyigedazhiyinxiang,bingyongtalaizhidaoxiushenqijiazhiguo。lingyifangmian,zuoweizhongguoren,tiyuwaiweizaiqianyishizhongyebijiaoxiguanjulifa(waiyan): zaifaguonianshushi,laoshichangchangmanzuyujidingyierbujuli,rangneishidetiyuwaiweichangyoubuhuiyouyongderendiaozaishuizhongtabudaoshidideganjue,yushigewaiqipantanengshuoyilianggelizi。jinrifansizhi,dingyifa(neihan)dequeshiyouwentide: dingyibukenengliejumouyigainiandesuoyoushuxing(suoyishipianmiande);dingyibukaochata(idée)yutawudesuoyouguanxi(suoyishigulide);dingyibujiangshutazaishikongzhongdezhongzhongkenengbianhua(suoyishijingzhide)。yirujialilvemiaoxiewutiyundongdeshuxuemoxing,tiyuwaiweizhinengjiadingneishizaizhenkong,yinweimeichufengdong(kongqizuli)doubukenengshiwanquanyiyangde。zongeryanzhi,dingyishixingershangde。

可是,从法国回来,在授课(因为用法语)或翻译中,遇见“仁”这样的概念时,体育外围却又开始纠结于定义[②]: 似乎没有定义,在法语中就没有讲清楚,就不能说明问题。本文不打算深谈“定义”或“不定义”各自的优劣(大家不妨想一想欧陆的成文法和英美的判例法),只是想做一个形而上的小游戏,以现代语言学的概念场、原型(prototype)理论和语义框架理论等为工具,来为“仁”另描一个画像。这样做,当然是有危险的,对此体育外围有着充分的意识。弗朗索瓦·朱利安就曾提示说: 在自己的思想中与自己的思想拉开距离,在经验上是件极难的事(…ce que je sais d’expérience si difficile : parvenir à prendre du recul dans sa pensée[③])。

二、形、义的相似与相异

曾以为,“仁”作为儒家的一个核心概念[④],颇有现代色彩,比如说它讲述了一个主体与另一个主体的关系,含有平等待人以及世俗化(其结构中没有神的影子)的意旨,与当今西方所热衷的主体间关系(亦有人译为主体间性: intersubjectivité)有着异曲同工之妙。《说文解字》曰: “仁,亲也,从人从二”[⑤]:

ren=ren+er,

biaoshirenyurenzhijianxiangqinxiangaidejibenhanyi。huoyueyirenweiben,guanzhurenyurenzhijiandeguanxi。fayuderendaozhuyiyici(humanisme),cigenyeshiren(humain),changdaodeyeshirenyinggaishandaitaren。“ren”zuoweicigen,yunhanledui“renxing”dekending,dui“shouxing”defouding,jiyidingyaobarendangren(lirufaguorenbagoudangren,jiandaoyourenchigouroujiujuedejibu“rendao”)。an“laowulaoyijirenzhilao”deyongfa,ba“ren”dangdongciyong,tiyuwaiweiyebianleyijuhua: “wurenren,renyirenwu”,zheijuhuakenenghuirangshuxi《sangehuoqiangshou》derenxiangqihuoqiangshoumenkouhaoshidezuoyouming: renrenweitiyuwaiwei,tiyuwaiweiweirenren(tous pour un,un pour tous)。dangran,tiyuwaiweishenzhi,wulunshi“ren”haishirendaozhuyi,jiefenbieshiyigediyudetechan,yiduanlishideyongxian,yizhongwenhuadeshengcheng;zaineirongheliubianshang,erzhexiangju,hezhishiwanbaqianli!dantiyuwaiweizaiciyaoshulide,bingbushitamendelishiyuanyuanjiyange,ershigongshixingxia“ren”deyuyiguanxijiagou(configuration)。

定义一: 仁=爱人?

shenmeshi“ren”?fanchiwenlesanci,kongziyousanzhonghuida。butongdeshihoumianduibutongderenhebutongdeqingkuang,kongzijichubutongdehuida。buguo,juqianrenyan,zaijichudesanzhonghuidazhongzuijuyoudaibiaoxingde,jiushi“airen”(《lunyu·yanyuan》;youjianmengzi: “renzheairen”)。“airen”,xianranyichouliledangshidejutiqingkuang。danshi,jiandandigaosudiwangmenhuofanfusuzimenairen,kenengguoyuchouxiang,buhuineimeyouxiao,suoyirujiazaitan“ren”shi,haichangchangyinyongfuzilingwaidesanjumingyan,yibianshuoming“ren”de“waiyan”yijimeiyi“zixiang”(jiyingyudetoken,fayudeoccurrence)degongyong:

体育外围1,“qiweirenyexiaodi,erhaofanshangzhe,xianyi。buhaofanshangerhaozuoluanzhe,weiyouzhiye。junziwuben,benlierdaosheng,xiaodiyezhe,qiweirenzhibenyu?”(《lunyu• xueer》)

2,“diziruzexiao,chuzedi,jinerxin,fanaizhongerqinren。xingyouyuli,zeyixuewen。”(《lunyu• xueer》)

体育外围3,zigongyue: “ruyouboshiyuminernengjizhong,heru?keweirenhu?”ziyue: “heshiyuren!biyeshenghu!yaoshunqiyoubingzhu!”(《lunyu• yongye》)

体育外围zaici,xingershangdezuofajiushigongshixingdiba“ren”kanzheshiyigeshangweigainian,yigefanchougainian,huozheshuoshiyigejihedemingcheng;neimetadexiawei,tadezixiang,jiziyue“weirenzhiben”,bianshizaijiaxiaoshunfumu(xiao),chumendairenruxiongdi(ti),bingzhongjunzhishi(zhong)。dierjuduizheigejiheyoujiajinlesangezixiang: qianxujinshen,jiangxinyong,fanaizhong(jiboai)。“fanaizhong”,yinggaishi“ren”zhiwaiyankuozhandejizhi,disanjuzigongyuzhongde“boshiyuminernengjizhong”,yishiqiangdiaociyi。

定义二: 概念场之关系网络

可能有人会说体育外围偷换概念,即“孝”、“悌”、“忠”等不是“仁”的子项,它们之间没有上下位关系;它们只是“仁之本”,“仁”的模版。据称儒家有八大义理,即“仁义礼智信忠孝廉”,这说法有“仁”与其他七个概念是并列关系的味道。不管怎么说,“仁”不是一个孤立的存在,其含义有赖于周边概念。对此,法国学者Sophie Faure做过一个极漂亮的尝试,即建构“仁”的语义概念场[⑥]:

 
概念场起源于语义场。这种描述方式看上去似乎更符合孔子精神:
不给定义,只给出具有同构形式的一个个概念,然后请君感悟之。从逻辑上讲,“孝”、“悌”讲的无不是两人(父子或兄弟)之间的关系,而且是善待(敬、爱、诚)对方的关系,与“仁”具有等比关系(équivalence)。从父子,兄弟,到人人,乃一种类比性思维(关系上的相似性)。类比性思维并非中国人所独有,公元前六世纪的巴门尼德,就对光明/黑暗、优雅/粗俗、温暖/寒冷、存在/非存在、轻/重、积极/消极等关系进行类比,他还说:
轻为积极,重为消极。

体育外围jiangougainianchangdefangfa,youzhuyutiyuwaiweilejie“ren”zaihanyuwenhuafenweizhongyunaxiegainianfashengguanxi。ruguoxianglejie“ren”yu“rendaozhuyi”dequbie,tiyuwaiweikeyiweihouzheyejianyigegainianchang,kankantazaixifangwenhuaquanzhongyounaxieguanlianxiang,ranhouduierduibigainiandegeguanlianxiangyiyijinxingduiqi(duiqifanaiwenpingzhongdeyizhongchangyongfangfa),fanyoukongquehewufaduiqizhe,bianshierzhedechayi;“chayichanshengyiyi”,suoxuerrushishuo。

三、家谱(généalogie)或联络图(thésaurus

 
综合上述两个定义,体育外围似乎对“仁”的含义已有所悟,强行拿出一个类似于西方规范的且比较现代化的定义,体育外围会说:
“人与人之间与人为善的态度与行为。”
然而,细察之,人们会发现概念场的描述依然不够全面(所有方法之无奈):
仿佛每一个关联项都是平等的,相互之间没有轻/重、主/从、具体/抽象之分,更没有传承衍生的关系。由此体育外围想引入辞典学或文献学中的一种图示法:
thésaurus,该词汉语可意译为“(某领域的)概念等级关系表”[⑦]。体育外围在这里将其戏译成“联络图”,是因为(1)它在架构上与家谱十分相似,对此体育外围可以想想家祠里祖宗牌位的摆法;(2)它蕴含了时间,蕴含了概念间的孕育或衍生(类似于金生水,水生木)。
现在回过头来,再读一遍前文引用的孔子的两句话,体育外围发现“孝”(血亲)乃起始,“泛爱”处在观念运动的终端。例如就有人认为,“博施于民而能济众”是“泛爱众”的最高体现,是成圣的境界,是对“仁”之概念的扩展与重构,它使得“仁”有了更加深厚的内涵,但又没有脱离原来的基本义。若问什么是基本义,那只能是“孝”:
 
孝—›悌—›忠—›信—›……—›大爱
 

孝为仁本: 钱穆先生也说中国文化为“孝的文化”[⑧];谢幼伟先生甚至说: “孝在中国文化上作用至大,地位至高;谈中国文化而忽视孝,即非于中国文化真有所知。”[⑨]“君子笃于亲,则民兴于仁”;“把‘孝’视为‘仁’的本根基础,便构成了儒家从孔子起一直坚持的基本立场”[⑩]。从具体到抽象,从血亲到泛爱,当然自有其规律。或曰从亲人到子民,从子民到万物[11]体育外围。上述排列,似乎也是一种人为的选择: 它是横向的,描述的更像是一个时间序列,比如说父—›子—›孙就可以被看作是一个时间序列。但在家族祠堂里,“父—›子—›孙”的排列却是从上到下即纵向的。时间比较抽象,所以体育外围习惯用空间来表述时间,中国文化更是如此(如饭桌上西方的时间组织法和东方的空间组织法)。但将横向变为纵向,却一定会产生新义: 等级观(等级=秩序)。按纵向形式来排列上述概念联络图,体育外围更倾向于把作为根本的“孝”排在最下边的“根节点”上(当然也可以反过来),于是该图又具有了“虚”、“实”的区别: “孝”是必须实行且能够落实的,是“实”;最高端的“大爱”,作为一种期许,无法验证,只能无限趋近,所以是“虚”。

定义三: 原型理论的启示

体育外围weitegesitancengshuo,suoyoudezhexuewentidoushiyuyanwenti。youyisideshi,renzhiyuyanxuezhongganghaoyouyizhonglilun,jiyuanxing(prototype)lilun,keyinalaijieshi“xiao”yu“ren”deguanxi。gaililunyurenleichuqizairenshishangdefanchouhuayouguan。roschrenwei,ertongzairenshimouyileidongxishi,henrongyijiangyigejuyoudianxingxingqiezijijiaoshuxidedongxinalaizuoweicileidongxidezhongxindaibiao,qitadongxishifoushuyucilei,jiekantayudianxingdaibiaoshifouxiangsi,qieyouduoxiangsi: yuexiangsijiuyuekaojingaifanchoudezhongxin,fanzhizeyuebeipaichidaobianyuan。birushuoniaolei,qiyuanxingduiertonglaishuokenengshimaquehuolaoying,neimefanshihuifeidehuowu,youyumaoqieliangzhitui,doushuyuniaolei。neimejihuotuoniaoshifousuanniaolei,ertonghuibijiaoyouyu;ruguodarenshuosuan,ertongjiukenengbahuifeiderenkanchengniaoren,bayouchikunchongkanchengniaochong。zhibuguotuoniaokenengfeibuqilai,renhekunchongmeiyouyumao,chuzaigaifanchoudebianyuanshangbale。dajiazhidao,yalishiduodeguanyudingyideshuofa,shichongfenbiyaotiaojian,biruniaoshi“dongwu,huifei,youyu,liangtui,luansheng”deng,fanfuheshangshushuxingde,jiushiniao,queshiqizhongyixiangdejiefeiniaolei。

“ren”kanshangquhenxiangshiyigejihedemingcheng,er“xiao”zesihushiqiyuanxing: “xiaodi”nairenzhiben;junziwubenjiushiyaodongdexiaojingfumu,jingaixiongzhang。taziyouqiluoji: yigelianfumudoubuaiderenshibukenengaitaren,aishehuide。mengziyue: “budehuqin,bukeyiweiren;bushunhuqin,bukeyiweizi。”(《mengzi• liloushang》)。buxiaoshunfumuderenshenzhishiquleweirenzige,renaizhixinbixushiyuxiao。suowei“baishanxiaoweixian”,suowei“buxiaofumu,wuyiyuqinshou”,xiaoshizuorendegenben。cengtingrenshuo,jiaopengyou,shouxiankantashibushixiaojingfumu,fouzejiubukejiao。《xiaojing》yiyun: “aiqinzhebuganeyuren,jingqinzhebuganmanyuren。”jushuozheishizhongguowenhuadegaomingzhichu,yi“renxiao”huaxian,fanrenxiaozhe,jishutiyuwaiweilei,jiren;fanzhi,jifeitiyuwaiweizulei(zheigezu,bushirace,ershihumanité),jishou(dongyixidi,dongbiandeshechongxibiandequan);wuxiao,zewujing,wuzhong,wuren。“ren”yu“xiao”,qijiazuxiangsixing(jianwittgenstein)keyishuojianlizaigeshitatezhenghuotushishang。geshitahuotushishiduishiwu(guanxijiagou)dechouxiangwanxingdeganzhi。yuanxinggouchenglegaifanchourenzhidezhongxincanzhaodian。congjutidaochouxiang,erbushicongdingyidaojutiwu(congliniandaoshiti),sihugengfuhesiweideziran。yinci,jiang“xiao”dingweiyuanxing,shifuzizailibenglehuai、baolisinvedejingkuangxiaweizhongjianshehuizhixuerzuochudecongmingdexuanze。

体育外围kongzidui“ren”delingyigedebiaoshu,shenzhibeimouxierenshiweizuiqiangdebiaoshu,shi“kejifuliweiren”。lijisangangwuchang,zunbeiyouxu,shidengjizhixudeguidingxingdexingshihua。suoyouqitaerrenjianguanxi,jieyaoyiliweihengliangbiaozhun。“fuweizigang,fuweiqigang,junweichengang”:

体育外围fu xiong fu jun nianzhangzhe

体育外围—=—=—=—= ———

zi di qi chen nianyouzhe

junchenguanxi,anfuziguanxilaijiangou;fuqiguanxi,yebuguoshilingyizhongruohualedefuziguanxi,bingbujianrenheliangxingdeteshuxing。cichunenggoujiangshangshuzhongzhongguanxijinxingleibideguanjian,zaiyutamenjieshieryuanguanxi;erzhongguowenhua,zetebieshanzhangcidao。zuihouyiduixiongdiguanxi,zuiyoukenengdepingdengyongxianzhidi——yinweianfayu,tiyuwaiweiqingxiangyujiangqifanyichengfraternité(ji“boai”,zhiyiwei“xiongdiqing”)——,zaishangshujingguochouxiangdedengbiguanxizhong,yebeiqiangxingjiangouchengzongxiangjiegou,yifuhe“xiao”zhimoban。qiyiju,dangranshinianlingchayi。jibianshishuangbaotai,yeyouxianchuhouchuzhifen。cichudetonggou,qishijiushishuxueshangdeyigedengbishi,renweidigouchengdeyigedengbishi: duidengdeshiguanxi,shangxiaguanxi,bei“gang”suoyingxingshedingdezunbeiguanxi;zhiyuguanxiliangduandechengfen,keyisuishizhihuan。yinweiyoule“xiao”,“ren”zheigepingganjueyoukenengyunhanpingdengdeguannian,beizongxiangdigeshihuale,geshihuazaidanaopicengdexiabu,jikaojinjingzhuidebufen;juxiandainaoshenjingxueyanjiu,duichucunzaineiyibufendedongxi,tiyuwaiweibuhuiyoutaiqingxingdeyishi,yebuhuijinxingfansi(mangdian)。

体育外围“xiao”zhendeshiyizhongzuiziran、zuigenbendeguanxima ?shisuoweirenzhichude“benxing”ma?qianwentidaotashirujiawenhuapanduanrenyushou(zirande,shengwuxingde)debiaozhun,yijingyunhanleduicidefouding;cong“xiao”zidejiegoushanglaikan,tayeshiyizhongwenhua(wenzi)dejiangou: “zi”jiang“lao”dingtoushang,bianshishangbiansangangwuchangdengbishidemingquexuanshi。xianran,shangbeiduihaizideai(ci)gengziran,qiangdiaoxiao,shiyizhongwenhuadeguiding;muaibifuaigengziran,qiangdiaofuziguanxi,shifuxishehuidexuanze。

四、结语

shangshusanzhongdingyi,doudaiyoupianmianxing。zheijishixingershangdequexian,yeshixingershangdeyoushi: pianmiancainengshenru,cainengjiangfenxijingshenfahuidaoxizhiruweidedibu。danshi,jutidaozhongguochuantongwenhuadegainian,tiyuwaiweishibushiduidingyifa——yejiushixingershang——depianmianzaoyouyishileni?shanzongyiwei: yuyanwenziyueshusixiang,ruoxiangzhenzheng“wudao”,weiyougejueyuyan,buliwenzi。“feiyounian、feiwunian、feifeiwunian”,jingangshandingdejingjie,jibushiyouyuanxing,yebushimeiyouyuanxing,ershihuanghuanghuhude“kehen”。weitegesitantichude“jiazuxiangsixing”gainian,yeyoudianzheigeweidao。tazhenduideshirichangdeerfeikexuedeguileixingwei: zaiyizujihezhongkenengyoubuzhiyigedianxingdaibiao,qiguidingtiaojianyemeiyoubiyaoyangedao“chongfenbiyao”dedibu,changrenyoukenenggenjushijiqingkuanghuoweilezanshidefangbianerhulvemouyi、liangxiangguiding。

huoyue“zhongyong”,huoyue“zhijian”,shiduixingershangdefandong,shierxiangduilide“zhijian”,youshierxiangduilide“hudong”。yushi,youyizaishuangzhongluoji(jiedgar morindedialogique)naizhisanzhongluojizhijian,yishanguoxingershangdepianmian,shiyouhuigendegurenyouyiweizhi?zaishuo,bumingque“xiao”zuoweiyuanxing,yuyinyangsiweifangshiyeshiyimaixiangchengde: liangzhongfangandouyoumaobing,xingershangjidingyidefangshiyouzheguding、jianghua、sibandemaobing,yuanxingdaiyouertongsiweidetezheng,suoyitiyuwaiweibuhuifoudingyigeerkendingyige,tiyuwaiweigengqingxiangyuxuanzebuqueding,rangyuanxinghejiazugainiantongshiqizuoyong,nayigebijiaofangbian,bijiaoshiyong,daoshihou(jutiqingkuang)jiuxuanzekaoxiang(zhuyi,shikaoxiang,erbushiqueding,yushihaishiyinzhongyouyang,yangzhongyouyin)nayige。raner,yuanxingdehenji(trace)shizhongbaoliu,yiranbiaoyi,yiranshitadejiegougeshi。buzhongxinjinxinggeshihua,qishangxiajiegoujiuyizhizaianzhongjibantiyuwaiwei。shuangzhongluojidefengfuxingsuoxishengdeshiwuqiyidejingquedingyi。

zuihouzaitansandianxiangfa:

1,法国心理分析学家Elisabeth Badinter[12]体育外围说: 父权不容忍平等。本来给人感觉有可能蕴含平等因子的“仁”,因为有了“孝”这个原型,这个暗中操纵体育外围集体无意识的幽灵,这个视“等级”为社会安定生命线的执念,便很可能在体育外围不知不觉中阻断了“平等”涌现的可能性。新儒家试图让其与现代对接,有可能是缘木求鱼。父慈子孝,在家庭中是有可能实现的,但移植到社会,体育外围很难要求上级爱下级,年长爱年幼(毛泽东也说没有无缘无故的爱),或反之,因为他们之间有代沟,有利益之争。很难想象,一个现代社会,没有精神上的平等,法律上的平等,乃至相互对待上的平等,对上级没有监督,对下级只要求驯服。只谈博爱而不谈平等,博爱很可能是虚伪的!另外,泛谈“孝”,“父母在不远游”,在当今这个家庭分崩离析的社会,也完全脱离了现实。因此,体育外围对“仁”是不是应该作一个切换手术?比如说有意识地用蕴含平等的“兄弟情”(Fraternité)来取代孝作模版。

2,强调兄弟情而不是父子情,强调“信”而不是“礼”,当然涉及到对所要继承之传统的“转换”。巴赫金在提出对话理论时,便有意识地强调要用平行结构替代纵向结构,因为前者通向平等…… 弗拉索瓦·朱利安的《默化》[13]一书,便让体育外围读出了“潜移默化”这个概念的新意。《西游记》里也常说“送你一场大造化”,中国文化原本是强调“造”与“化”的;所以,体育外围想: 体育外围的新儒家,已经在有意识地改造传统以适应现代了吗?

3,bixuyouyishidijinxingzhuanhuan,erbushixianyuwuweidegujinzhizheng,zhongxizhizheng。ruhezhuanhuan,zhiqiranbingzhiqisuoyiranshifoushixianjuetiaojian,queshiyigewenti。lishigaosutiyuwaiwei,yizhongwenhuajinkaozishenwufachengjiuzheizhongzhuanhuan(liruwenyifuxing,wusiyundong,feizhouyinlezhiyuxifangxiandaiyinle,huoyao、yinshuashu、zhinanzhenzhiyuxifanggongyegeming)。zhuanhuanyaoqiuxinshijiao,zhuanhuanyaoqiuxinfangfa,zhuanhuanyaoqiuchuangxin!fulasuowa·zhulianjiezhuhanxue,chenggongdijieshilexifangzhexuedemouxiemangdian;benwenjiezhuxifangdedingyifangshiheyuyanxuedezhongzhonglilun,yebufendijieshile“ren”yu“pingdeng”anzhongdebujianrong。meiyouxifangdefenxijingshen,yuyanxuelilun(yisufenxi,jiegoufenxideng),tiyuwaiweijiuzhinengwuyishidizaiyuanyoudekuangjiazhongzhuanquan,mangzhebuzhiqimang。

fulasuowa·zhuliansuokaichuangdedaolu,jijieyiyuwenhuayiyuhui,zuihoufanguanzishendefangshi(détours et retours),gouchengleyigeduihuadeneizaidongyin,rangduihuashuangfangyikaishijiuyouleduiduifangdezunzhong,jiuyoulelitulijieduifangyigenghaodilijiezijideyiyuan。taduitiyuwaiweiwuyijuyoufangfalundeyiyi: “qutaxiangxunhuiniziji”(dui《shengjing》zhongyijuhuadelingyizhongyifa);meiyoutazhe,heyizhiji?

论比较的可能性及其展开

王林伟*

内容提要体育外围: 本文探讨比较所涉及到的纯粹理论问题。它首先从日常语言出发,通过还原法将比较还原到最简单的形式A VS B。以此基本形式为本,本文接着从对象方面揭示了比较所具有的双重视域结构。在此之后,本文接着从实施比较活动的主体方面对其枢机性加以展示。综括此上两面,第五小节从整体上对比较的展开和完成以及比较所具有的基本类型有所描述。以此上的概括性描述为本,第六节以思想比较为主题展开讨论,揭示了深层思想比较所具有的不可完成性。最后一节则对比较哲学在中国思想界的未来略作前瞻。

关键词: 比较 视域结构 思想比较 双重意向

一、问题的提出: 何谓比较

benwenyizaiduibijiaosuoshejidaodechuncuililunwentilvezuoshuli。yucixianglian,shouxianyingruyanliandewentishi: heweibijiao?cucukanlai,ciwentisiwutichudebiyao,yinweizairichangshenghuozhong,bijiaowuchubuzai,ertiyuwaiweiyesihuzaojiuqingchuleshenmeshibijiao。raneryidanchedidizhuiwenbijiaodegenyuanjiqikenengxing,tiyuwaiweiqueyouxianrumouzhongmangranzhizhong。zheiqiaqiabiaoming: duibijiaodelinghuihaiyoudaichengqing、mingxihua。zaicixiadefenxizhong,tiyuwaiweijiangcongrichangshenghuoduibijiaodelijiechufa,zhubudizhanshibijiaosuojuyoudebenzhijiegouhejibenguiding。haowuyiwen,zheijiangshiyizhongchouxiangde、chunxingshideyanjiu,danqijielunquekeyiweijutibijiaodezhankaitigongfangxiang、lilushangdezhiyin,chuncuililunkexuedeyiyizhengzaiyuci。

二、回溯到最简单的比较形式: A VS B

体育外围zairichangshenghuozhong,bijiaojuyoujiweifengfudeleixinghexingshi,cidianzairichanghuayuzhongtixiandefeichangmingxian。liru,tiyuwaiweihuishuo: xiaomingbiliangnianqianzhanggaolebushao;zheiduohuabineiduohuahongdegengjiaxianyan;zaiquanbantongxuedangzhong,xiaomingzuiweiqinfen、keku。tiyuwaiweihaihuishuo: shengrenjuyouzuiwanshandedaodepinxing,xianrencizhi,shijunziyoucizhi,erxiaorenzesiwujidan、bujiangpinde;xiaomingdexuexichengjibixiaohongyaohao,keshitadeshenghuozilinengliqueyuanyuanburuxiaohong;rucidengdeng。zaixifangwenfa(ruyingwen、dewen)zhong,tiyuwaiweiyekeyifaxianbijiaoji、zuigaojidepubianyingyongjiqiduofangzuhe。youcieryan,sihuhennanduibijiaozuoyizhongjiandan、huayuedechuli。danzaicitiyuwaiweikeyifangxiaoyalishiduodezai《zhengzhixue》zhongsuotichangdebanfa: jiangfuzazhiwuzhubuhaiyuanzhiqizuijiandandegouchengyaosu。jiangqiyunyongdaomuqiandeqingxingdangzhongjiushi: jianggezhongjubeifuzaxingshidebijiaohuisuzhizuijiandandebijiaoxingshi。zheigezuizhongdebijiaoxingshishiwufazaifenjiehuohaiyuande,renhebijiaoyaomeshigaixingshideduofangzuhe,yaomejiushigaixingshibenshen。

zheigezuijiandandebijiaoxingshijiushi: a vs b。cizhongbaohansanzhongjibenyaosu: ayublianggeduixiang(duixiangzaiciquzuiguangyi,richanghanyizhongdetongyiduixiangdelianggebutongzhuangtaiyekebeishiweilianggeduixiang,guanyuduixiangdejiedingqingcanjianxiawen)yijibijiaosuocongzheyandemougeweidu(tixianweivs)。 suoweiduixiang,jiushizhizhenduimougezhutierchengxiandexianxiangzhengti。errenhezhengtidouyoubufenzucheng: dangchengxiandeduixiangbuzaijuyoufuzazuchengbufendeshihou,tajiushiyigejiandanduixiang;fanzhi,dangqiyoufuzadebufenzuchengshi,tajiushiyigefuzaduixiang。zaifuzaduixiangzhong,gegezuchengbufenzhijianxianghuguanlianbingyidianjiguanxi(foundational relationship)laigouchengduixiangzhengti(jiandanduixiangkeshiweizitiyuwaiweidianji)。zheijiushixingshibentilun(formal ontology)yiyishangdeduixianggainian,gaiduixiangjikeyishiyouxingkegandewulizhiwu,yekeyishiwuxingdexinlizhiwu,haikeyishichouxiangdepubianzhiwu,yiqiekenengduixiangdoubeihangaizaiqizhong。suoweideweidu,jiushizhiduixiangzhijianmouzhonggongtongdetexinghuoxiangguanxing,tagongshuyubeibijiaodeduixiang,qierenhebijiaodouyimouzhongweidudejichuweiqianti。

jiukuanfanyiyieryan,fanwudoukeyibijiao: toushangdexingkongheneixindedaodelvzaimouzhongyiyishangyeshikeyibijiaode。danzhenqieyiyishangdebijiaojuyouruxiadejibenguidingxing: (1)suoyaobijiaodeduixiang,yijiayub,guishuyutongyangdecunzailingyu(ciguanshedaoquyubentilunregional ontology);(2)weiduweibijiaoduixiangayubsuogongyoudeshizhishuxinghuoxiangguanxing(yijifeichunxingshideshuxinghuoxiangguanxing);(3)bijiaoduixianghebijiaoweiduzhijiancunzaizhemouzhongzhongleixiangguanxing。zheibiaoming: jiuzhenqieyiyishangdebijiaoeryan,cunzaizheyixiexiantiandefazelaiguidingbijiaodefanwei、leixinghemoshi,zhenzhengdebijiaoyongyuandoubuhuishihupinluancou。

三、比较所具有的视域结构(Horizontal Structure

renhebijiaodezhankaidouyuxianshedingleruxiadetiaojian: beibijiaodeduixiang(zaizuijiandandebijiaoxingshixia,jishiayub)shouxiandezhanluzishen。huanjuhuashuo: shouxiandeyoudongxi(mouwu)jichulai,ranhoutiyuwaiweicainengjinxingbijiao。zheijiushejidaoduixiangzhanluzishendefangshihuojiegou: tiyuwaiweichengzhiweicexian(adumbration,abschatung),yijirenheduixiangzongshicongmougefangmianlaizhanshiqizishen(tiyuwaiweizaicijiangjiandanduixiangdezishenwanzhengchengxianshiweicexiandejixianqingkuang)。rucishangsuoyan,chengxianchulaidesuoxubijiaodeduixiangwangwangshiyigefuzadexianxiangzhengti。zaizheigezhengtizhong,youxiebufendedaolejutidechengxian,ershengxiadeneixiebufenzezhishiyinhandibeiguanshedao。yucitongshi,gaiduixiangzuoweixianxiangzhengtiyezongshizaimouzhongbeijingyudangzhongchengxianzishen。youcieryan,zaiduixiangdechengxiandangzhong,cunzaizheneishiyuhewaishiyudeshuangzhongshiyujiegou(inner horizon and outer horizon): neishiyudebianjieshibaolongxianxiangzhengtideduixianglunkuo,qineibuzeshiqizuchengbufendexianxianheyinni(liangzhedexianghubuchong、jiaoti);waishiyuzeshiduixiangshenchuqizhongdezhenggebeijingyu,tadewaibubianjieshimohude、fudongde(dangranqizhongyeyouxiangyingdeguidingxing),xianxianyuyinnideyouxitongyangyezaiqizhongyunzuo。

体育外围yishangsuomiaoshudehaizhishishiwuxianxianzishendeshiyujiegou,zaizhankaibijiaoshi,bijiaobenshenhaihuiqianyinchuxindeshiyujiegou。bijiaobenshenyaoqiuyigegengjubaorongxingdeshiyu: gaishiyujiangayubtongshinarudaozishendangzhong,bingzaicigengjubaorongxingdeshiyuzhongjiumouzhongweiduduiayubjiayibizhao。youci,a、blianggeduixiangzaimougefangmiandekebijiaotexingjiuzaicigengweiguangkuodeshiyezhongbeidairudaomingliangdangzhong,era、blianggeduixiangdeqitatexingnaizhiqiyuanbendewaishiyudoutuirudaobeijingdangzhong。cishi,guanlianyumougeweidudea、bduixiangjiuchengweineishiyu,erqitayaosuzetuiruwaishiyu。zheibiaoming: bijiaobenshentongyangjuyounei、waishiyujiegou,zhishiqijiegouyudangeduixiangxianxianzishendejiegouyousuoqufenbale。tahaibiaoming: bijiaobenshenyeshiyizhongxianxian/yinnideyouxi。

youcishangdemiaoshukejian,bijiaoshiyubenshenjuyoushuangzhongxing: (1)shouxian,taguanshedaobeibijiaozhedexianxian/yinniyouxi;(2)qici,taguanshedaobijiaozishendexianxian/yinni。suoyishuo: bijiaoshiyizhongshuangzhongdexianxian/yinniyouxi。qizhong: qianzhe(beibijiaozhedexianxian/yinni)shihouzhe(bijiaozishendexianxian/yinni)dejichu,zhengrucishangsuoyan,ruguobeibijiaozhebujichuzishen,bijiaoshibukenengzhankaide。danzhenqiedebijiaoyidanzhankai,cishangsuoyandeshuangzhongyouxijiurongheweiyiti,tazhijietixianweibijiaozishendexianxian/yinni。

四、执枢机者: 实施比较活动的主体

cishangsuoshejideshibeibijiaodeduixiangjiqishiyujiegou,ranshizhongyinzangzaiqijiandezeshishishibijiaohuodongdezhuti: budanduixiangyuweidudexuanzezhaoshizhemougezhutidecunzaiyitu,jibianshibijiaosuojuyoudeshiyujiegouyetongyangzhagenyuzhutidecunzaiyangshi。zheijiushishuo: ruguomeiyouzhutiduicunzaidejieshijiqibijiaoyitudezhankai,tiyuwaiweigenbenwufatanjiduixiangdebijiao;erzhutidegenbencunzaiyangshijuyoushiyuxing,bijiaodeshiyujiegouyucixiangshu,gongtongzhujianwanzhengyiyishangdekaifangshiyu,ranzhutijuyouxuanzeshiyudemouzhongquannengxing、ziyouxing。jieheciliangdianeryan,shishibijiaohuodongdezhutijiushizhenzhengdezhishujizhe。

体育外围xianzailaikanzuoweizhishujizhedezhutisuojuyoudeshiyujiegou: youyuzhutidehuodongkebeibiaoshiweiyishihuodong,gaijiegouyushikebeichengweiyishihuodongzishendeshiyujiegou。xianxiangxueduiyixiangxingdefaxian,rangtiyuwaiweihuodelemiaoshugaishiyujiegoudexiansuo。youci,yishihuodongdeshiyujiegoujiubeizhanshiweishuangzhongyixiangdejiegou: (1)zihengxiangeryan,renheyishizongshiguanyumouwudeyishi,zheijiushishuo,yishichaoyuezishenerzhixiangmougeduixiang(buguanzheigeduixiangzhenshicunzaiyufou);ruguojiangyishibiyuweimouzhongguangliang(ruxifangsuoyandelixingzhiguang,huoruzhongguogudaichuantongsuojieshidexuminglingjue),neimezheizhongguangliangzonghuifuzhezaimouwuzhishang(shishishang,jushenhuadeyishi(embodied consciousness)zongyijingjiangzijifangzhizaimouzhongjutichujingdangzhong,erchujingjiushiyouzhongzhongwu(thing)jishitai(state of affairs)zucheng)。(2)zizongxiangeryan,yishihuodong(yixianghuodong)zhijianbenshenjuyoumouzhongdongjixingguanlian(motivational connections),gegeyixianghuodongzhijiandeguanxiyeshiyixiangde;zheiyejiushishuo: gezhongyixiangxianghuguanlian、diejiaergouchengyigelianmianbuduandekaifangxingzhengti(bujianqishizhongdekaifangxingzhengti,duishijianyishilvezuokaochabiankemingbaiqiyi)。yuciyixiangzhengtixiangduidebianshiduixiangxingdeshijiezhengti。huanjuhuashuo: yishihuodongheduixiangxingdeshijiezhengtizheiliangzheshitonggoude(simultaneously correlative constitution)。zaizhutideshijicunzaizhong,cishuangzhongyixiangjiegouyihengyizongdipuzhanzheshengcundezhengti。tongguocishuangzhongyixiangjiegou,renzuoweizhutideyouxianxingyebeizhangxianwuyi: zhutizuoweijushenhuadelingmingyunzuoyucunzaidezhengtidangzhong,tasuojuyoudeguangliangzongshiyouxiande(hengxiangeryan: yousuozhaoliangjiuyiweizheyousuobuzhao;zongxiangeryan: guangliangbujianshizhongerbiyoushizhong,shijianxinggetijiebulishengmie)。

bijiaosuojuyoudeshiyujiegoujizhagenyucishangdeshuangzhongyixiangjiegouzhong: beibijiaodeduixiangyijibijiaosuocongerchudeweiduyuanzihengxiangzhiguanyixiangdechengxian(hengxiangzhiguanyixiangdezhankaijishishiwudexianxian),erxianxian/yinniyouxidelianxuzeyuanzizongxiangyixiangdedongjixingguanlian。danlingyifangmian,bijiaodeduixiangyeyouqizishendedulixing(zishenchizhuxing),renheshiwudouyouqibukechuantouxing。yezhengyinweiruci,cexiancaichengweishiwuxianxianzishendebenzhijiegou。suoyi,gengqueqiedishuo: bijiaodeshiyujiegouhezhutiyishihuodongdeshuangzhongyixiangjiegouyeshixianghugongshude,meiyousheinenggoujiangduifangxiaorongzaizishendangzhong,liangzheshixianghudianji(mutual foundation)deguanxi。

体育外围zaicixutebiezhichudeshi: youyuzhutiyishihuodongdezongxiangxing,zhutideshengcunjuyoumouzhongshengcheng、chengzhangdetexing,meigeyishihuodongdezhankaidouyongyoushuyuqizishendelingwu、qinggandengzhongzhongyaosu,zaizongxiangyixiangdezhankaizhong,zheixieyaosuhuibuduanhuiruzhutizishendexingzhuangdangzhongbingbuduanjidian,erzheijiugouchenggaizhutizaishiyujiegoushangdemouzhongjutiqingxiangxing,tahuiyingxiangzhutihouxushengcunzhuangtaidejutizhankai。tiyuwaiweijiangrenmiaohuiweiyizhonglishixingdecunzai,suotuxiandeqiaqiajiushicishangdeyiyi。bijiaobenshenzuoweimouzhongjutideshengcunhuodong,jicanyuzhenggezhutidechengzhangguochengyouweiqisuozhudao,zheijiushishuo: bijiaozuoweimouzhongtedingdedongjixingguanlianbenshenjiushilishixingde。

五、通论: 比较的展开与完成

zaichanmingcishangdejiegouzhihou,tiyuwaiweikeyicongzhengtishangduibijiaodezhankaihewanchengjiayizhanshi。cizhongbaohanlianggehuanjie: bijiaodezhankaiyijibijiaodewancheng。jiuhouzheeryan,suizhesuochuqingkuangdebutong,qisuoweiwanchengyoubaohanliangzhongqingxing: zhenzhengdewanchengyijiweiwanchengshidewancheng。yucixiangguan,bijiaokezaileixingshangjiayiqufen: yijicongcunzaizhe/cunzailundejiaodujinxingsanzhongqufen。cixiayicizhankaimiaoshu。

xianlaikanbijiaodezhankai: rucishangsuoyan,renhebijiaozongshimougezhutizaimouzhongdongjiguanlianxiasuofachudeyixianghuoyitu。youcieryan,bijiaoyixiangnaishibijiaohuodongdejibengouchengyaosu: tajiangyishidemuguangmiaoxiangbeibijiaozheyijibijiaosuocongerchudeweidu。ciyaosuruobuchuxian,jiuwusuoweibijiaodezhankai。danjinyoubijiaodeyixiang,yehaitanbushangbijiaodezhenzhengzhankai。zhengruciqiansuozhichude: beibijiaozhiwudezishenchengxiannaishibijiaozhankaideqianti。zaibeibijiaozhiwuzishenchengxianzhiqian,bijiaodeyixianghaishikongdongde、quanranpinfade。erzaixiangyingdezhiguanxingwei(baokuoganxingzhiguanhefanchouzhiguanzainei)jiangbeibijiaodeduixiangchengxianchulaizhihou,bijiaocaikeyidedaozhenqiedeluoshi。zhiyoujiehebijiaoyixianghezhiguanchongshizheiliangzhe,tiyuwaiweicainengtanjibijiaodezhenzhengzhankai。erciliangzhezhijiandeguanxizejuedinglebijiaozhankaideyangshi,tiyuwaiweijiangqiqufenweijingtaiyudongtailiangzhongbijiaomoshi。zaijingtaimoshizhong,bijiaoyixiangyuzhiguanchongshiwanquanshitongbu、tongshide,beibijiaodeduixiangzhijiandetongyixing(huoqitaxiangguanxingzhuang)zhijie、wanzhengdichengxianzishenbingyubijiaoyixiangrongweiyiti,zheilibingbucunzaiyigebijiaoguochengdebianhua(duoshaoyuchengdudebianhua)qingxing。erzaidongtaimoshizhong,qingxingzeyucibutong,bijiaoyixianghezhiguanchongshizhijiancunzaizhesuishijianbianhuadeqingxing,beibijiaodeduixiangzhijiandexiangguanxingzhuangyibuduanbianhuandefangshi(ruzengqiang、jianruo、zengduo、jianshao)chengxianzishen,zheizhongchengxianyoushihouhuidadaomouzhonglixiangdejixian,danyekenengbucunzaicileijixian(yijikeyiwuxiandibijiaoxiaqu,zaiciqingxingxia,bijiaohuodongbunengdedaochedidewancheng)。

体育外围buguanzaijingtaihaishidongtaidebijiaomoshizhong,yidanbijiaoyixiang(huoyitu)dedaozuizhongdechongshi(yijibeibijiaozhiwudexiangguanbijiaoxingzhuangdedaolechedi、wanzhengdezishenchengxian),neimezhenggebijiaohuodongjiudedaolewancheng。liru: tiyuwaiweixiangbijiaoliangbazhichidezhangduan,erzheiliangbazhichijiubingliedibaifangzaitiyuwaiweimianqian,qizhangduanchayiyimuleran(zhijie、chedidezishenchengxian),gaibijiaojiuyijingtaifangshidedaolewancheng。youliru: tiyuwaiweixiangbijiaoliangweiyundongyuandenailibingweicishedingyiwanmidesaipao,suizhebisaidezhankai,liangzhezhijiandenailixingnengchayibuduandedaozhangxian,daobisaijieshushi,liangzhezhijiandenailichayidedaozongtizhanxian,cishigaibijiaojiuyidongtaifangshidedaolewancheng。danbingfeisuoyoudebijiaodounengdedaozuizhongdewancheng,gengqueqiedishuo,suoyoushencengdebijiaodouyouqibukewanchengxing。zheibingfeichuyubijiaozishendequexian,tayuanzicishangsuoyanjideliangzhongyuanyin: shiwuzishen(baokuobijiaodeweiduzainei)dechengxianbenlaijiushiyizhongxianxian/yinnideyonghengyouxi(duineixiejuyoushengmingdeshiwulaishuoqingxingyouqiruci),ershishibijiaohuodongdezhutibenshennaishiyouxiandecunzaizhebingshizhongyilishixingdefangshishengcunzhe(yushiwudechengxianfangshiyizhi,tongyangyixianxian/yinnideyouxizuoweiqigenbencunzaifangshi)。zheijiuyiweizhe: zaishencengdebijiaozhong,bijiaobixuyijiegou、jiangoudeshuangzhongfangshiyunzuoqieyongbutingxi。jiegouyiweizheduiyinnizhiwu、lishijidiandexuanzhi、changkai,erjiangouzeshiduidangxiaxianxiandexina、baocunnaizhidajian。liangzhexianghugongshu、jiaotiyunzuoyichengjiubijiaodewuxianzhankai。

yubijiaodewanchengshuxingxiangguan,tiyuwaiweikeyijiangbijiaoqufenweisanzhongleixing: (1)cunzaizhecengcishangdebijiao(yongshangdebijiao): zaimouzhongyiyishang,renheduixiangdoukeyicongxianchengcunzaizhedejiaodujiayiguanzhao。congzheigejiaoduchufaerchanshengdebijiaojiushicunzaizhecengcishangdebijiao。zhiyouzaixianchengcunzaizhedecengcishang,tiyuwaiweicainengtanjizhenzhengyiyishangdewancheng。jutiyouxingzhiwudebijiaokeyiruci,wuxing、pubianzhiwudebijiaoyikeyiruci。liru: butongdesixiangzhijianyekeyitongguoliebiaodexingshijiayibijiao(shishishang,henduosixiangbijiaogongzuojiutingliuzaizheigecengcishang)。congzhongguozhexuedejiaodulaishuo,zheizhongbijiaosuoshejidezhishiyongshangdebijiao(dangran,yongdeyiyunyaobixianchengcunzaideyiyunfengfubushao)。(2)cunzailuncengcishangdebijiao(tishangdebijiao): dangtiyuwaiweiyiruqisuoshidefangshilailinghui、bawobeibijiaodeduixiangjiqibijiaotexingdeshihou(yijixiangyingxianxian/yinnideshuangzhongtexingyijilishixingdeshihou),cishisuozuodebijiaojiubuhuijinjintingliuzaixianchengcunzaidecengmian,ershihuishenrudaoshiwudemianyanbenxingdangzhong,bingyizhaoqibenxingdechizhufangshilaizhankaishengdong、huopodebijiao,erzheijiushicunzailuncengcishangdebijiao。yidanbijiaogongzuojinrucunzailundecengci,gaibijiaojiukeyibeichengweishencengbijiao。errucishangsuoyan,fanshencengbijiaodoubukenengzaizhenqiedeyiyidedaozuizhongdewancheng。congzhongguozhexuedejiaodulaishuo,zheizhongbijiaosuoshejideshitishangdebijiao。(3)liangzhederonghui(tiyongxiangrongdebijiao): cishangliangzhongbijiaobingfeiquanranbuxiangguande,tamenkeyizaigenggaodecengmiandededaoronghe。cunzailuncengciyucunzaizhecengcidewanmeijiehe,qiaqiakeyichengjiuzhenqie、wanshandebijiao: qianzheyubenxingdeyuanershenxiangying,erhouzhezeyuchengxianzhedefangyizhixiangying。yiqianzheronghuihouzhe,zexianchengcunzaibuzaishixianchengcunzai,ershichengweibenxingdeshengdong、jushenchengxian;yihouzheluoshiqianzhe,zebenxingdechengxianjiubuzaishimouzhongxuwupiaomiaozhiwu,ershizhanxianweijuti、zhenshidezhanchu。congzhongguozhexuedejiaodulaishuo,zheijiushitiyongyuanrongyiyishangdebijiao。bijiaohuodongdadaozheigecengci,caishizuizhenqie、wanshandebijiao,gaiyiyishangdebijiaodangranshibunengyicuerjiude,tabixushishikekejiayigengxin。

六、思想比较作为原初的对话

zaijieshichubijiaodeyibanjiegoujiqizhankaitezhengzhihou,tiyuwaiweixianzailaikanzuoweimouzhongtedingleixingdesixiangbijiao。yujutidewuxiangshijiexiangduizhao,sixiangnaishiwuxingzhiwu,yinersixiangzhibijiaoshiwuxingdebijiao。dansuiwuxingeryouxiang,sixiangyiyouqizishendeguidingxing(sixiangdebenxing)。anqichengxianfangshidebutong,sixiangbijiaoyisuizhiyousuobutong。yucishangdeleixingqufenxiangying,sixiangbijiaoyiyousanzhongjibenleixing: (1)zuoweixianchengcunzaizhedesixiangzhibijiao: sixiangyuanchuyuyishihuodongduishijie(zhengquandeshijiezongti)zhenlidebawohejieshi,yidanbeibawohejieshichulaidezhenlitongguoyuyanwenzidengfangshibeininggunaizhichengshihua,sixiangjiuyoukenengcongqimutituoluochengweimouzhongxianchengzaishouzhiwu,ersixiangbijiaoyejiuchengweigezhongxianchengsixiangyaosu、huanjiezhijiandefenleiyuluolie(xiangsi、xiangyideng)。zhexuejiaokeshushangduoyoucileisixiangbijiao。(2)cunzailunyiyishangdesixiangbijiao: dangsixiangtuolixianchengcunzaideningguyangtai,zhongfanqizishendeshengchengjingyubingruqizishendijiayiyunzuodeshihou,sixiangjiuchengweimouzhonglingdongdejingshenhuoti。zheishihou,dedaolijiedejiubuzaishimouxielisandesixiangkuaipianhuoyaosu,ershisuoyoudesixiangchengfendouzaimougeliudongdezhengtizhongxianghuguanlian、huxianghuiying,jiuhaoxiangbeifuyulelinghun、sanfachushengmingdeliangze。sixiangbijiaodadaozheigecengci,jiukeyibeichengweicunzailunyiyishangdesixiangbijiao。suoyouchusedesixiangbijiaogongzuohuoduohuoshaodouhuichujigaicengmian,cunzailun-shengcunlunfenxihuoguanniandeshengchengpuxikaocha(sixiangguanniandekaoguxue)zeshicizhongchangjiandetansuofangshi。(3)yuanrongyitishidesixiangbijiao: cishibijiaogongzuosuiranrengjiucongmougesixiangchengfenchufa,danzaicizhizhong,xianhuodesixiangzhengti(zuoweiweicengmingyandebenzhensixiangjingyu、jingshenshengmingzhiliu)yijingcanyujinlaibingsuishiguidingzhedangxiabijiaodezhankai,jiuhaobilingdongdesixiangzhiliuchuantoudangxiabeibijiaodesixiangchengfenbingjiangqidaixiangcunzaizhengti(huomougecunzailingyu)dechengming。suyusuoweide“yihuayishijie,yiyeyiputi”yihuo“pianyanzhiyu,shendegezhongsanmei”,yuelvekexingronggaiyiyishangdesixiangbijiao(ruwangbide“shengrentiwu”zhibian)。jiuwanchengxingeryan,diyizhongyiyishangdesixiangbijiaohuokewancheng,erhouliangzhezebukewancheng(bunengdachengzhongjiyiyishangdewancheng,zhinengshiweiwanchengshidewancheng、jinerbujin)。shijishang,zhiyouchaoyuediyizhongyiyierjinruhouliangzhongyiyicengci,tiyuwaiweicainengtanjizhenqiedesixiangbijiao。gaijiuqibenxingeryan,sixiangnaishishencengzhiwu,sixiangbijiaozuoweishencengbijiaoyouqibukewanchengxing。

体育外围sixiangbijiaodebukewanchengxing,rushangsuoyan,qiaqiayuanchuyusixiangdebenxing。zhengrupasikasuoyan: renshiyizhuhuisixiangdeluwei;yihuoruqitaxifanggeyansuoshuo: rennaishisixiangdongwuhuolixingdedongwu。zheibiaoming: gudaizherenzaoyijiangsixianglinghuiweirenleicunzaidegenbentexing,ersixiangbijiaozeshiwanchenggaitexingdeyitiaodaolu。rendecunzaishiyizhongyouqizhongshierbujianzhongshidechangkai,sixiangzuoweichangliangzhiguangzeshishikekecanyuzujianqicunzai。sixiangdeyunzuozhaoshileyishihuodongdezhutizaibuduandilinghuizishenjiqisuochudeshijie。ersixiangbijiaozeshimouzhongtechudelinghuifangshi: tayaoqiuzhankailinghuihuodongdezhutiyisixiangduibidefangshizouchuzitiyuwaiwei、zouxiangtaren。yinweirenhesixiangbijiaodouyiweizhe: yizouxiangyizhihuotarensixiangdefangshilaituozhanzishendesixiangkenengxing(sixiangkongjian)。zheiyejiushishuo: sixiangbijiaonaishiyizhongyizhutiweibendeduihua,beibijiaodesixiangzhijianguranshiduihua,linghuibeibijiaodesixiangyezaoyijingshiduihuale,qiehouzhenaishiqianzhedejichu。jicieryan,sixiangbijiaonaishijubeishuangzhongjiegoudeduihua,erzhankaibijiaohuodongdezhutizeshibijiaodezhenzhengshuji。dangbijiaolaideyueshizhenqie、yueshiyuanshi,duihuadezhankaiyejiuyufatongchang、yuanshi。zhiyoudangsixiangbijiaodayuyuanchuduihuadecengci,fuyouchengxiaodesixiangguoshicaihuichuxian。yuanchuduihuadedachengxuyaoyoulianggejibenyaoqiu: (1)beibijiaodesixiangqueyouqishenkexing: tamenyuanzimouweisixiangzheduizhenlideshensishulvheshenkebawo,yijizheixiesixiangbenshenjiuyuanchuyuyuanchudeduihua(yuzhenlizishendedimianxiangjian);(2)shishibijiaohuodongdezhutinenggouxuhanshiyong、ruqizishendizhankaisixiangdeyunzuo: tajinengqiaruqifendilinghuibeibijiaodesixiang,younengzaibeichengkaidebijiaoshiyuzhongyouyouwanzhuannaizhifaxiansixiangxintupodekenengxing(wangjizijishenchubijiaoerjinrusixiangyunzuodeyuanfaqianyinzhizhong、beibijiaodesixiangchengweiqianyinsixiangtupodedaohuosuo)。zheicaishisixiangbijiaozhongzuiweiguanjiandebufen,suoweide“shenermingzhi,cunhuqiren”、“goufeiqiren,daobuxuxing”。yidanzhenqiedesixiangbijiaodedaozhankai,shishibijiaohuodongdezhutijiuzaimouzhongyiyishangchenggongdizouchulezitiyuwaiwei、zouxiangletaren,huozheshuo: tongguosixiangduihuadefangshifengfuleziji。conglingyifangmianlaijiang,zhutitongguofengfuzijidefangshiyexiangzhenggeshijiekuizenglesixiangdexianhuoshengming,yijiweitarensixiangdezitiyuwaiweifengfutigonglekenengxing(yiyidexianghujiaozhi、jingshendechongyingyuwanman)。zheilidezhutijikeyizhigeti,yekeyizhimougewenhuagongtongti,ranbijiaohuodongdezuizhongluoshizongshimougejutidezhuti。

七、对比较哲学之未来的展望

ruguojiangzhexueshiweijubeizhengyanxitongxiangdesixiang,neimezhexuebijiaojiushigaojiedesixiangbijiao。ruguojiangzhexueshiweibenzhendeyunsihuodong,neimezhexuebijiaojiudengtongyuyuanchudesixiangbijiao。buguanzenmelijie,cishangsuojieshidesixiangbijiaotexingjishizhexuebijiaodetexing。butongzhexuesixiangzhijiandebijiao,naishizhexuesixiangzhesuobixujianfudezeren,tongguozheizhongfangshitamenshitujinsixiangzhixing。sixiangshirenleicunzaidetexing,yinerjinsixiangzhixingjishiweilejinrenzhixing。renshengyutiandiwanwuzhizhong(wusuotaoyutiandizhijian),yinerjinrenzhixingjiuyinhanzhejintiandiwanwuzhixing。jiucieryan,zhexuesixiangdebijiaonaishihuyingrenxingzishendehuhuan,wanchengrenxingweizishensuoshedingdemude(telos)。rantiandiwanwuzhixingwujin,renxingwujin,sixiangyiwujin,yinerzhexuesixiangdebijiaogongzuo,conggenbenshanglaiyan,jiushiyixiangwuzhijingdegongzuo(infinite task)。

体育外围zhexuesixiangdebijiaogongzuosuiranwuyouzhijing,danzaijutidelishiqingjingzhong,tazongshichengxianchumouzhongtedingdeyangtai。zheijiuyiweizhe: meigeshidaidouyouqitedingdezhexuebijiaogongzuo,sixiangbijiaodewujinxingjiuyicizhongfangshizhanxianzishen。liru: zaichunqiushidai,rujia、mojiashixianxue,qibijiao、duihuanaizhichongtuzaidangshiyuweidaguan;zaisongmingshiqi,zhuluhuoluwang(xiayidelixueyuxinxue)zhijiandebijiaochengweishidaisichaodezhuliu。zaitiyuwaiweirujinsuochudezheigeshidai,zhongxi(naizhijiashangyindudengwenming)zhexuesixiangzhijiandebijiao、duihuajiuchengweisixiangzhesuoyaomianduidezhuyaowenti。yuciqiandexitongneibubijiaoxiangduizhao(rudaoweiyuanshengzibubishuo、foxuehoulaiyichedizhongguohua),rujinsuomianlindesixiangduihuaqingshiyaoyanjun、fuzadeduo,guqianrenyouyan“sanqiannianweiyouzhibianju”。jieyumuqianxifangsixiangdeqiangshidiwei,jianfuqizhongxisixiangbijiaodezhongrenbingshixianmouzhongtupoxingronghederenwuduanlaidongfangyouqishizhongguodesixiangzhe。

体育外围yizhaocishangduibijiaoyouqishisixiangbijiaozhitexingdezhanshi,dangxiajianfusixiangbijiaozhongrendesixiangzheyingcongcixiazhufangmianzhankainuli: (1)shouxianyaorangzhongxizhexuesixiang(beibijiaodeduixiang、feixianchengdeduixiang)ruqizishendichengxianzishen,zaicitiyuwaiweixuyaoxuanzhizhongzhongxianshiwentideqianche,yixuxinhanyongdezitaitourudaolinghuizhongxisixianggezideshengchengqingjinghechengzhangmailuodegongzuodangzhong,zheishibijiaogongzuodeyizhankaideqianti。(2)qicidenulitishengzijidesixiangshenduyusikaolidu,jiuhaobiweiyouzhagenshenhouzhefangnengwujuditingli、weiyouzhuzugaofengfangnengfangyanyuantiao,zhiyouzhenzhengdesixiangzhecainengzhankaizhenqiedesixiangbijiao。(3)huiguiwentibenshen、shenghuobenshen: tiyuwaiweishenchuqizhongdeshijishenghuojingyucaishisixiangdefayuandi,zheicaishirenhesixiang、renhesixiangbijiaoquzhibujin、yongzhibujiedezhongjifashengjingyu,zhexuesixiangjiqibijiaobixucongshenghuoshijiezhongjiqushengming、liliang。cishangsandian,diyidianxiangyingyubijiaoduixiangdechengxian,dierdianxiangyingyushishibijiaohuodongdezhutidesixiangshiyu,erdisandianzexiangyingyuhansheqianliangzhebingfuyuqiyiyiyi、shengmingdezhongjifashengjingyu,zheilimianyinzangzhelixingyushijiedezhongjiaomi。xuyaozhichudeshi: zheisanfangmiandegongzuobingbunengjieranfenkai,shijishang,tamenzongshihuxiangchanrao、xianghugongshude。zheiyejiushishuo: zhiyoudangsangecengmiandegongzuodachengyuanshideguantong,zhenqieyiyishang(fuyouchengxiao)dezhexuebijiaogongzuocaihuichuxian。taxuyaotiancaishirenwudecanyu,dangengxuyaozhenggewenhuagongtongtidetonglihezuo,gaihezuoshiwuqixiande。

ruxuezhongdezhenlirenshilunwenti

邹晓东*

内容提要: 基尔克果认为,只有两种融贯一致的真理认识论: 苏格拉底式的、真理教师式的。前者强调强调从自己出发,后者则仰仗真理教师施以援手。相应的“时刻”意识分析表明,这两种认识论逻辑上不相容。作为比较: 儒家的“境界与教化”意识,重视教化者的传授指导作用,具有真理教师式因素;“天命之谓性,率性之谓道”命题,则高举学生自己固有的真理认识能力,具有不可忽视的苏格拉底式因素。鉴于前述逻辑不相容性,儒学有必要认真审视其“真理认识论”问题。

关键词: 体育外围境界论 起点论 真理认识论问题 苏格拉底式 真理教师式

儒学中存在真理问题吗?或者,研究儒学,有必要突出真理问题吗?——在当前中国哲学史研究界,这是个颇令人纠结的问题。一方面,真理问题乃西方哲学的核心问题,[14]中国哲学史学科恰恰又是西学东渐之成果,中国哲学(包括儒家哲学)史研究很难回避相关议题。另方面,反观历时约一百年的中国哲学史研究,西哲话语居主导地位,传统的中国内涵趋于贫瘠。[15]痛定思痛,目前,相当一部分学者认定: 真理问题与认识论(知识论)探讨,根本不适切中国哲学史研究。——传统中国思想史,果真自外于真理及其认识论问题?

真理及其认识论问题,是基尔克果《哲学片断》的主题。该书第一章,对西方思想史上的两种真理认识论(分别是: 古希腊苏格拉底模式、希伯来-基督教真理教师模式),进行了深刻的比较分析。这些分析将真理及其认识论问题,作为有滋有味的生存问题处理,为读者身临其境的了解提供了巨大便利。——实际上,作为一个生存问题,真理及其认识论问题,在儒家传统中同样不可避免。[16]体育外围体育外围知道,宋明儒家排斥释老,而在为学方法上则争辩“支离”、“大体”。凡此种种,皆与真理及其认识论问题脱不开干系。众所周知,《大学》、《中庸》是宋明儒学的灵感源泉。实际上,在《大学》、《中庸》及其宋明解读史中,确实存在堪与两希传统相比拟的“真理及其认识论问题”研讨。并且,这些研讨对儒学来说,绝非细枝末节或可有可无的。将《哲学片断》中的两种真理认识论,与儒学中的相关研讨加以对比,或许将对儒学自体育外围理解产生深刻的刺激作用。

yi

基尔克果《哲学片断》第一章命名为“思考方案”。该章从“真理可学吗”这个问题谈起。据基尔克果考察,这个问题开始于苏格拉底的“美德(作为对真理的洞见)是否可教”问题。[17]与此同时,苏格拉底对这个问题给出了一个苏格拉底式解决方案。这一方案,实际上是被概念与论证逼出来的。

tongchang,renmenrenwei,jiao—xueshiyigezhenlichuanshouguocheng。dansugeladiquezhichu: shoujiaohuoxuexizhenli,duixueshenglaishuo,yuzhudongxunqiuzhenliwuyi。weishenmezheimeshuoni?tiyuwaiweikeyizheimekan: jiashejiaoshiyounenglixiangxueshengchenshuzhenli,danxueshengzijiruosibukaiqiao,tarengranwufajieshouzheizhenli。“kaiqiao”deyisishi“duijiaoshidechenshuxinlingshenhui”,jutidao“zhenli”yujingji: anzhaozhenlilijiezheizhenlichenshu。danwentizaiyu,zuoweishangbuyongyouzhenlidexuesheng(burandehua,tajiumeibiyaozuoxueshengle),tazenmezhidaozijidelijieshibushizai“anzhaozhenli”ni?jiaoshi(jiashetazhidaozhenli)dangrankeyiduixueshengdewujietichuzhizheng,danduiyuzheizhizheng,xueshengtongyangnanyizuodao“anzhaozhenli”jiayilijie。suoyi,jibianmianduiyigezhenlichenshuzhe,xueshengyiranyouzerentongguozijidenuli,kefuzhongzhongwujiedadaoduizhenlidezhenlixinglijie。zheizhong“zijinuli——kefu—dadao”,zhengshiyizhongzhudongdexunqiuguocheng。——danshi,zhei(“zhudongxunqiuzhenli”)kenengma?

“开窍”这一汉语表达,有助于体育外围理解苏格拉底的思路。“开窍”属于己分内事。外部条件再优越,也不能保证某人在某方面必然开窍;正因此,汉语中才会有“死不开窍”一说。“自动开窍”是苏格拉底式真理认识论的点睛之笔。体育外围来看他的概念分析和论证。首先,他指出: 已经知道真理的人,没有必要再去寻求,因为他已经知道了。再者,那些对真理一无所知、与之毫无瓜葛的人,既不知道要寻求什么,也不弄不清楚该怎么寻求(两者其实是一回事)。所以,欲使真理寻求既有必要又有可能,就必须存在一种“既不知又实有瓜葛”的特殊状态。这种状态,苏格拉底称之为“遗忘”。遗忘不同于纯然的无知,遗忘者通常可以凭借回忆,将遗忘的信息重新找回。就此而言,它是一种“似知非知”状态,其中蕴含着灵光乍现的潜能。苏格拉底顺此提出如下理论: 灵魂来自真理世界因而从来都知道真理,只是在降生为人之际真理归于遗忘了,真理寻求者必须抓住这种“遗忘—拥有”潜能不放,是为认识真理的唯一道路。据此,“寻求真理”本质上便是“回忆”。[18]

人以“遗忘”形式拥有的“真理”,体育外围称之为“固有真理”。这是回忆或自动开窍的前提。苏格拉底进而将“灵魂固有真理—回忆能力”归诸每一个人。这样,人和人之间——特别地,包括通常所谓的教师和学生之间——因而就不存在真理上的授受关系。任何学习活动,就其成功而言,本质上都是回忆。[19]“教—学”过程,对这种“成功—回忆”而言,则是非本质的、历史性的、偶然的“机缘”。作为这种认识论的忠诚实践者,苏格拉底以一种“怪人”面目现于世。他(苏格拉底)本着一律平等的谦卑与一律平等的尊严,处理自己和一切其他个体的关系,不求专门和所谓博学鸿儒扎堆儿,而是喋喋不休地跟被他撞见的一切职业者做哲学论辩。他拒绝教师头衔,也拒绝尊别人为师。他不允许通常所谓“师—生”意识(核心在于“真理授受”),干扰、破坏人从事“回忆”的自觉。

基尔克果特别强调,上述苏格拉底式真理认识论,无论在概念上还是在实践上,都相当融贯一致。总的来说,作为一种生存意识,苏格拉底式真理认识论,与通常旨在授受真理的“教—学”或“师—生”意识不相容。在逻辑的锁链中,苏格拉底把“机缘”关系,界定为人与人之间的“最高关系”。[20]“机缘”概念使外部一切都沦为非本质性因素,“从自己(固有真理)出发”成为每个人在真理问题上的唯一选项。苏格拉底似乎有种准宗教性的使命感,那就是,通过哲学论辩维系自己并促成他人的“回忆”意识。面对这种义无反顾的理论与实践,基尔克果感叹道: “多么精彩的一贯性!”[21]

er

zheiyijie,tiyuwaiweilaikan《zhongyong》kaipiansuotigongderenshilunfangan。tiyuwaiweixiancong《daxue》tanqi,zheihuishitiyuwaiweidesilugengqingxi。

体育外围知道,殷周之变开启的西周意识形态传统,可概括为“敬德修德以配天命”这个命题。“敬”与“修”,一方面强调着“德”的“人为”性,另方面则暗示存在一系列“德目”共识。《大学》开篇所谓“明德”者,实际上可以从“德目的完满全集”角度理解。[22]在接下来的论述中,《大学》将这种“明德”境界划分为八个层次——天下平(明明德于天下)、国治(治其国)、家齐(齐其家)、身修(修其身)、心正(正其心)、意诚(诚其意)、知至(致其知)、物格(格物)——并相应指示每个层次(除“格物、致知”)的通用与特殊原则。[23]《大学》作者认为,这些原则传承自“古之欲明明德于天下者”,自觉遵照这些原则处事,乃达致最高境界(“明德”)的不二途径。《大学》作者在传授这些原则时,显然持有一种教师或教化者意识。

无论如何,教师的传授或教化工作,使得“知识”(知道“德目”或“人事原则”)不再成为一个问题。相形之下,“知而不行”问题大大凸显起来。《大学》在进一步解释八条目(前述八个层次)时,干脆略过最基层的“格物、致知”,而是径从“所谓诚其意”长篇大论,体育外围认为只有从“知识问题淡化,知而不行问题突出”角度才能解通。[24]体育外围“所谓诚其意者”章形容“小人闲居为不善,无所不至,见君子而后厌然,掩其不善,而著其善”,这正是对知而不行者心态的生动写照。相应的,“诚其意”便是面对“德目共识—人事原则”,自觉“诚”其践守之“意”。这种“自觉”功夫,总的来说是种“意志”努力(知识问题在此之外早已解决)。

danwentizaiyu,jiaoshichuanshouhuoshixingjiaohua,zhendezuyijiejue“zhishi”wentima? tiyuwaiweizhidao,《lunyu》jizaikongzicengpinglunshuo: “guoyoubuji”(《xianjin》),“daobuxing”(《gongyezhang》、《weizi》)。zaibianjishang,《lunyu》siweituchu“guoyoubuji”yu“daobuxing”jiandeguanlianxing。dan《zhongyong》zaiyinyongkongziyulushi,quejiangerzhemingqueladaoleyiqi: “daozhibuxingye,tiyuwaiweizhizhiyi,zhizheguozhi,yuzhebujiye;daozhibumingye,tiyuwaiweizhizhiyi,xianzheguozhi,buxiaozhebujiye。”——“zhizhe、xianzhe”zhenghaoshi“zhidaodemuyuanze”、“zijuechishouxiangyingzhishi”dedianfan,zheiyangderenqueyin“guozhi”(yizhilichongzu)er“daobuxing”,wentiyinerzhizhi“zhishi—lijie”fangmian。tiyuwaiweibudebuzhuiwen: jiaoshidechuanshouhuojiaohua,zhennengzuodaoxiangxueshenghepantuochuzhenlixingzhishi?huanyanzhi,xueshengzaimianduijiaoshidechuanshoujiaohuashi,tasuojiechudezhenshixianchengzhenzhi?shijishang,jibianjiaoshiyoubenshihepantuochuzhenzhi,zaixueshengyifanghaishicunzaiyigelijiexiaohuawenti。“guoyoubuji”zhengyuanyu“yizhili”mangmudijiemengyu“youpianchadezhishi—lijie”。“zhishi—lijie”depianchawentiruhejiejue?

现在的状况是: 教师、传统或典籍(特别地,经孔子这样的至圣级教师编修过的正典)皆不存在问题(否则,教师的“过犹不及”评判,就归于无效),而学生则在“知识—理解”上不断出偏(注意: 《中庸》中的“知者过之、贤者过之”乃全称命题)。教师已经尽力,问题若还有望解决,那便只能靠学生自己了。学生自己凭什么克服这个问题?——参考苏格拉底“固有真理—回忆”模式,体育外围发现,《中庸》“天命之谓性,率性之谓道”同样是把解决希望寄托在了求知者自己身上。“天命之谓性”可比拟于“(灵魂的)固有真理”,“率性之谓道”则相应于“回忆”,两者的基本精神都是“从自己出发”。[25]

congzheigejiaodukan,《zhongyong》zhitexuan“junzizhizhongyongye,junziershizhong;xiaorenzhizhongyongye,xiaorenerwujidanye”、“renmobuyinshiye,xiannengzhiweiye”、“shunqidazhiyeyu,shunhaowenerhaochaeryan,qisiyiweishunhu”zheixiekongziyulu,zhengweijizhongchouquqizhongde“congzijichufa—liyonghaotianmingzhixing”yiwei。gaiyanzhi,fanquefa“congzijichufa—zijueliyongtianmingzhixing”zhe,wulunzhishiruhefengfu、yizhiruhejianqiang,doushuyu“fanzhongyong”、“wujidan”、“buzhiwei”zhe。zhenzhengde“zhongyong”、“shizhong”、“zhiwei”、“dazhi”,zhinengzai“duitianmingzhixingdebuduanliyong”zhongdacheng。zheizhong“liyong”,《zhongyong》kaipianchengzhiwei“lvxing”,jinjiezheyouyi“jieshenhuqisuobudu,kongjuhuqisuobuwen”yuyimiaoshu。erzaihoubanbufen,《zhongyong》zezai“cheng”lunzhongjixuxiangguantaolun,danneishitiyuwaiweijianghuiyudaoxindewenti。

san

《daxue》“mingde”(wanmandedemudaquan),zhichengrenweidezuigaojingjie。cong“zhishi—lijie”jiaodukan,zheiyijingjieyaoqiuguanyu“mingde”de“wanmanwuwudezhishihuolijie”。jiurenweinulieryan,zheixuyaoyige“xunqiuzhishi—lijie”deguocheng;duiyuzheiguochengeryan,“zuigaojingjie—wanmanwuwudezhishihuolijie”shiqizhongdian。tongchang,tiyuwaiweihuirenwei,zheige“zhongdian”juyou“juedingxingyiyi”: kuaguozheigedian,renjiuchedijinruzhishi—lijieshangde“wanmanwuwu”jingjie。zheiyangyige“dian”,jierkeguochengzhiwei“juedingxingshike”。raner,jinyibudefenxiquebiaoming,sugeladishizhenlirenshilun,jujuezheizhongjuedingxingshike。

在《哲学片断》“思考方案”中,基尔克果这样表述道: “时间上的开端啥都不算,因为: 就在此刻体育外围发现,原来体育外围一直不知不觉地知道真理;与此同时这一刻即为“一直”所湮没,如此这般地消融归化,以至即便体育外围欲寻之,也还是无法将其觅到,因为根本无所谓‘彼’、‘此’,而只有‘彼此彼此与无彼无此’。”[26]“同一时刻”指“回忆成功”时刻。基尔克果这句话,是对“遗忘—回忆”比喻的进一步引申。体育外围不应据自己现成的希腊哲学史知识,将此“不再有‘彼’、‘此’之分,而只有‘彼此彼此与无彼无此’”,释为“灵魂回到永恒世界—永恒世界不存在彼此之分”而简单了事,尽管这“一直”(汉译)字面上就是“永恒”(英译)。基尔克果从“回忆成功”的角度谈论这永恒的“彼此彼此与无彼无此”,这个语境体育外围必须特别重视。换言之,从基尔克果“彼此彼此与无彼无此”提法中,体育外围应读出充足的“认识论”意味。

tiyuwaiweikeyizheimekan: zaihuiyichenggongzhiqian,huiyizhebixuduxin“huiyinairenshizhenlizhilu”,fouze,tajiuwuxincongshi“huiyi”,erzhuanxiangtasuokanhao(benzhishangyeshiyizhongduxin)deqitarenshimoshi。zheiyangderenshizheruoguoyousuohuo,zeziranhuiguigongyuzheiqitamoshi,congeryusugeladimoshijinyibushuyuan。sugeladimoshideduxin—gongxingzheyucixiangfan。zaihuiyichenggong(yinerzhidaozhenli)zhiji,tajiangyouzhongzantan: “linghunguyouzhenli”suoyanbuxu,“zitiyuwaiweihuiyi”guoranshirenshizhenlizhilu。zhicizhiji,chuqingxingzijizai“buzhidao”shijingneng“duxin—gongxing”wai,tawuxuganenrenheqitarenyushi。erqie,jiulianzhei“duxin—gongxing”,yebingfeicongwudaoyoudezhenlizhuruzhe——zhenliyizhihetatongzai(“linghunguyouzhenli”)。erjiu“duxin—gongxing”nengweitadailai“zhenlizhishi”eryan,“duxin—gongxing”zheizhongshengcunzitaibenshenjiushizhenlixingde。jiucieryan,zaihuiyichenggongzhiqian,huiyizheyijingshengcunzaizhenlizhuangtaile;huiyidechenggong,sihaobujiazenghuiyizheshengcundezhenlixing(gainianshang,renhe“jiazeng”doushidui“duxin—gongxing”zhenlixingzhifouding)。——zheige“sihaobujiazeng”,dangranyebaokuo“zaizhidao(renshi、lijie)fangmianbujiazeng”。jierkeguosuowei“buzhibujuedizhidaozhenli”,qiluojizhengzaiyuci。raner,tiyuwaiweixiwangtiyuwaiweinengzaiyizhong“shangshen”zhuangtaizhong,jinyibutihuizheizhong“zaibuzhidaozhongzhidao”yishi。

tiyuwaiweizheimekan: zaichenggongzhiqiande“duxin”jieduan,“huiyichenggong”bukebimiandibeishexiangwei“juedingxingshike”,cihou、ciqiantianchadibie。raner,“tianchadibie”shexiang,yangelaijiangshizaizhekou“duxin—gongxing”zhizhenlixing,zheizaiyidingchengdushangyousunyudangshirende“huiyi”nuli。buguo,zhiyaodangshirende“duxin”zuyi(napashimianmianruocundi)weichiqi“huiyi”nuli,neime,yidanhuiyichenggong,tajianglishiqueren“duxin—gongxing”buzhebukoudezhenlixing。jutizenmequerenfani?tiyuwaiweishuo,zhei“buzhebukou”lidangsheji“renshi(zhishi、lijie)”fangmian。erqianyizhichu,zai“duxin—gongxing”zheizhongzhenlixingshengcunzitaizhong,“duxin”shi“gongxing”dejichu;zuoweiyizhonglijiezhuangtai,“duxin”yineryouzigebeishiwei“zhidaozhenli”。zaiciqiangdiao,zaisugeladishishengcunzheneili,“duxinhuiyi=zhidaozhenli”;zaizheigeyiyishang,sugeladishishengcunzhe“yizhizhidaozhenli”。——xianzaidewentishi,zaihuiyichenggongzhiji,zheiweisugeladishishengcunzhejiangjixubaochizhei“duxin”ni,haishibatasheqierjinqu“huiyiqilaidejutineirong”?jianyu“duxinhuiyi=zhidaozhenli”,sheqi“duxin”dengyusheqi“zhenlixing”,gainianshangzheiyoudianhuangtang。tiyuwaiweihaishijinxingshengcunfenxiba。

体育外围huiyichenggongzhejiangjinruzenyangyizhongshengcun—renshizhuangtaini?zichenggongzheikeqi,tajiangchengweichaoshikongdequanzhizhema?zaichaoshikongdequanzhizhong,tajiangruhekandaineiduan“duxin—gongxing”delishixingshengcun?——zheichaochuletiyuwaiweidelijie。danzaisuowei“huiyichenggong”zhihou,taruoyiranshengcunzailishishikongzhong,neime,tatongguohuiyidachengde“zhidao”,jiujuefeishenme“chaoshikongdequanzhi”。shengcundeshikongxingjuedingletazhinengzhidao“chujinghuazhenli”,tiyuwaiweibachengzhiwei“chujinghuazhenzhi”。zheiyangdehua,weijixuhuoquyuxinchujingxiangyingde“chujinghuazhenzhi”,tabixuyirujiwangbaochi“duxin—gongxing”zitai。shenmeshihou,tayitedingdechujinghuazhenzhiqudaileduihuiyideduxin—gongxing,shenmeshihou,tadeshengcunjiukaishiziwaiyuzhenli。huanyanzhi,zailishishikongzhong,sugeladishishengcundezhenlixingdeweiyizhibiaojiushi“duxinhuiyi—gongxinghuiyi”。

体育外围tiyuwaiweijiangfenxizaituijinyibu。sugeladishishengcunzhe,pingshenmefenbian“chujinghuazhenzhi”yu“qitazanian”ni?zaichenggongfenbianzhiqian,tabingbuyongyou“zhishi”xingfenbianbiaozhun,“zhishi”xingbiaozhunzhinengshi“chujinghuazhenzhi”benshen,ruoyiyouci“zhi”bianwuxusuoweihuiyiyufenbianle。erzaimeiyouzhishixingbiaozhundeqingkuangxia,sugeladishirenshizhe,shijishangzhinenggenzhe“huiyideganjue”zou。shenmeshihou,tajuedehuiyichenggongle,neishihoutasuozhuachideguannianhuozhishi,jiushitasuohuiyiqilaidechujinghuazhenzhi。yi“juedehuiyichenggongle”biaoding“chujinghuazhenzhi”,erfeifanguolaiyi“chujinghuazhenzhi”biaoding“huiyichenggongle”,zheishidui“duxinhuiyi—gongxinghuiyi”zhenlixingdechedikending。tebieqiangdiao: dangshirenwufazaiduizijijieyizhixing“duxinhuiyi—gongxinghuiyi”de“juede”,zaitichurenheyouyiyidezhenliwenti——yinweiruofeichuzaizhenlixingde“duxinhuiyi—gongxinghuiyi”zhong(zheizhinengtongguodangshirenzijide“huiyigan”baochi),taderenhetiwendoujibujuyouzhenlixing,yebukenengjiangtayinxiangrenhezhenzhi。huanyanzhi,“duxinhuiyi—gongxinghuiyi”,zaisugeladimoshizhongbixujuyouzimingdekeshangshenxing。jiushengcunzhesuishikeyijinru“duxinhuiyi—gongxinghuiyi”zheizhenlixingzitaieryan,cikeyubikezhijiangenbenbucunzaiqingzhonghoubozhifen。jierkeguopingyu——“buzaiyou‘bi’、‘ci’zhifen,youdezhishi‘bicibiciyubufenbici’”——zhengkecongzheigejiaodulijie。

作为学庸(特别是《大学》)解读者,王阳明的龙场之悟颇具基尔克果的苏格拉底性。当然,体育外围完全可以反过来说。——作为王阳明的前辈,朱熹虽援引《中庸》“天命之性”解《大学》“明德”,但落实到“格物致知”问题上,“天命之性—吾心之全体大用”实际上则是有待“外物之理”、“读书讲明学问”填充的“能知”。然而,王阳明在严肃服膺这种真理认识论的过程中,至少曾两度致疾。[27]体育外围体育外围来简单分析王阳明遭遇的认识论困境。从朱派“格外物”倾向很容易引申出自体育外围怀疑态度。这种严肃态度要求对自己一切观念保持警惕,务求以“格外物致知”净化乃至重建自己的知识系统。然而,自体育外围怀疑越深彻,就越无法抓取确定性知识。“抓取”涉及“判断权”问题。他将自己一切观念皆视为可疑者,因而不复拥有判断或抓取的标准。如此一来,“格外物致知”的唯一希望就是: 在“格外物”过程中,有灵异的火花闪现,标准与真知瞬间自明。王阳明早年的“格外物”实践,显然没有遇到这类火花与瞬间。他只能枉然地看念出念没,渴望真知却无力把捉。深彻的自体育外围怀疑,导致了真知判断权的丧失。

从21到30岁,王阳明的经历是这样的: 只要他继续严肃持守朱派“格外物”认识论,他便只好以圣学门外汉自视。[28]不过,随着年龄增长,他的认识论倾向开始转变。《年谱一》记载,王阳明32岁开始对“爱亲本性”一类提法有真情实感,37岁于龙场则夜悟“圣人之道,吾性自足,向之求理于事物者误也”。[29]37岁的这次领悟,于王阳明是一次彻底转型。由此,他重新拿回真知判断权,并从此紧抓不放。比如,在《大学问》中,他这样说道: “至善之发见,是而是焉,非而非焉,轻重厚薄,随感随应,变动不居,而亦莫不自有天然之中,是乃民彝物则之极,而不容稍有议拟增损于其间也。稍有拟议增损于其间,则是私意小智,而非至善之谓也。……后之人惟其不知至善之在吾心,而用其私智以揣摸测度于其外,以为事事物物各有定理也,是以昧其是非之则,支离决裂,人欲肆而天理亡,明德、亲民、之学遂大乱于天下。”[30]“随感随应”的“是非”、“发见”,内在于“吾心”,此正是不折不扣的“真知”。要之,大胆抓取自己心中的“是而是焉,非而非焉”感觉即可,任何旨在怀疑(“拟议增损”)此直感的“揣摸测度”,一律被批驳为“私意小智”、“支离决裂”。王阳明以这种方式巩固着“从自己出发”的判断权,不难指出,他所走的正是《中庸》“天命之谓性,率性之谓道”的起点论思路。此外,《大学问》特别强调,“至善之发见”的能力,“虽小人之心亦必有之”。[31]这显然是将“从自己出发—真知判断权”归给了每一位认识者个体。

体育外围适当比较一下王阳明解释下的《大学》,和基尔克果笔下的苏格拉底。苏格拉底曾纠结于这个问题: “知道真理者不必寻求,不知道者必不知如何寻求。”[32]体育外围如何界定“寻求真理”这件事呢?“遗忘—回忆”是个很有魅力的比喻,在此意象下,不知道真理者可藉“回忆”自行寻求。继续引申这个比喻,回忆者在回忆成功之际,会当仁不让地说: 自己当初的“不知道”其实是一种“知道”,不然自己怎么会有意识地踏上(笃信—躬行)这条真理之路呢?本节,体育外围冒险将此“不知道—知道”落实为“当事人对回忆的笃信”。体育外围说,在“回忆成功”(每一次)之前,“回忆者”已经在充分享用那“固有真理”了。而在回忆成功之际,作为一个历史性生存者,当事人不会以曾经的“笃信—躬行”为过时;相反,他将继续在“笃信—躬行”中,进入新的“回忆—成功”轮回。——王阳明解释下的《大学》模式(参考《大学问》),本质上与基尔克果的这个苏格拉底模式相通。王阳明所谓“至善之在吾心—至善之发见,是而是焉,非而非焉,轻重厚薄,随感随应—莫不有自然之中”,这同样是一个“笃信”表达式。因着这种笃信,“至善在吾心的发见”,便成为当事人的留意焦点。每逢“笃信—留意”有所得,当事人的“笃信—留意”意识就会再次加强,从而继续处于“起点”状态。如此一来,“最高境界”问题只能不断搁置。实际上,要谈论所谓“最高境界”,就必须有“决定性时刻”,但苏格拉底模式与王阳明起点论意识,在根本上拒绝 “决定性时刻”的出现。

si

但是,对于历史上的儒家来说,境界论并非可有可无。首先,境界论问题乃真理问题在儒学中的最初表达形式。生存者在追求最高境界的过程中普遍表现出来的“过犹不及”问题,则使儒学中的真理问题进一步尖锐化。《中庸》正是在这一问题意识中,发明“天命之谓性,率性之谓道”这一起点论意识的。此可谓儒学中的苏格拉底式倾向。但纯粹的起点论思维或基尔克果的苏格拉底模式,并不足以概括《中庸》或儒家的核心特征。首先,就意图而言,《中庸》提出起点论,仍有以之为“通往最高境界之路”之意。其次,仅“从自己出发”不足以分辨历史上的儒家与其他学派。从历史争论角度看,当佛、道某些派别高举“从自己出发”意识时,儒者却认为他们过着“非圣无教”的生活。特别地,在批评所谓“狂禅”现象时,儒家(特别是朱熹一派)提出了一个不容忽视的问题: “从(真正的)自己出发”往往沦为自体育外围陶醉乃至自体育外围放纵的借口,当事人因持有起点论意识而有恃无恐,但实际上则是在较低境界中打滚。朱熹便是这样批判陆九渊学派的: “忿欲纷起,恣意猖獗”,“自家呵斥”。[33]

xianzai,wentishiliangnanxingde: jingjielunyusugeladishiqidianlun,jinanshenanfenyounanyixiangrong。congfashengxuejiaodukan,jingjielunchuantong,nairujiatichu“guoyoubuji”wentizhiqianti。feidiaojingjielunchuantong,sihuzhinengzouxiang“zenmedouxing”,“guoyoubuji—zhenzhiwenti”suiwucongtichu,《zhongyong》shiqidianlunyejiubuhuichuxian。huangeshunxukan,sugeladishiqidianlunyidanzijue,fanguolaibukebimianyaopaichijingjielun。——luojishang,ruguojianchitanlunzuigaojingjiewenti,jiubixuyinjinmouzhong“juedingxingshike”gainian。《zhexuepianduan》“sikaofangan”dedierbufen,bianzheshouchengxianyizhongyou“juedingxingshike”dezhenlirenshilun。jierkeguochengzhiwei“zhenlijiaoshi”moshi。

体育外围zaisugeladimoshizhong,zhenlijishengcunzheduizhenlidexiangyongwushibuke、wuchubuke,suoyoushikeyineryilvpingdeng。fanguolaikan,ruocunzaisuowei“juedingxingshike”,neibianzhinengshi“zhenlicongwudaoyoujinrushengcunzheshengcun”deshike。——huanyanzhi,tiyuwaiweizongbunengzhiwangkao“feizhenlidedongxi”fuyu“juedingxingyiyi”ba。jiugainianeryan,feizhenlisuofuyudejuedingxingyiyi,bushizhenzhengde(zhenlixingde)juedingxingyiyi,yinergenbenbushijuedingxingyiyi。zhenzhengdejuedingxingyiyi,zhinengyouzhenlifuyu,bingqiezhinengyouzhenlidecongwudaoyoulaifuyu。(“zhenli”yicizaijierkeguofenxizhongzhanshichulaideliliangzhidetiyuwaiweizixiwanwei。)weitanlun“juedingxingshike”,tiyuwaiweibixunadiaosugeladishi“guyouzhenli”yushe。

tiyuwaiweijixufenxi“juedingxingshike”gainian。“juedingxing”yu“pingdengxing”xiangdui。juedingxingzijibixushizhenlixingde;xiangduiyujuedingxingshike,zhiqiansuoyoushikedoushifeizhenlixingde;erduiyuzhihousuoyoushikeeryan,juedingxingshikeshiqizhenlixingzhiyuan,fouzebuzuyitixianqijuedingxing。——chulezhenlicongwudaoyoudejinruzhiwai,zheilihaixuyaoyixiegengjingzhidedongxi。

tiyuwaiweizheimelaikan。yidanquxiao“guyouzhenli”yushe,“juedingxingshike”zhiqiandeshengcunzhuangtai,jiuzhinengbeijiedingwei“jueduiwuzhi—feizhenli”。buguo,yinweiqi“jueduiwuzhi—feizhenli”,zheiyangderenfanerbidingzirenweishengcunyuzhenlizhizhong(biru,yisugeladidefangshi)。dansuizhejuedingxingshikededaolai,zheizhongzitiyuwaiweirenshijiangbeigaibian。zaizhenlicongwudaoyoujinruqishengcundejuedingxingshike,dangshirenhuichedirenshidaojinshierzuofei。zheizhong“jinshizuofei”tiyan,shi“juedingxing”debiaozhizhiyi,danfeiquanbu。——dangshirenzaitongguojuedingxingshikezhiji,suohuodederuguoshisugeladishi“guyouzhenli”(qiebushuo“chaoshikongdequanzhi”),neime,neishikebianyuzhihousuoyoushikeyilvpingdengle。zheishigebantuerfeidejuedingxingshike。wanzhengyiyishangdejuedingxingshike,bixuzuoweijiexialaisuoyoushikedezhenlixingzhiyuan。cunzaizheiyangdesikaofanganma?

“绝对无知—非真理”的生存者,从自己出发不可能获得真理。这种人认识真理的唯一希望在于,有外来教师向他传授真理。但问题在于,传授是一回事,理解是另一回事。理解总是某个人自己的理解。[34]真理教师若仅止于传授,“绝对无知—非真理”的学生怎么可能不误解(甚至只是直接抵挡)?为消除学生的“绝对无知—非真理—必然误解乃至抵挡”困境,真理教师必须同时赋予学生“接受真理的条件”(以下简称“真理条件”或“条件”)。这种“真理条件”对应于苏格拉底模式中的“开窍能力”;区别在于: 在苏格拉底模式中,“开窍能力”为当事人生而固有;而“真理条件”则是在一个人出生后的某个时刻,由真理教师从无到有地赋予。基尔克果指出,这项工作超出了一般所谓的“教师”定义。真理教师赋予学生真理条件这件事,本质上讲属于“创造”范畴。相应地,具有这等本事的真理教师,只能是造物者上帝本人。而学生获得真理条件的那“时刻”,则正好可用《新约》(基督教)所谓“重生”来指称。[35]

zhongshengkeyizairenhechujingzhongfasheng,zhiyaozhenlijiaoshiyuanyi。zhongshengdeshouyaoyiyizaiyuzhongshengzhehuodelezhenlitiaojian,congeryuzhenlijiaoshijianliqishizhixingdeshishengguanxi。dangran,tatongshijieshou(congzhenlijiaoshineili)diyigechujinghuazhenli。raner,“zhenlitiaojian”shixueshengzhiwei“xuesheng”degenben,pingjieta,xueshengbuduancongzhenlijiaoshineilijieshou“chujinghuazhenli”。chufeizhenlijiaoshizhudongxuanbujiaoxuewancheng,xueshengyongwuzigezixingzhongjieshishengguanxi。huanyanzhi,tabixuyirujiwangdizaizhenlitiaojianzhongjieshouzhenlijiaoshidechuanshou,erbuyingyinzhidaolemouxiechujinghuazhenliereryizhenliyongyouzheziju。jiucieryan,“zhenlitiaojian”yu“chujinghuazhenli”,bixuyoumingquequfen。zenmequfenni?tiyuwaiweixuyaohuidao“zhongsheng”shike。

体育外围zhenlitiaojianshizaizhongshengshikehuodede,tiyuwaiweiyaolijieshenmeshizhenlitiaojian,jiubixuhuidaozhongshengshike。jiaruyigezhongshengzheshengchengzijizhengzaiyunyongzhenlitiaojian,danquesihaomeiyouxiangqizijidezhongshengshike,shiwentapingshenmeshuotazhengzaiyunyongdejiushineizhenlitiaojian?neishikeshitabianrenneizhenlitiaojiandeweiyizhibiao。

tiyuwaiweilaikanzheizhongshengyuxiangqi。zhongshengbushiyijianshibuguanjizhishi,dangshirenwufayipangguanzhefangshijinglizijidezhongsheng。qianmianzhichu,“zhongsheng”bansuizheyiguqiangliede“jinshierzuofei”zhigan。zaizheizhongganjuezhong,dangshirenduiciqianrenshimoshiyushengcunzhuangtaidefeizhenlixinggongrenbuhui。zhiyouzheizhongganjuezaiqi,tacainengzaicijiangyunyongzhenlitiaojiandemoshi,yuchenjinzaizijidangzhongdefeizhenlimoshiqufenkailai。duizhenlitiaojiandemeiyiciyunyong,yangelaishuodoubixuzai“xiangqizhongshengshike”yishidepeihuxiajinxing,chucizhiwaimeiyourenhedongxinengshidangshirenquezhitashizaiyunyongneizhenlitiaojian。erqie,zhei“xiangqi”yebushi“pangguanxingkaocha”,erzhinengshizhongshengzheyunyongzhenlitiaojianshide“qinggantiyan”,zheicaishigoucheng“zhongsheng”deshizhixingyaosu。

考虑到苏格拉底式的“根本无所谓‘彼’、‘此’,而只有‘彼此彼此与无彼无此’”,人在重生成为真理教师的学生之前,实际上无不依靠某种自明的“笃信回忆—躬行回忆”感,而活在苏格拉底式真理认识论中。伴随“重生”的“今是而昨非”感,则从根本上否定着上述苏格拉底式感受的真理性。因着这种否定,当事人遂走出“从自己出发”的认识论模式,并进入“凭着真理条件接受真理教师传授”的新模式。体育外围所谓“今是而昨非感”,基尔克果称之为“痛悔/sorrowful”,并进而启用《新约》式词汇,将其称为悔改或罪意识。[36]正是以这种“痛悔/悔改/罪意识”感,重生者不断想起他的“重生时刻”,并与“从自己出发”的苏格拉底模式不断划清界限。重生时刻的决定性意义正是在这样一种“不断想起”中不断彰显。

wu

ruxuezhongdeqidianlunyishi,jibenshangshisugeladishide。《zhongyong》“tianmingzhiweixing,lvxingzhiweidao”,naishizheizhongqidianlunyishidedianxingbiaoda。tiyuwaiweizhuyidao,sugeladishipaichijingjielun。er《zhongyong》zheizhongqidianlunyidanzhanranshangjingjielun,qidian(“lvxing”)limajiuhuilunweibeijieding、beizhuiqiudezhongdian。《zhongyong》lun“cheng”deshihou,zheiyidianbiaoxiandeyouweimingxian。benlai,“cheng”ji“lvxing”,yijicongzijideguyouzhenlichufa。raner,dang《zhongyong》zaijingjielunyishizhongzhuiwen“shenmeshizhenzhengdecheng”、“ruhedadaozhenzhengdecheng”shi,“cheng/lvxing”jiusangshilejiandanxing(zhijieshangshouzhuangtai)。“cheng/lvxing”deqidiandiweijiucisangshi,querdaizhideshiduigushengyijiaodechuanshouyuxuexi。suoyi,《zhongyong》ruyubaochiwanzhengdeqidianlun(sugeladishi)yishi,jiubixufangqiduizuigaojingjiedejiedingyuchuanshou。danwentishi: zheiyangyilai,sihujiumeiyoushenmedongxikeyizuzhineixiedishuipingdejingjie,dazhe“qidianlun”(“cheng/lvxing”)demingyizhaoyaoguoshi。sugeladishiqidianlunyaoqiushengcunzhezijuecongzijichufa,renherenzairenheshikedoumeiyouzigeduibierende“congzijichufa”zhishouhuajiao。fouzedehua,yidanshituzhishouhuajiaoyuyizhidao、jiuzheng,zerenyurenzhijiande“jiyuan”guanxijiubeipohuai,congerjifangaitarenzidongkaiqiao,tongshiyefangaizijijixucongzijichufa。zheishiduisugeladimoshidebeipan。

体育外围eryitidao“jiyuan”zheigeci,zeminganderuxueyanjiuzhebunanfaxian,zheishijishangyijingjinrufojiaosiweile。tiyuwaiweiyizhifanyijierkeguo/sugeladide“occasion”yici,zhengyouzheifangmiandekaolv。zaitiyuwaiweikanlai,sugeladishiqidianlunyufojiaosiweiyougenbenxingxiangsizhichu。fojiaotichu“jiyuan”huo“yuanqi”gainian,mudezhengzaiyudaxiaoxuefozheduirenheren、shi、wudezhizhe。suowei“zhizheyumoumou”,zaizhenlilunyujingzhongkefanyiwei: shimoumouweizhenlideyuanquan。jierkeguodesugeladibuguanxinren—wuguanxiwenti;erruguotaolun,qiluojiyingyurenjiguanxishiyizhide。zairenjiguanxiwentishang,sugeladirenwei,renyurenzhijiandezuigaoguanxiyingshi,jibuzhizaijieshouzhenliyebuzhizaijiyuzhenlide“jiyuan”guanxi。zhenlizhishixuyaozhenlizhuiqiuzheziji,zaiwuguanjinyao(bushuruhuoshuchuzhenli)de“jiyuan”guanxizhong,qinziqu“wu”(kaiqiao、huiyi)。zaizheili,“buzhizhe”(“jiyuan”guanxi)yu“renshizhenli”shitongbude。jiucieryan,sugeladishiyufojiaosiweibenzhishangshiyizhide。

buguo,duzhehuoxuhuiyinsugeladiniannianbuwang“zhenliwenti”、yushe“linghunguyouzhenli”,erpipingsugeladi“zhizhe”,bingjinerfoudingsugeladidefojiaotezheng。raner,tiyuwaiweiruoduifojiao“buzhizhe”zuoshengcunfenxi,jiuhuifaxian: chulebuduanjiexinde“buzhizhe”yishidapoyuanyou“zhizhe”zhiwai,xuefozhebiewuqita“buzhizhe”tujing。“buzhizhe”zuoweiyizhongqingjie,fanerzhangxianzhexuefozhedemouzhong“zhizhe”。zaizheizhongqingjiedezuoyongxia,xuefozhebuduanfangxiagezhongjutizhizhe,congerbaochi“wusuozhu”dexinjing。“buzhizhu”jiuluoshiweizheizhongdongtaide“buduanfangxia”。huidaosugeladishiyujing,“buduanfangxiagezhongjutizhizhe”,zhengduiyingzhe“shiyiqieren、shi、wushiweijiyuan”deyishi。sugeladishide“zaijiyuanzhonghuiyi”,zhengyufojiaoshi“zaibuzhizheqingjietuidongxiafangxiagezhongjutizhizhe”xiangduiying。shengcunzheruobunengfangxiaduijutiren、shi、wudezhizhe,tajiuwufazuodao“congzijichufa”,yinerwufachengweiyigesugeladishihuiyizhe。“buzhizhu”yu“congzijichufa”,zaisugeladizheili,zhengshiyitizhiliangmian。yansudedesugeladizhuyizhe,chulenuliweichizheizhong“buzhizhu—congzijichufa”yishiwai,yingdangbiewurenhesuoqiu。duitalaishuo“zhenli”(shizaixing、yonghengxingfu)jiuneizaiyuzheizhong“baochi”zhizhong,taliyingbiewusuoqiu。xiangfan,ruguotaqituzaizheizhong“baochi”zhiwai,xunqiujuyoujuedingxingyiyi(zuoweizhenliyuanquan)deshike(ren、shi、wu);ruguotaqitumaiguozheiyangyigeshike,yiqijieshuneimeiwanmeilede“baochi”(buzhizhu—congzijichufa);neime,zaizheiyangdeshengcunyishizhong,tajiukaishiyusugeladishizhenlirenshilunfendaoyangbiao。tasuozhenshidejuedingxingshike,jiuchengletadezhizhesuozai。rongguanyizhidesugeladizhuyizhebushewangjuedingxingshike。

jingjielunsiweidaoshiqiwangkuayuejuedingxingshike,tayiyongyoubingjianxingxianchengdezhenlizhishi(duiyuzuigaojingjiedeguiding)weimude。zaishangyijiezhongtiyuwaiweicengzhichu,kaolvdaoshikedechujingxing,guanyuzhenlidequanzhibukenengshixianchengde。shengcunzhezaikuayuejuedingxingshikezhihou,wufayixianchengzhishidefangshibaoyouzhenlixingquanzhi。tayongyouzhenlixingquanzhidefangshi,zhinengshileisiyusugeladishi“yiwang”——ji: yibuzhiqingdefangshizhidao,yiyiwangdefangshiyongyou。zheiyangdekuayue(juedingxingshike)zhe,jinrudenaishisugeladishishengcun。buguo,haiyoulingwaiyizhongkeneng。shengcunzhezaikuayuejuedingxingshikezhihou,bujiangzhuyilijizhongzai“yibuzhiqingdefangshizhidao/yiyiwangdefangshiyongyou”de“zhenliquanzhi”shang。xiangfan,tabayujuedingxingshikexiangyingdechujinghuazhenzhi,shiweishiyongyusuoyoushikedezhenliquanzhi。ruciyilai,gaishengcunzhejiuhuiquanliyifu,shitujiangneishikedechujinghuazhenzhi,qiangxingguanchedaozaitazhihoudesuoyoushike。bunanzhichu,fojiaosuopipingde,zhengshizheizhongzhizhe。sugeladishitongyangbuzanchengzheizhongqiangxingguanche(zheishiduiguyouzhenliyuhuiyiyuanzedefouding)。raner,rujiajingjielun,sihuqiaqiadaiyouzheizhongtezheng。

jingjielunyujiaohualun,shi《daxue》dedise。《zhongyong》bingmeiyoufangqicierlun。jingjielunshangde“guoyoubuji”xianxiang,suiranciji《zhongyong》yinshenchu“qidianlun”yishi,dan《zhongyong》bingweijiucifangqiduizuigaojingjiedeerzhuiqiu。zaikan《mengzi》。xiangbi《xunzi》,《mengzi》yougengzijuedeqidianlunyishi。danzhengshizheiyangyigemengzi,zaitanlun“xingshan”deshihou,haobuyouyudijiang“ceyin(ren)、xiue(yi)、cirang(li)、shifei(zhi)”sixinshewei“xingzhisiduan”。anzhaoqidianlundeluoji,shenmeshizhenzhengde“ceyin(ren)、xiue(yi)、cirang(li)、shifei(zhi)”,qiaqiaxuyaozai“lvxing/congzijichufa”deguochengzhongbuduan(zaigezhongchujingzhong)tihui。renheyizhongtedingde“ceyin(ren)、xiue(yi)、cirang(li)、shifei(zhi)”lijie(chujinghuazhishi),doujibuzuyizhengming“xingshan”,yebuzuyizhidaoshengcunzhezhenzhengjinru“ren、yi、li、zhi”jingjie。yangelaishuo,tayebuzuyishishengcunzhezhenzhengzuodao“lvxing/congzhenzhengdezijichufa”。raner,mengzijingzhizhichuzhei“siduan”,bingyaoqingxuezhe“kuochong”cisiduanzhixin。zheiqiaqiatouluchuxianqinrujiaduiren、yi、li、zhisitiaodemu(zuoweixianchengzhishi)detuichong。tebiedi,zailaozi“wuwei”、zhuangzi“xiaoyao”、yangzhu“weiji”、mojia“jianai”dengzhuzhangduizhaoxia,《mengzi》de“siduan”shuo,gengxiandeshiweirujiacanyuxuepaijiandejingjielunzhizhengliangshendazao。yiyoudejingjielunchuantong,xianruweizhudizhudaolezheizhongqidian(siduan)lun。ruxuezhongdejingjielunchuantongzhiqiangdayoucikejianyiban。

正是基于这种境界论传统,韩愈在《原道》中大声疾呼曰: “凡吾所谓道德云者,合仁与义言之也,天下之公言也。老子之所谓道德云者,去仁与义言之也,一人之私言也。”又曰: “斯吾所谓道也,非向所谓老与佛之道也。”[37]站在境界论角度看,“不执着”、“机缘”关系、“平等”意识,乃是对儒家理想的一种挑战。只要儒者还持守儒家境界论传统,则“不执著、机缘、平等”等起点论意识,就只不过是达致最高境界的手段,因而不具有永恒性。手段如果被赋予永恒性,那就会被认为是在挑战最高境界的权威性。《中庸》在提出“率性之谓道”后,紧接着就是“修道之谓教”。特别地,在《中庸》最后部分,它拿出专门篇幅谈论“君子”与“至圣”者的榜样、教化作用。这都表明,境界论意识在《中庸》作者思维中,是一个重要因素。总体上看,《中庸》既不持纯粹的起点论(这会被认为反叛儒家道德传统),也不持纯粹的境界—教化论(因为单纯的教化论会遇到过犹不及问题)。《中庸》思维的总体格局,如它自己所说,是“尊德性而道问学”。传统境界论意识(体现在“道问学”上),与苏格拉底式起点论意识(体现在“尊德性”上),在这里给人一种相辅相成的印象。然而,考虑到此二论在逻辑上的不相容性,这种并存又是一种相互牵制。“教化论”与“起点论”(苏格拉底式的),任何一论试图全面展开,在儒学传统中都会遭遇巨大压力。

danshi,zheizhongkansi“jiangu”debingcun,bingmeiyouwanquanjiejueshengcunwenti。lishishang,mengzijizisizhihou,shitugengqizhixianmingdichangdaorujiaqidianlun(sugeladishide)。weici,tatichu“xingshan”、“xingzhisiduan”denggainianyushe,yu“yangqi”、“xinwuwangwuzhuzhang”deng“jinxing”fangfa。mianduizheizhong“buxueerneng”、“bulverzhi”de“xingshan”nengli,xunzizhanzai“jingjielun”dejiaodugandaojiweibushi。yinwei,buxueerneng、bulverzhide“xingshan”(mengziyouchengqiwei“liangneng”、“liangzhi”),sihuquxiaole“jingjiedeshizhixingtisheng”gainian。weici,xunzizhenfengxiangduitichu“xinge”yushe,bingyi“liyi”、“jiaohua”(“mingliyierhuazhi”)zuoweitishengjingjiedegenbenxingshouduan。tiyuwaiweishuo,zheishijingjielunyuqidianlun,zairuxueshishangdediyicizhengmianjiaofeng。——“jingjielun—jiaohua”yu“qidianlun—congzijichufa”,xianranshiliangzhongchabiejiaodadeshengcunyishi。ruguojinjinzhuyiqisiweifangshishangdechabie,erbuzhuazhuqigongtongdewentiyishi,zetiyuwaiweijiuhennanzaixunxueyumengxuezhizhengzheigewentishanggengjinyibu。zheiyangyilai,zuoweiyigeruzhe,jiujingshiyinggaijinruxunxueshishengcun(qiangdiaojiaohuayushoujiao),haishiyinggaijinrumengxueshishengcun(xiangsugeladineiyangqiangdiaocongzijichufa),jiuchengleyijianmeiyoudaolikejiangdeshiqing。

至于宋代,宋儒在较为自觉的起点论意识中拥孟贬荀,认为“荀子一句性恶大本已失”(二程)。但是,宋儒(也包括明儒)对儒家起点论背后的问题意识,似乎并不十分明确。比如,朱熹在《大学章句》中,一方面预设天命之性,另一方面则又强调君师的教化作用。这种思考方案虽然有《中庸》“尊德性而道问学”作为依据,但却妨碍了《中庸》起点论在生存中的落实。因为: 严谨的学者往往更注重接受看得见的教化,而较少追究那看不见的善性究竟有没有(如何)发挥作用。因为这种不追究(或相对来说较少追究),朱学更多地给人一种格外物、受教化的“荀学”印象。王阳明按照这种方式“格物致知”,始终觉得“物理与吾心终若判而为二”,遂改弦更张而自觉采纳“从自己出发”的起点论思维。先秦的荀、孟之争,至此化为理学(朱学)、心学(王学)之辩。——体育外围知道,王阳明的思路(在体育外围看来是比较彻底的苏格拉底式起点论),在王学末流之后,往往饱受学人诟病(这些诟病多是基于儒家境界论传统的)。而现当代的儒学研究者们,则往往习惯沿用已有的“朱(荀)派”、“王(孟)派”标签,以之评判、分解儒学史上的各种文本。郭沫若、冯友兰、梁涛的《大学》、《中庸》解大致属于这种格局。[38]台湾的牟宗三先生则在坚持这两派划分的基础上,以其执着的判教思维区分“正宗”与“别子”。[39]近年来,中国大陆的另一位研究者郭沂,则尝试将这两派(他分别称之为“外在派”与“内在派”)合为一体。[40]体育外围——凡此种种,皆首先注意到了“境界论—教化”思维与“起点论—从自己出发”意识,之间的重大差异。然而,作为一个与儒者切实相关的生存问题——究竟选择前者,还是选择后者——历史学的标签式评判、分解,显然无法提供指导乃至一丁点暗示。而判教思维中的“宗、别”之论,极具理论抱负的“合一”架构,虽不乏取舍与主见,但由于缺乏共同的、更基本的问题意识,这些“主见”反而显有“自说自话”的嫌疑。境界论与起点论、朱(荀)派与王(孟)派之争问题,并没有以哲学论证的方式得以实质性推进。

zaibenwenzhong,tiyuwaiweihuidaorujiatanlunjingjieyuqidiandeyuantouxingwenben。tebiedi,tongguodui《zhongyong》wenbenjinxingshengcunfenxi,tiyuwaiweifaxian,rujiaqidianlundetichubeihouyinzangzheshenkede“zhenzhi”wentiyishi。zheigewentiyuxifangsixiangshizhongde“zhenli”wentiyoushizhishangdekebinixing。jiezhuxixueguanyuzhenliwentideyiyoulunzheng,tiyuwaiweishenzhikeyidui《zhongyong》“zundexingerdaowenxue”(jiangujingjielunyuqidianlun)jinxinggengshenrudefenxi。“zundexingerdaowenxue”detifa,shijishangwenhediyunhanzhejingjielunyuqidianzhizheng,tashiweimeng、xunhezhu、wangzhizhengzhifubi。——zaizhenlihuozhenlirenshilunwentideyujingzhongjiexizheiyizhenglun,jieguojiubujinjinshihuafenpaibiehuozhichuyitong。“zhenli”yicidelunzhengliliang,yiji“renshizhenli”zheiyigongtongmubiao,jiangzhijietuidongfenxizhezaifenqiyuzhenglunzhijianxunqiuchulu。chulunengdadaohezhongdibushangbudeerzhi(zheixuyaomanmanxunqiu),zhongyaodeshi,zhenlirenshilunwentikanqilaiqueshiyoupanhuolishishangde“jingjielunyuqidianlunzhizheng”denengli。——yejiushishuo,zaizhenlirenshilunyujingzhong,ruxuezhongdejingjielunyuqidianlunzhizheng,jianghuishiyigehexiandairenshengcunxixixiangguandewenti。

结语

rujiajingjielunyuqidiansiweizaidangdaizhongguoyiranliuxing,qizhongyunhandezhenlijiqirenshilunwenti,yineryudangdairenshengcunxixixiangguan。anzhaojierkeguo《zhexuepianduan》diyizhang,rongguanyizhidezhenlirenshilunzhiyouliangzhong。yizhongshisuoweisugeladimoshi,qiangdiaoqiangdiaocongzijichufa,jujuejuedingxingshikegainian;lingyizhongshisuoweizhenlijiaoshimoshi,yangzhangzhenlijiaoshishiyiyuanshou,juedingxingshikeshiqihexinyaosu。zheishiliangzhongjieranxiangfandezhenlirenshilun。zuoweibijiao,《daxue》jingjieluntongyangjuyoumouzhong“juedingxingshike”yishi,zhongshijiaohuazhedechuanshouzhidaogongneng。raner,《zhongyong》de“tianmingzhiweixing,lvxingzhiweidao”qidianlunsiwei,zegaojurenshizhezijiguyoudezhenlirenshinengli。jiucieryan,ruxueyoujuyoubukehushidesugeladishiyinsu。kaolvdaosugeladimoshiyuzhenlijiaoshimoshizailuojishangwufaxiangrong,benwenrenwei,ruxueyoubiyaozai“zhenlirenshilun”yujingzhongzhongxinshenshi“jingjielunyuqidianlunzhizheng”wenti。

比较哲学史研究

比较的意义与可能的误区

——以梁启超为例

储昭华 谭研*

内容提要: 在中国近现代思想史上,梁启超不仅非常自觉、积极地从中西哲学与文化比较的视野来重新认识、评判和改造中国文化,而且形成了丰富的比较方法论思想,具有很强的代表意义。本文通过总结分析梁启超比较方法论的不同层次的意蕴、其积极效应与所隐含的矛盾张力,意在以其为典型个案,力图揭示、并警示人们,在强调比较研究积极意义的同时,也应警惕、避免其中可能隐含的思想误区和可能形成的误导。

关键词: 梁启超 比较方法论 比较视野 文化融合 思想误区

jindaiyijiang,suizheguomendedongkai,zhongxinrenshihuaxiawenhuajiqihequhecong,shibaizaimeiyiweiguanzhuminzumingyundesixiangjiamianqiandegenbenzhuti。kaishizhengkaishuangyankanshijiedeyoushizhishimenfenfenzijuezhudongdiyuyixifangwenhuaweizhudaodewailaiwenhuazhankaibijiao,congyizhongxindeshiyehechidulairenshi、pingpanhuaxiawenhua。zaizheidangzhong,liangqichaowuyishiyigezhongyaodedaibiaorenwu。zuoweijindaisixiangxianquzhiyi、xueshushangdeyidaizongshi,liangqichaodedaibiaoxingshouxiandangrantixianzai,zijue、jijidishunyingshidaidechaoliu,yizonglanzhongxiwenhuadehongkuoshiye,laizhongxinrenshi、pingpanzhongguowenhua,tansuozhongxiwenhuaderonghezhidao,xingchenglefengfudewenhuabijiaodefangfalunsixiang,bingguanchuanyuzhenggesixiangyanbianhegexiangyanjiuhuodongzhizhong,gouchengqizhongyaodejidianhedongli。liangqichaosixiangdexingcheng、yanbian,yijizhuduoxueshuchengjiudehuode,hendachengdushangjiudeyiyuzheizhongbijiaodeshiyehefangfa。chucizhiwai,liangqichaohaiyoulingyizhonggengshencengdedaibiaoyiyi——qisixiangdeduobian、shanbiandengtezhengjimouxiequexian,youhechangbukeyicongzheizhongbijiaofangfazhonghuodemouzhongjieshi?yinci,duitiyuwaiweilaishuo,yifangmian,liangqichaoduibijiaofangfadeqiangdiaohetanjiu、qisuoxingchengbingzijueguanchedebijiaoyanjiudefangfalunsixiang,zuoweiyizhongbaoguidesixiangziyuan,zhiderenzhenjiayizongjiefajue,duitiyuwaiweijintiandebijiaoyanjiuwuyijuyoujijideqidihezhidaozuoyong;lingyifangmian,zaiqibijiaofangfayusixiangtezhengjiquexianzhijiandeguanlianzhizhong,youyunhanzhebijiaoyanjiufangmiandemouzhonglilunjiaoxun,duiqijiayipouxizeduicujinbijiaoyanjiudejianquanfazhanyinggaijuyoushenkedejingshiyiyi。

yi

就比较哲学与比较文化而言,梁启超之值得重视,首先在于其对比较视野与方法的必然性与意义的透彻洞察和始终坚持。在其师康有为的影响下,梁启超从一开始,就清醒地认识,面对“数千年来未有之变局”,华夏文化必须主动地以西方文化为主的外来文化为参照,通过相互比较来重新认识自身,选择前行的方向。这是时代的潮流所在,也是华夏文化更新的必由之路,因为只有这样才能真正深入透彻地认识中国文化的本质特征,做出新的评判,明确其缺陷究竟何在,长处又在何处。“欲求人群进化之真相,必当合人类全体而比较之,通古今文野界而观察之。”[41]体育外围与包括其师在内的很多思想家不同,从早期直到晚期,这一信念始终贯穿于梁启超思想的整个演变历程之中,构成其重要基点和方法,并由此形成了一整套比较方法论思想。梁启超之所以超出其诸多同道,在长达四分之一世纪的时间内都堪称时代潮流的引导者,很大程度上正是源于这一深广的视野和全新的方法。

gaiyaoshuolai,liangqichaozhuyaocongsangecengcichanminglebijiaoyanjiudemudeyuyiyi,bingzijueditixianheguancheyuqixueshuyanjiuhesixiangjiangouguochengzhizhong。

体育外围1、tongguozhongxibijiao,zhongxinrenshiyupingpanzhongxue。

zheiyidian,tuchutixianzailiangqichaoduizhongguochuantongwenhuadezairenshiyujiazhifajueguochengzhizhong。

在梁启超那里,比较对于重新认识传统文化的积极意义,具体体现在两个方面: 其一,提供了一种新的、更有效的认识、分析方法。就此而言,它如同在万木草堂求道时,其师康有为为弟子们专门购置的西方显微镜一样。显微镜可以让人洞察从前无从认识的事物及其内在奥秘,而比较同样让人们得以更深入、透彻地认识自身。“要发挥体育外围的文化,非借他们的文化做途径不可。因为他们研究的方法,实在精密,所谓‘工欲善其事,必先离其器’。”[42]例如,“国故之学,曷为直至今日乃渐复活耶?盖由吾侪受外来学术之影响,采彼都治学方法以理吾故物。于是乎昔人绝未注意之资料,映吾眼而忽莹;昔人认为不可理之系统,经吾手而忽整;乃至昔人不甚了解之语句,旋吾脑而忽畅;质言之,则吾侪所恃之利器,实‘洋货’也。”[43]

在《治国学的两条大路——在南京东南大学国学研究所的讲演》中,一方面,梁启超对西学之片面性多有针砭,另一方面,也针对古典考释学问题,提醒人们,治国学的人,“应该负一种责任: 将所有重要古典,都重新审定一番,解释一番。这种工作,前清一代的学者已经做得不少。体育外围一面凭借他们的基础,容易进行;一面体育外围因外国学问的触发,可以有许多补他们所不及。”[44]从这个意义上,梁启超告诫人们,“非读万国之书,则不能通一国之书。”[45]“自古未有不通他国之学,而能通本国之学者,亦未有不通本国之学,而能通他国之学者。”[46]

在这一层面上,梁启超尤其强调西学中自然科学、人文科学中普遍采用并构成其重要特征的科学方法及其重要性。在另一篇演讲《科学精神与东西文化——8月20日在南通为科学社年会讲演》中,梁启超历陈西方科学所具有的诸多积极意义和国人对科学的藐视和偏见之危害,一口气列举出由此导致的中国学术界的五大“病证”,针对这一系列弊端,梁启超明确指出: “体育外围若不拿科学精神去研究,便做那一门学问也做不成。……体育外围大胆说一句,中国人对于科学这两种态度倘若长此不变,中国人在世界上便永远没有学问的独立,中国人不久必要成为现代被淘汰的国民。”[47]

体育外围qier,yuqitawenhuatebieshixifangjindaijinbuwenhuadebijiao,jiangweiyanjiuzhetigongyizhongxinde、genghelidejiazhizhunze,yineryouzhuyuyanjiuzhegenghaodijiexi、pingpanchuantongsixiangdelibideshi,congerfajuehelideziyuan,yangqiqibiduan。congzheigeyiyishangshuo,bijiaojiubuzhishiyizhongfangfahuojiyi,ergengshiyizhongjianbiehezhongxinxuanze,yizhongyongyubingshanyuyitazhedeyanguang、xindecanzhaoheguangyuanlaifaxian、shenshizishen,yiyizhongxindezhunze、chidulaizhongxinrenshizishen。

体育外围liangqichaotongguoduizhongguochuantongshixuedechedibiangeerchuanglidexinshixue,keweizheizhongbijiaoshiyehefangfachenggongyunyongdechenggongdianfan。zuoweiliangqichaozhelizuiduo、yegongxianzuidadelingyu,qi“xinshixue”yiduizhongguochuantongshixuedezhongdabiangehechaoyueerjuyoulichengbeidediwei,kewei“weishijiepiyixintiandi”。

梁启超之所以如此重视史学的革命,就源于中西文明比较的触动和启迪。“于今日泰西通行诸学科中,为中国所固有者,惟史学。史学者,学问之最博大而切要者也,国民之明镜也,爱国心之源泉也。今日欧洲民族主义所以发达,列国所以日进文明,史学之功居其半焉。”[48]而中国史学,“虽尽读全史,而曾无有足以激厉其爱国之心,团结其合群之力,以应今日之时势而立于万国者。然则吾中国史学,外貌虽极发达,而不能如欧美各国民之实受其益也,职此之由。”“呜呼,史界革命不起,则吾国遂不可救。悠悠万事,惟此为大!”[49]

那么,如何改造、变革?正是以泰西史学为参照,梁启超总结出中国传统史学的四端病源: 一曰,知有朝廷而不知有国家;二曰,知有个人而不知有群体;三曰,知有陈迹而不知有今务;四曰,知有事实而不知有理想。由此四蔽,而生中国传统史学本身固有之二病,其一,有铺叙而不能别裁;其二,能因袭而不能创作。因此,使得“中国之史,非益民智之具,而耗民智之具也。”[50]体育外围明乎此,所谓变革,就是应从这四个方面对中国传统史学加以彻底改造和转变,由此梁启超创立起其影响深远的“新史学”。它在一定意义上开创了近代史学研究的全新范式,也堪称梁启超中西比较研究的最突出的成果。

conggengdafanweilaikan,liangqichaodezhenggeguoxueyanjiuhechangbudeyiyuci?liangqichaodengxueshudajiazhisuoyinengzhuoranchaoyueyuqianjiaxuepaidekaojuxuedengchuantongjiuxuezhishang,erkaichuangchuquanxindefangxianghejumian,haowuyiwenshiyuqiquanxindezhongxiwenhuabijiaodeshiyehefangfafenbukaide。hennanshexiang,ruguomeiyouyouyushidaichaoliubianhuasuotigonghecudongdezheizhongxindeshijiehefangfa,ershijuxianchuantongdezhongxuezhinei,liangqichaodenghuiyourucizhongyaodexueshugongxianhejudayingxiang;shenzhihennanshexiang,ruguomeiyouzheizhongbijiaoshiyehefangfa,nengfouhuiyoujinxiandaisixiangyuxueshudefanrongjinbu。

2、bijiaodegenggaomudeyuyiyishijiejian、xishouqitawenhuadejingshengaizao、gengxinzishen。

在通过比较而对传统文化展开新的阐释的过程中,当研究者以一种新的价值准则来展开评判时,实质上已然意味着,他已将其视为更合理的价值,意在加以借鉴和吸收以完善自身。在梁启超那里,尤其如此。这是梁启超关于比较的意义的更深理解,是其展开比较的更高一层的目的。由此,以比较为基点,进一步导向以这些更合理的价值改造、更新华夏文化,通过改造国民、社会与国家,赢得民族的富强和发展。“故今日不欲强吾国则已,欲强吾国,则不可不博考各国民族所以自立之道,汇择其长者而取之,以补体育外围之所未及。”[51]

在梁启超的新民说中,其关于“新民”的阐释,可谓这一宗旨的集中体现: “新民云者,非欲吾民尽弃其旧以从人也。新之义有二: 一曰,淬厉其所本有而新之。二曰,采补其所本无而新之。二者缺一,时乃无功。先哲之立教也,不外因材而笃与变化气质之两途,斯即吾淬厉所固有采补所本无之说也。一人如是,众民亦然。”“善调和者,斯为伟大国民……故吾所谓新民者,必非如心醉西风者流,蔑弃吾数千年之道德学术风俗,以求伍于他人。亦非如墨守故纸者流,谓仅抱此数千年之道德风俗,遂足以立于大地也。”[52]

体育外围3、bijiaodezuizhongzhixiangzaiyujiangoupubianshijiexingdequanxinwenhua。

体育外围liangqichaosuoweidejiejian,bingbushidanxiangde,eryinggaishishuangxiang、xianghude,jibujinzhongguowenhuayinggaijiejianxifangwenhuajiqitawailaiwenhuayiwanshanzishen,tongyang,zhongguowenhuaduixifangwenhuadengyejuyouzhongyaodebuchonghejiupianzuoyong。zheijishihuaxiawenhuaduiyurenleisuozuochudedutedegongxian,yeshirenleiwenhuafazhandegenbenfazehequshi。

与此相应地,在梁启超那里,比较还有着更高乃至最终的目的,那就是通过西方文化改造中国,中国文化补充西方,最终融各种文化之优点于一身,建构普遍世界性的文化。这是双方相互认识、借鉴的必然趋势。梁启超形象地以男女相爱结合来比喻这种双向的互补和融合: “盖大地今日只有两文明,一泰西文明,欧美是也;二泰东文明,中华是矣。二十世纪,则两文明结婚之时代也。……彼西方美人,必能为体育外围家育宁馨儿以亢体育外围宗也。”[53]二者互补互促,最终走向会通融合。“要之,舍西学而言中学,其中学必为无用,舍中学而言西学者,其西学必为无体。无用无本,皆不足以治天下,虽庠序如林,逢掖如鲫,适以蠹国,无救危亡。”[54]

在这一点,梁启超与其挚友谭嗣同,可谓志同道合。一方面,国门的大开,与各种外来思想文化的比较,让这些睁开眼睛看世界的先驱者们视野得以充分地展开,从更大的图景中来重新认识自身及其与外在世界的相互关系;另一方面,反过来,这又推动、促使梁启超们从整体的、朝向未来的视域中来理进一步理解比较的意义与旨向,着眼长远展开比较研究。“就此说来,一个人不是把自己的国家弄到富强便了,却是要把自己国家有功于人类全体。……明白这道理,自然知道体育外围的国家有个绝大责任横在前途。什么责任呢?是拿西洋的文明来扩充体育外围的文明,又拿体育外围的文明去补充西洋的文明,叫他化合起来成一种新文明。”[55]

zonglanliangqichaosixiangdezhengti,wulunjiuqifazhanyanbiandezhenggelichenglaishuo,haishijiuqisixiangdebutonglingyujiluojigouchengeryan,bijiaoshiyehefangfadoushizhongfahuizhezhongyaodezuoyong。tashiliangqichaozhenggesixiangdezhuzhisuozai,yeshitiyuwaiweilijieqisixiangyanbiandeneizaidongli、xiansuojijibentezhengdeyaochi。

zhidezhichudeshi,zaizheisancengmudeyuyiyidangzhong,zaixueshuyanjiucengmian,yibijiaoweifangfa,liangqichaoxiangdangdichenggongkaichuangchuzhongxueyanjiudexingeju,chengweijindaixueshushishangdeyidaizongshi。erxiangxingzhixia,zairuhejiejian、jieyinxifangwenhuadejiazhiyigaizaozhongguowenhua,shixianxianghuronghedecengmian,liangqichaoshizhongchuyutansuodeguochengzhizhong。youyulishishishideyingxiang,gengyouyuzishendekunhuo,liangqichaochangchangchengxianchumaodunyuyaobai,yinerdaozhilerenmenduiyouzhejiongranbutongdejieshihepingjia。jianyanzhi,zuoweisixiangjiadeliangqichao,kongpayuanburuzuoweixuewenjiahejindaijinbusichaodechuanbozheyusixiangqimengzheliangqichaochenggong。zhishao,qidiweiyuyiyimeiyouxianghouzheneiyangweirenmensuopubiangongren。

er

zaichongfenkendingbijiaoshiyeyufangfaduiyuliangqichaosixiangyuxueshufazhandejijiyiyidejichushang,benwenxiangjinyibutaolundeshi,liangqichaodezheizhongbijiaoshiyeyufangfayuqisixiangdejibentezhenghuomouxiequexianzhijianyouwuneizailianxijizenyangdelianxi。yushangshudejijixiaoyingxiangbi,zheiyidianwangwangweirenmensuohushi,erqizhongqiaqiakenengyunhanzhegengshenkedejingshiyiyi,yinergengzhidetanjiufansi。

tiyuwaiweibufangcongliangqichaosixiangdezuilingrenguanzhudetuchutezheng,jiqiduobianxing、shanbianxingshuoqi。

关于梁启超一生思想究竟有几变,研究者有各种不同的说法。比较有代表性的观点是认为,其思想最大的转变至少有三次或四次。第一次,受其师康有为启示与引导,开始借鉴西方文化的理念与方法来重新阐释、改造中学,并以其启蒙民智。据《梁启超传》所述,在万木草堂及其后的强学会期间,康有为以其所开创的将中学传统(主要是儒家文化)与最新的西学相互参照、结合起来的教学、训导模式,从根本宗旨和视野、方法两大层面对梁启超等众多弟子的思想形成、发展历程有着极其深刻的影响,[56]梁启超始终注重以比较为基点来重新认识中国文化、探索其发展方向,应该就源自这一决定性影响。第二次,逃亡日本之后,通过日本人的翻译介绍,梁启超进一步对西方思想文化有了更全面而深入的了解,由此导致了其思想的重大飞跃与转变。第三次,在游历美国之后,对以美国为代表的西方政治制度的形成与运作方式有了更切近的观察和认识,对比当时中国文化、社会和国民的实际,而导致了立场态度的显著改变,政治上转向君主立宪。第四次,1918年底欧游之后,基于对第一次世界大战之后欧洲的社会与思想面貌的认识和深思,开始转而更多地强调中国文化对西方文化的补充与纠偏、矫正作用,以至于被一些人片面地理解为抛弃西方文化、重新归返于华夏文化。

体育外围bunanfaxian,liangqichaosixiangdezheixiezhongdazhuanbian,jihuwuyiliwaididouyouzhexifangwenhuazheiyiwaiyindeqiangliecudongheyingxiang。queqiedishuo,qizhenzhengdedongyinzaiyu,suizheliangqichaoduixifangwenhuayuzhengzhi、shehuirenshideshenhuahuogaibian,qiguanyuzhongxiwenhuabijiaodejielunhejiazhiquxiangyexiangyingdizhuanbian,youcidaozhiqizhengzhiyuwenhualichangdeshanbianhezhongxin、qingxiangdepianyi。zhiyanzhi,zheixiezhongyaozhuanbian,naishizhongxiwenhuazailiangqichaonaohaizhongyicicixianghupengzhuang、huaheerdaozhide。zhengshiyouyuwenhuabijiaojieguodegaibian,cudonglezheixiesixianglichangyuqingxiangdezhuanbian。

其实,变化本身非但不值得惊异,毋宁说正是梁启超等所倡导和追求的。在梁启超看来,变不仅是历史发展的规律,也是生机和活力的体现,“凡在天下之间者,莫不变。……上下千岁,无时不变,无事不变。……变者,天下之公理也。……变亦变,不变亦变。变而变者,变之权操诸己,可以保国,可以保种,可以保教。不变而变者,变之权操诸人,束缚之,弛骤之,呜呼,则非吾之所敢言矣。”[57]体育外围落实到其自身,梁启超总是不断超越,勇于以今日之体育外围超越昨日之体育外围。

体育外围zaizhongguojindaisixiangshishang,youyushishidebuduanbianhuan,duobiannaishizheiyishiqijuedaduoshusixiangjiamengongyoudetexing,zhishichengdubutongeryi。tamenbujinzhengzhilichangbuduanbianhua,erqiewenhuajiazhiquxiangyeqianhouqiyi。ruguojiuzhuanbiandejuliechengdueryan,liangqichaosixiangdebianhuaweibiguoyuqipengyouyanfu、yangdudeng。

liangqichaosixiangduobiandezhenzhengteshuzhichu,bushizaiyuqisixiangdedanchunshijianweidushangdeqianhoubianhua,yebuzaiyuqisixiangdejihugegefangmiandoubuduanbianhua,erzaiyuqishizhongzaibutongdejiazhiquxiangzhijianbuduanqingxie、tengnuohezhuanbian,changchangzaitongyishiqidebutongchanghe,shenzhitongyipianyanjianghewenzhangzhong,tongyangyouzhejiongranbutongdeqiangdiaoheqixiang,zheijiugouchengleshenkedeneizaimaodunzhangli。liewensenzaiqimingzhu《liangqichaoyuzhongguojindaisixiang》zhong,jiutichumianduixifangwenhuadechongji,liangqichaocongyikaishijiuchuyulishiyujiazhi,lizhiyuqinggandemaodunchongtuzhizhong,zhengshizheizhongchongtushideliangqichaosuizheshishidebianqian,congwenhuazonghezhuyidaoguojiazhuyi、congzhuzhonggeren、gexingdaoqiangdiaoqunti、guojiadezhongyaoxingdeng,buduanzhuanbian。zheizhongjieshimoshidangranyouzhideshangquezhichu。danhenxianran,liangqichaosixiangdeduobian,bushidanchunlishishishidebianqianhezuoweixuanchuanjia,zaibutongdechangheqiangdiaodezhongdianzirangebuxiangtongsuonengjieshide,qishencenggenyuanyingzaiyuqineibusuoyunhandemaodunchongtu。

梁启超自己对此有着自省和自体育外围剖析。在《保教非所以尊孔论》的题注中就坦陈“此篇与著者数年前之论相反对,所谓体育外围操体育外围矛以伐体育外围者也。”[58]他深知,这一特征不仅令友人和读者困惑,也大大折损启蒙宣传的效果。其友黄遵宪就曾明确质疑过。但梁启超自体育外围剖析说,这乃是由于其内心里的矛盾所致,不得不然也。比较的视野和方法在构成梁启超思想的根本宗旨的整体性与一贯性的同时,也导致了具体倾向与侧重点的摇摆与变异。其原因既在于对西学、中学及其相互关系的认识的不断深化,更源于其判断、取舍中的困惑。如此一来,不仅使得关于梁启超思想演变的动力、规律和取向,形成各种不同的解释,对其评价也是言人人殊,而且使梁启超思想的启蒙效应受到折损,损害其应有的理论意义,甚至在某种意义上造成误导。

san

体育外围ruguoshuo,liangqichaosixiangdebuduanbianhuabeihousuoyunhandemaodun,zaiyidingchengdushangqueshigouchengleqisixiangdezhongyaoquexian,neime,weishenmehuiyouzheiyangdemaodunhuoquexian?zheizhongquexianyuqibijiaodefangfajiujingyouwuluojilianxi?daanyinggaishikendingde。zheizhongmaodunzhanglidexingcheng,yifangmianjiukeguanyuanyineryan,dangranshiyuanyujindaizhongguolishibenshendefuzayumaodun,lingyifangmian,yeshiyuanyuliangqichaobijiaofangfabenshendemouzhongquexian,zaimouxiefangmianbuzhibujuedixianrulewuqu。tabujinyuliangqichaobijiaofangfalundemouzhongshiwumiqiexiangguan,yeshejidaobijiaobeihousuoyinhandeyixiezhongyaowenti,zhidetiyuwaiweijinyibuzhuiwenhesikao,qiezheizhongqingkuangbingbujinjincunzaiyuliangqichaoyirenshenshang,erjuyouxiangdangdepubianxing,yinciqizhongdelilunjiaoxunyouqizhiderenzhenzongjiejiqu。

1、jiujingweishenmeerbijiao?

按照上述的总结,对梁启超来说,这个问题似乎不成其为问题,其答案再清楚不过了。然而,撇开学术研究上借鉴西学的方法和价值、以中西比较为视野和方法这一点始终不变且卓有成效外,就其思想而言,在所谓借鉴西方文化以变革、改造中国文化与中国社会,进而使二者相互补充、矫正,以造就世界性的新文化背后,从一开始就隐含着一个更深的或曰真正的问题: 如何判定西方文化的合理因素?对中国文化来说,究竟以什么准则来判断并选择吸收、采纳西方文化的合理因素?答案不是别的,乃是救亡图存、民族复兴。无论远景多么宏阔,而当下最关切的还是民族的危亡。“人生最大的目的,是要向人类全体有所贡献。为什么呢?因为人类全体才是‘自体育外围’的极量。……为什么要有国家?因为有个国家才容易把这国家以内一群人的文化力量聚拢起来,继续起来,增长起来,好加入人类全体中助他发展。所以国家是人类全体进化的一种手段。”[59]体育外围这一点,不仅梁启超如此,严复如此,直到后来五四新文化运动时期,都一直是中国近现代思想演变的主旋律。

如上所述,梁启超对近代以来国人在中西文化比较过程中所出现的诸多偏差、失误及其危害,有着清醒的认识,其洞察远比许多同时代人透彻。例如,他反复提醒人们,每一种思想观念和价值准则,都有一个形成、演变的过程,这个过程既是体育外围理解其真正含义的语境,更是其存在、发展,形成固有效应的基础所在。“须知凡一种思想,总是拿他的时代来做背景,体育外围要学的,是学那思想的根本精神,不是学他派生的条件,因为一落到条件,就没有不受时代支配的。”[60]因此,在比较和借鉴过程中,既不应该在认识论层面上简单比附,也不能在价值层面上直接照搬、移植,而应该着力培育其赖以生成的文化基础与土壤,否则,将很可能橘生淮北则为枳,甚至与真正的目标背道而驰。梁启超不仅这样告诫、警示人们,也一直在致力于这样培育根基的事业,如对新民的呼唤,对文化的改造,就是其典型体现。

raner,lingrenshensideshi,zaiyixieshihou,liangqichaozijiyetongyangbuzijuedixianruletazijisuogaojiedewuqu。riyishenzhongdeminzuweiji,shitakeqiutongguoyinjinxifangwenhua,yijiejiuwangzhiji。erdangqiwangluokongshi,biankaishihuaiyi、dongyao。zheibujindaozhileqisixiangdeduobian、shanbian,yebukebimiandishideqibutongshiqi、butongcengcisixiangzhijianxingchengbutongchengdudeneizaidemaodunchongtu。yuzhixiangyingdi,renmenduiqisixianglichang、qingxiangyejiuyouzhebutongdedingxinghepingjia。congzheigeyiyishangshuo,liangqichaodeduibijiaofangfakenengxianrudewuqudejieluhepipanyouhechangbushizhenduiqizishen,zhengruqizaiqitazhuduowentishangsuozitiyuwaiweijiepoudeneiyang。yezhengjiyuzheiyidian,tiyuwaiweirenweiliewensenguanyuliangqichaosixiangzhonglishiyujiazhi、qingganyulizhideneizaimaodundezongjiefenxi,bingfeiwudefangshi,ershiyoujiaoqiangdezhenduixing。

2、butongzhidewenhuadexianghurongheruhekeneng?

liangqichaolituzaibijiaojianbiedejichushang,jiejianxifangjiqitasixiangwenhuadeheliyinsuyigaizaohuaxiawenhua,zaojiuxinguomin、xinshehui,jinerxishoucainazhongxiwenhuadegezhongheliyinsu,shiqixianghubuchong、ronghe,xingchengyizhongcaierzhezhizhang、keshuangfangzhiduandequanxindeshijiexingwenhua,zheiyigenbenzongzhizongtishangshiqianhouyiguan,shizhongbubiande,jishizaihouqide《ouyouxinyinglu》zhong,liangqichaolilundezhongxinzhuanxiangzhongguowenhuaduixifangdebuchongshenzhijiupianzuoyong,danbingbushixiangrenmensuoxiangxianghuopianmianlijiedeneiyang——liangqichaozhuanerchedipaoqixifangwenhua,zhiqiangdiaoyizhongguowenhualaizhengjiuxifangnaizhizhenggeshijie,ershiyiranjianchizhuzhang,zuizhongdefazhanfangxianghaowuyiwenyingshierzhedexianghubuchong、ronghetongyi。zheiyigenbenzhixiangtixianchuliangqichaodengsuodaibiaodejindaizhongguosixiangxianquzhedeyuanjianhebaofu,miaohuichubijiaozhexueyubijiaowenhuafazhandeguangkuoqianjing。

raner,heweiheli?xianghuronghedejichuhezai?chaozheshenmefangxiangronghe?butongjiazhizhijianguranyouhubudekeneng,danxianghuzhijianyebukebimiandicunzaizhemaodunchongtu。zheizhongjiazhizhijiandechongtu,jiyuanyubicizhijianhexinneihandechayi,gengduodezetixianweiyouxianxingzhizheng。wentideguanjianbuzaiyuyibanyiyishangshifouyinggaixianghubuchong、xianghuhuitongronghe,erzaiyuruherenshihejiejuexianghuzhijiandemaodunchongtu,nengfouheruhecongshijianyuluojijiegou(kongjian)shangtansuoqueliheliyouxiaodejiazhixuliecengxu。erzheidangzhong,ruhepojiebutongwenhuajiazhizhijiandemaodunchongtu,youweizheizhongxianghuronghedenantisuozai。bunengjiejuezheiyinanti,suoweihubu、ronghebujinshibilunweikongtan,erqienanmianhuixianrumaodunchongtuzhizhong。

yihandeshi,zaizheiyiwentishang,liangqichaozaihendachengdushangqiaqiacunzaizhezheiyangdequexian,yinerxianrudezhengshizheizhongwuquhuojingdi。zaibutongdelishishiqi,suizheshishidebianqian,mianlinzhebutongerjinpodeshidaizhuti,liangqichaojichudewangwangshijiongranxiangyidehuida。biaomiankanlai,zheisihuzhishiqiangdiaodezhongxinyoubie,huofuyoujiqingdeyancisuorongyidaozhidewujie,danshizhishangzeshiyouyuqibujinweinengqingxidifenxizheixiewentizhijiandeluojicengcizhibie,erqiequefaduibicixianghuguanxidezhengtishangdebianxihechanfa,ergouchengneizaidemaodunzhangli,yinerbukebimiandijirenyiqianhoumaodunduobiandeyinxiang。liewensensuoweideliangqichaosixiangshizhongyunhanzhelishiyujiazhi、qingganyulizhi、yijiwenhuazhuyiyuguojiazhuyidemaodun,hendachengdushang,naishibutongcengcizhijiandemaodunchongtu。ersuoweide“shanbian、duobian”,zhisuoyiduiliangqichaolaishuo,bufafumiansecai,zhongyaoyuanyinzhiyijiuzaiyu,youyuquefaduibutongjiazhizhijianbutongluojicengcidebianxihexianghumaodundedongcha、xuanze,shideqibianhuawangwangzhishixunhuanwangfu,erquefazhenzhengquedingdefangxiang。conghongguaneryan,liangqichaozhuiqiuwenhuaderonghedegenbenzongzhidequeshizhongweibian,danweinengqieshidideyiluoshi。erzaiweiguancengcishang,suibuduanshanbian,queshizhongzaijuxianyutongyigecengcishang,zhanzhuanyaobai,weinengshenhuahetuijin。yinci,bunengbushirenmenbeigankunhuo,shenzhishiwang。

梁漱溟在《东西文化及其哲学》一书中专门提到,“梁任公在他所作的《欧游心影录》里面也说到东西文化融合的话。于是大家都传染了一个意思,觉得东西文化一定要调和的,而所期望的未来文化就是东西文化调和的产物。”对此,梁漱溟予以尖锐的驳斥,认为这种“将东西文化调和融通,另开一种局面作为世界的新文化”“只能算是迷离含混的希望,而非明白确切的论断。像这样糊涂、疲缓、不真切的态度全然不对!”是什么让梁漱溟做出如此的断定?原因就在于“既然没有晓得东方文化是什么价值,如何能希望两文化能够调和融通呢?如要调和融通总须说出可以调和融通之道,若说不出道理来,那么何所据而知道可以调和融通呢?”[61]体育外围梁漱溟最终所得出的彻底回归中国文化特别是儒家文化的结论当然值得讨论,但上述对梁启超文化融合论的失误的剖析和批判,可谓切中肯綮。

体育外围3、congbijiaodaoronghe: ruherenshiyuduidaizishendezhutixing。

在列文森关于梁启超思想的解读中,认为有一个深重的关切是梁启超思想形成演变的重要基点,即“中国在积极西化过程中,如何才能保有与西方对等之感?”[62]尽管对这一论点也不乏质疑,但必须承认,它确实在相当程度上触及到梁启超的心结深处。无论是借鉴西方文化以更新自身,还是融合中西,梁启超都始终有一种深沉而强烈的主体意识。从1902年《论中国学术变迁之大势》的“合世界史通观之,上世时代之学术思想,体育外围中华第一也……中世时代之学术思想,体育外围中华第一也”,“生此国,为此民,享此学术之恩泽,则歌之舞之,发挥之,光大之,继而增高之,吾辈之责也。”[63]到后期关于文化融合的四个阶段或层次的论述,梁启超这一立场始终一以贯之: “第一步,要人人存一个爱护本国文化的诚意;第二步,要用那西洋人研究学问的方法去研究它,得它的真相;第三步,把自己的文化综合起来,还拿别人的补助它,叫它起一个化和作用,成了一个新文化系统;第四步,把这新系统往外扩充,叫人类全体都得着他好处。”[64]

shangshuduiyuliangqichaodejiujingweiheerbijiao、wenhuarongheruhekenengdezhiyi,zhuisuqilai,qishinaishiyuanyuzheizhongzhutixingzhizheng、zhihuo,shitadebutongcengmiandetixian。duiminzuweiwang、guojiaxingshuaideguanqie,shejideshiminzu、guojiadezhutixingwenti,zhenzhengronghedenantizhiyizeshiruherenshihejianchiwenhuazhutixingwenti。

zaizheiyiwentishang,guanjianbuzaiyuzhutiyishibenshen,yebuzaiyushifouyingyouzhutiyishi,shenzhibuzaiyushifouyizishenwenhuaweiti、weibenwei。zheidoubuchengweiwenti。bijiao、jiejian、gaizao、gengxin、rongtongdengdeng,zongshitedingdezhutisuozhankaide。sixiangjiazuoweidaiyanren,zaitichuzheixiezhuzhangshibiranjuyouzhutiyishi。zheizhongzhutiyishidejijiyiyiyewuyongzhiyi。tajishiliangqichaodengsixiangxianqumendezerenganyushiminggandeyuanquan,yeshiminzuzhenxingdebujiedeneizaidongli。guanjianzaiyuzaigaizao、zhuanhuadeguochengzhongruheduidaihejianchizheizhongzhutiyishi。ruguoguofendizhizhuyuzheizhongzhutiyishi,shikeweikongsangshizishendezhutixing,weitazhesuotonghua,jiukenengsuishiweixianshidexiaoyingsuozhuzai,ershuliduiwaizaixianjinwenhuajingsuidejiejian、xishouheduizishengenbenquexiandeqingxingrenshihechedigaizao,qijieguojiuzongshishebenerzhumo,huoyiweidizhezhongdiaohe,xiangniuyanggeyiyanglaihuiyaobaiquetingzhibuqian。

ruguotiyuwaiweijiangliangqichaoyuhushijiayibijiao,jiukeyigengqingchudikandaozheiyidian。

在如何基于哲学和文化比较而加以借鉴这一问题上,对胡适也应该分为学术与思想两大层面具体分析。在学术层面,胡适的理路、方法可谓是对梁启超的继承和发展,二者的成就也不相伯仲。与梁启超对中国史学加以改造、创立新史学的基点与方法一脉相传,胡适也明确自陈通过参照、借鉴西洋哲学来彻底改造中国哲学史乃至中国哲学概念,使之成为一门现代学问和学科: “体育外围所用的比较参证的材料,便是西洋的哲学……须知东西的学术思想的互相印证.互相发明。至多不过可以见得人类的官能心理大概相同,故遇着大同小异的境地时势,便会产出大同小异的思想学派……故本书的主张。但以为体育外围若想贯通整理中国哲学史的史料,不可不借用别系的哲学,作一种解释演述的工具。”[65]

erzhedechayigengduoditixianzaisixiangcengmianshang。jinguanyouzhebutongdepingpan,danzongdelaishuo,yibandourending,hushisixiangdelilunyiyiyuxianshiyiyi,yingyuanchaoliangqichaozhishang。yuanyindangranyeshiduofangmiande,ercongbijiaowenhuadefangfalunjiaodukan,hushizaizheiyifangmiandeshengchu,yingshiqizhongzhongyaoyuanyinzhiyi。

人们常常基于对胡适的“全盘西化”主张的望文生义式的简单理解,而片面地诠释胡适的整个思想,甚至将其妖魔化。实质上,胡适的中国文化主体意识与使命感丝毫不弱于梁启超等,更不是对民族危亡漠然置之。与梁启超等一样,胡适的中西文化比较的最终宗旨也是通过中西文化的互补,使二者的精华统一融合起来,造就一种全新的、合乎世界潮流的华夏文化。其所谓“全盘西化”的主张更多的是一种针对顽固传统与现实的矫枉过正的策略或曰“理性的狡计”。其目的是促进中国传统文化的新生,使之真正“世界化”。胡适认为,不应该把中国传统当作一个一世不变的东西看,而要把它当作一个不断变动进化过程的结果,这个传统不应该也不会真地被泯灭。经过西方等外来文化的洗礼、砥砺、补充与纠正,中国文化才能也必将焕发出更大的生机和无限活力。“体育外围是主张全盘西化的……全盘接受了,旧文化的‘惰性’自然会使他成为一个折衷调和的中国本位新文化。”[66]在书名为“中国的文艺复兴”的为芝加哥大学所作的有关现代中国文化趋势的系列讲演集的自序中,胡适申言,“中国的文艺复兴……在本质上正是那个饱经风雨侵蚀而更可以看得明白透彻的中国根底——正是那个因为接触新世界的科学民主文明而复活起来的人本主义与理智主义的中国。”[67]“通过严肃分析体育外围所面临的活生生的问题;通过由输入的新学理、新观念、新思想来帮助体育外围了解和解决这些问题;同时通过以相同的批判的态度对体育外围国固有文明的了解和重建,体育外围这一运动的结果,就会产生一个新的文明来”。[68]后来胡适明确用“充分世界化”取代“全盘西化”之说,既避免了不必要的误解,更彰显出其思想的根本宗旨。

但与梁启超等迥然不同的是,一方面基于对西方文化的更切实的理解与体验,另一方面,也鉴于近代以来的历史教训,胡适在文化比较与借鉴伊始,就更透彻地认识到,问题的关键不在于泛泛地主张借鉴西方文化的合理因素以完善自身,而在于首先必须明确,欲改造中国文化和社会,使其走向世界,需要借鉴的最根本的东西究竟是什么?对于作为比较之最终目的的中西文化的融合来说,问题的关键也不在于是否应该融合,而在于双方融合的基础究竟何在?如何确立这一基础?“体育外围当前比较特殊的问题是: 体育外围在哪里能找到可以有机地联系现代欧美思想体系的合适的基础,使体育外围能在新旧文化内在调和的新的基础上建立体育外围自己的科学和哲学。”“真正的问题可以这样说: 体育外围应怎样才能以最有效的方式吸收现代文化,使它能同体育外围的固有文化相一致、协调和继续发展?”从而“能够成功地把现代文化的精华与中国自己的精华联结起来”?[69]作为这种探索的重要组成部分,在对儒家的继承与改造问题上,胡适决不只是单纯地肯定其意义,列举其局限,而是鲜明地主张,要使儒家发挥出应有的积极意义,就必须破除其至尊主宰地位,以现代价值对其进行彻底的洗礼,认为从很大意义上说,中国文化的复兴就“有赖于从儒家的道德伦理和理性的枷锁中得到解放”。为此,“非儒学派的恢复是绝对必要的,因为在这些学派中可望找到移植西方哲学和科学最佳成果的合适土壤。”[70]

体育外围zhengyinweishenkedongchachuyinggaijiejiandegenbensuozai,bingjinjinzhuazhuzheiyigenben,suoyi,hushicaimeiyouyouyushishidebuduanbianhua、dangxiajieguoshifouhehuyuqierbuduanyaobai、maodun,youci,bujinbaochileqisixianglichang、qixiangdeyizhixing,gengzhongyaodeshi,weizhongguodeqimengyundong、zhongguowenhuadezhenzhenggengxindiandinglejianshidegenji。

秦家懿“内在超越”思想探析

余泳芳*

内容提要: 加拿大籍华裔学者秦家懿认为儒学具有宗教性,儒学的特色是与基督教外在超越不同的内在超越。秦家懿指出,儒学所谓的超越是基于人之心性而实现的精神超越。内在超越通过神秘主义修养论得以实现,而“礼”是内在超越的外在表现。“儒家基督徒”秦家懿最终得出结论: 儒学既是哲学也是宗教,儒家文化可以参与到现代化之中,为现代社会的心灵安顿和道德教化提供一种重要的精神资源。

关键词: 秦家懿 内在超越 宗教性 修养论 礼

qinjiayi(julia ching,1934-2001)shijianadajihuayixuezhe,zhimingdehaiwaihanxuejia,zongjiaoxuejiahezhexuejia。shenhoudezhongguowenhuabeijinghezhangqilvjuhaiwaideshenghuojingliweitatigongledutedeshiye,jingqilijiehefahui,shiqiyanjiujuyouxianmingdegexing。qinjiayikusizuanyanzhongxibijiaoyanjiu,zhuzhongyanjiufangfadelinghuobiantong,zaichuanboheyanjiuruxuelingyuzuochulehenduoyoujiazhidechanfa。zheibujinduihaineiwairuxueyanjiuzheyousuoqidi,erqieduixiandaixinrujiasixiangdefazhanzuoleyouyidebuchong,congerzaizhongguodaluhegangtaidiquchanshenglezhongyaodeyingxiang,tuidonglehaiwaizhongguozhexuedechuanboheyanjiu。youqizhideyitideshi,shenwei“rujiajidutu”deqinjiayirenshidaoruxueyunyouburonghushideshenkedezongjiaojingshen,nuliyuxifangshenxuejiegoutong,zuochulechuangzaoxinghuiying。benwennijiuduiqinjiayi“neizaichaoyue”sixiangzuoyitantao。

一、何为内在超越

超越问题作为中西哲学所关注的一个基本问题,具有深厚的理论传统和深远的思想根源。著名汉学家安乐哲曾经指出,“严格的超越的观念,在西方的思想传统中,是一个深刻而重要的观念。在逻辑的、科学的、哲学的和神学的话语中,超越的概念通常是用那些最严密的词语加以规定的”[71]。学界已经考证了“超越”一词的词源和演变过程。[72]体育外围从词源学角度讲,“超越”一词源自拉丁语transcandere,本意为“跨过”、“超过”(某个界限)。从其本义可知,“超越”一词既可被视为人的一种内在的趋向力或某终极实体的引导作用,也可被视为此岸的现实性或人与彼岸之终极的超越界之间的对待。“超越”一词在西语中本意就是“向外”。在西方哲学中不存在“外在超越”这一说法,因为“外在超越”是一种语义的重复。“内在超越”与“外在超越” 的二分法只是汉语学术语境中的话题。西方哲学中关于“超越”的“内在”与“外在”问题只体现为transcendence和immanence的关系问题。“内在超越”与“外在超越”是现代中国哲学中的一个特有的问题,与西方哲学中的“超越”和“内在”之辩有一定的联系。

由古至今,中国哲人对超越问题也尤为关注。传统哲学中虽未使用“超越”一词,但是在相似问题下进行的探讨却是接连不断,薪火相传。实际上,“超越”一词较早就在中国历史上开始使用。譬如,《盐铁论·和亲》中有“丁壮孤弦而出斗,老者超越而如葆”。许慎在《说文解字》中是这样解释“超”、“越”两字的: “超,跳也”,“越,度也”。显而易见,“超”和“越”表达一种具体的动作。“超越”在汉语中是“超”和“越”的复合词。再者,从词源的角度看,“超越”与拉丁语的transcandere在很大程度上有相同之处。现在,体育外围所使用的“超越”一词主要有两层涵义: 1)超越即超验,不可经验之意;2)指人可超然于生存环境的主观精神力量或意志力,相当于超过、高于、超然等等。[73]

作为一种比较完整的理论形态的“内在超越”最早由现代新儒家学派所提出。1958年唐君毅、牟宗三、张君励、徐复观在《为中国文化敬告世界人士宣言》中指出,“中国民族之宗教性的超越感情,及宗教精神,因与其所重之伦理道德,同来源于一本之文化,而与其伦理道德之精神,遂合一而不可分”[74]。由此可见,中华民族宗教的超越精神内在于人伦道德,其内在性与超越性不互相矛盾,因而是“内在超越”的。需指出的是,牟宗三尤为明确地讲到了“超越”与“内在”: “天道高高在上,有超越的意义。天道贯注于人而为人的性,这时天道又是内在(immanent)。因此,体育外围可以康德喜用的字眼,说天道一方面是超越的(transcendent),另一方面又是内在的(immanent与transcendent是相反字)。天道既超越又内在,此时可谓兼具宗教与道德的意味,宗教重超越意,而道德重内在意”[75]

秦家懿认同儒学最具有“世俗化时代”宗教的意义。她指出: “儒教宗教和哲学的‘民主化’,即普通人而不是圣王可以成为后来西方称为‘新儒学’的古代宗教哲学的释者,这一事实本身亦导致了儒学日益深入的世俗化偏向,即使宗教层次从未消逝过”[76]。此外,秦家懿指出,“对朱熹来说,正如对整个儒家传统来说一样,为道德主体的人,在圣贤之道上,几乎有一种无限的自体育外围实现的可能性。”[77]“人类生存的目标是自体育外围实现,而自体育外围实现的定义也就是自体育外围超越,即超越自己的私欲而成为一个圣人。”[78]可见,怀着对崇高境界的追求和向往,儒学所谓的超越是基于人之心性而实现的精神超越,是在当下的生存状态下追求超越。中国传统儒学强调内心体验,相信通过个体的奋发努力与自觉的道德践履,每个人都可以达到超越的境界,即“至善”的圆满境界。安身立命的诉求在儒家的理论体系中占据着举足轻重的地位。安身立命的形上根据就是天人之间的相互关系。儒家的本体论和人性论因安身立命的目标指向而被赋予了特殊的理论意涵。这不仅触动了西方传统价值的根源,而且对西方人有一定的启示意义。

二、内在超越的实现途径: 神秘主义的修养论

体育外围jiranneizaichaoyueshiyizhongchengshengdedaodetishengguocheng,neimeciguochengjiulibukaixindetizhizuoyong。meiyigeyouxueyourouderendoushitizhidezhuti。tizhideneirongshiruhezuoyigeshengxian。tizhidezhixiangshishijiancengmian,shiduirenzishen、tiandiwanwudouyousuotiwudefangongxiuji,shidaodezhutijingshenjingjiedetixian。rujiadetizhibujinshifangongneiqiudeneizaitiyan,erqieshirenzaixianshishehuilidexiushenqijiazhiguopingtianxia。zheizhongzizhizizhengshirenbenshensuojuyoude。

体育外围qinjiayiqiangdiaoshijiandezhongyaoxing。tazhichu,

只是宣称人天然享有超越自身的愿望并且可以实现这一愿望是不够的,还必须指明实现这一愿望的方法。因为没有实践,理论能否经受检验就没有保障;而未经检验的理论是软弱的空想,更确切地说是一个因挫折可以毁掉人而不能实现的愿望。[79]

体育外围qishi,wulunzaizhexuetaolunfangmian,haishizaizongjiaoshenghuofangmian,zhongguorendoubijiaopianzhongshijian,yincizhongguochuantongzhexuedexiuyanghuogongfulunshifenfengfu,zheishixifangshenxuelingyusuoquefade,errujiasixiangnonghoudezongjiaosecaiqiaqiabiaoxianzaixiuyanglilunshang。

体育外围qinjiayizhichu,rujiasixiangzhongdeshenmizhuyixiuyanglunbushiweineizaichaoyuedezuijiatujing,erqiefuyouxianzhudezongjiaoyiwei。tarenwei,shenmizhuyishizhi

为了静思冥想无限和绝对的缘故而逃避世界,逃避自体育外围。从本质上看,有着神秘主义特点的宗教强调以忘却自体育外围而超越自体育外围,强调在人身上发现神。[80]

体育外围tajinyibufuyoudongjiandizhichu,

圣贤提供的是自体育外围超越的模式,通向圣贤的道路是自省……成圣成贤之路即自体育外围超越之路,它带有显著的宗教意味。[81]

由上可知,一方面,儒学带有宗教意味,因为儒学的内在超越与宗教的“以忘却自体育外围而超越自体育外围”有相似之处。另一方面,检讨一下静坐和神秘主义在儒学里的位置也有助于廓清儒学宗教性的本质。[82]体育外围秦家懿察觉到,静坐和神秘主义经验可以将儒学进一步推向神秘主义宗教。由此可知,儒家的这种修养方法具有神秘主义的特点。儒家的超越强调个体的体证。个体对这种体证可谓是了如指掌、心知肚明,但他人未必对此清楚明了。如此一来,儒家式的自体育外围超越有时只可意会、不可言传,甚至导向神秘主义。譬如,宋明理学家通过静坐等方式获得了非同寻常的精神经历。

先贤孟子被称为“神秘主义的导师,也是道德再生和政治改革的导师”[83]。孟子以心、性解天,暗示有比心本身更伟大的存在。只有知心、尽心,才能最终知性、知天,这无疑指明了其神秘主义的一面。遗憾地是,孟子未涉及到静思内省的工夫。然而,尽管包括《中庸》在内的礼仪著述指出了静思内省的普遍倾向,而未言及静思内省的方法,但促成了宋明儒学“静坐”的诞生。《中庸》不仅论述了心灵的未发和已发的两种状态,还明确指出何为“中”。在秦家懿眼中,“中”、“和”应从参照宇宙动力和自体育外围修身的层面来理解。她认为:

……宇宙也有情感悸动,至于人,无论他或她,都能透过修润这些宇宙情感而有所改造。受赞扬的是平衡,是‘中’,此乃种种情感未发之前主导的意识状态,与‘和’,此乃情感发显出来而仍保持适当平衡的意识状态。显而易见,要警惕的是防止过度的情感。这是体育外围都能体认的,过度的情感,无论是愤怒、快乐或悲伤,都是高度毁灭性的。[84]

秦家懿在这里强调的“中”与“和”未触及形而上的含义,是指其在心理学和自体育外围修身上的意义。这种诠释突显出道德行为者,或人的主体性的精神生活和自体育外围修养。秦家懿强调的不是作为一个先验自体育外围或真体育外围的核心(core),而是把该核心当作是一种过度而无偏的“意识状态”,而不同于一个被当作是所有其他类型意识状态的核心的同一的实体。[85]体育外围秦家懿借助“中”的概念来界定主体性,并在内在自体育外围的精神资源中寻找自己的主体性所在。

秦家懿认为,以朱熹、王阳明为代表的宋明儒学家将传统儒学中的神秘主义发扬光大,儒家的道德信仰和追求的层面的超越性也因此被彰显出来。秦家懿认为,所谓“神秘经验”就是指一种意识的转变,不管是通过静坐或是其它的方式来完成。这种神秘主义并不总是在宗教的情境下才能呈现出来。有时候,这种神秘主义最好被描述为是世俗的。在中国传统里,自然神秘主义在许多个人的体验中占据了主导的地位,包括儒家和道家。在转换的意识中,人能体验一种内在的平静,有时甚至体验到一种与宇宙或万物的合一。[86]

zhuxihewangyangmingdezongjiaosixiangzhongjiubaohanyouhuoduohuoshaodeshenmizhuyidechengfen。yiqinjiayikanlai,

朱熹的修身学说属于实践的道德哲学领域,然而却超越了它,并拥有带有神秘意味的神圣的和禁欲的学说。[87]

诚然,朱熹的思想既融入了道家的自然主义,也潜伏着佛家神秘主义的成分。[88]在朱熹的体系中不仅没有任何事物与神秘主义相违背,而且其思想中的每一件事都有助于对从修身角度所觉察到的神秘主义进行正确理解和挖掘。太极思想充分反映出朱熹的宗教思想。太极思想在朱熹的哲学体系中起着至关重要的双重作用。太极既是哲学知识体系的支点,也是朱熹的儒家精神轨迹。许多儒家学者认为,传统在纷繁复杂的日常生活中既有超越的基准,也有世俗的体现。这就是朱熹之所以非常专注于太极这一概念的缘故。在朱熹看来,太极是尊重儒家精神超越性和内在性的一个完美的方式。

体育外围chucizhiwai,qinjiayihaidongchadaowangyangmingdesuoshuode“wanwuyiti”deshenmiyimian。yangmingde“wanwuyiti”dezhihuijiangxingershangxueheshenmidedongchalijiehezaiyiqi,biaomingleyizhongronghe。qinjiayimingquetichu,

王阳明思想的宗教性质,与其内含的“神秘性”的体验,并不是为了说玄,而是为澄清一事: 阳明同时是哲学家,又是富有宗教性体验的“智者”,自从他幼年有读书成圣之意后,他曾多年,出入于二氏,彷徨无措,这是宗教性的探索。他的得悟,也是宗教性的“觉悟”。[89]

zhengruchenlaisuoshuo,jiufangfaxiuyangluneryan,wangyangmingzaishenmizhuyidedaolushangzoudegengyuan。zhuxihewangyangmingyuzimengziyilairuxuesuoneihandexiushenyangxingdeshenmijingyandechuantongshibaochiyizhide。

那么如何践行这种神秘主义的修养工夫呢?朱熹提倡对内在的本性和善端应持“敬”的态度,而对外在的客观世界则应本着“格物致知”的原则。换言之,他既强调道德精神的反省,又加强对自体育外围和世界的认识。[90]“敬”在朱熹的修养学说中占有重要的地位。秦家懿认为,朱熹的“敬”是指心的最初统一性在行动中得到了保持和显现的一个过程,反对死敬。[91]“敬”而非“静”是最重要的,是成圣之必经,因此不能忽视其在超越过程中的作用。儒家宗教性所体现出来的“敬”以其谦敬的理解指向人的内在结构,从而达致内在而超越的圣贤人格,获得宗教性的体验。朱熹颇为看重“静坐”的工夫。秦家懿认为,“儒家的‘静坐’既是一种方法又是导向在自体育外围超越中忘却自体育外围与万物结合的手段,它带有显著的佛教禅宗影响的痕迹”。[92]体育外围诚然,由“坐禅”、“公案”与“悟”的自由组合成的“静坐”一词不容置疑地受到了道家和佛教的强烈的影响。静坐时,坐姿端正,排除一切杂念,保持平静的心情,控制和调节呼吸,以达到人的内在自体育外围的统一和和谐。儒家的静坐强调道德主体的体知,使其在行善去恶中变得更为完美,从而完成道德性的人格。这一目的与道家和佛教的静坐截然不同。佛家的静坐是为了追求内心的平静,而道家的静坐是为了求长生。

zongerguanzhi,shenmizhuyixiuyanglunshiyizhongtirenzhixue,juyouneizaichaoyuexing,chongfenlizhengleruxuenonghoudezongjiaoxing。rujiashenmizhuyizhetongguoxiushenlaizitiyuwaiweirenshi,faxianlebirenxinweidadanyouyuyurenxindecunzai,congernulidadaotianrenheyidejingjie,chengshengchengxian。raner,tamendexiushenzuizhongmudebingbuzhishiweiwuerqiuwu,ershiweitaren,jirujiasuoshuodeqijia、zhiguo、pingtianxia。ciwai,zhongguodeshenmizhuyixiuyanglunyujidujiaode“shenmijingyan”poweixiangsi,yinweishenmijingyanzaimouzhongchengdushangkebeimiaoshuwei“chaoyueshane”。danyucitongshi,erzhecunzaibenzhishangdebutong。shenmizhuyideduoshutedianyilaiyuyigerendemude: shixunqiuyizhongneizaipingjingdejingyan,haishixunqiuyizhonggenggaodecengmian,ruyishidejizhong,daodedetisheng,huozhejingshendemanzu。rujiatongguojingzuodedao“shenmijingyan”yiwanchengdaodexingderengeweiqimubiao,jingzuoheshenmizhuyiduiyumengzihesongmingruzheeryanbingbushiqimude。

三、内在超越的外在表现: 礼

与秦家懿处于同一时代的海外汉学家普遍赞同这种观点: 中国的宗教是礼仪和每年的节日循环。在广阔的乡村和城市,儒家学者将佛教和道教,萨满和灵媒,以及其他的中国宗教研究人员都搁置一旁。事实上,“仁”与“礼”在中国的传统文化中紧密相连、相辅相成,是儒学的两个基本范畴。受制于“礼”的“仁”是一种被升华的普遍德行,是人的自体育外围完善和自体育外围更新的条件,是内在而超越。“礼”是“仁”在具体环境中的反映和体现,是统治者维护社会秩序的一种制度,具有外在性。儒学被称为“礼教”,是因为它不单重视社会关系,也重视包括宗教礼仪在内的礼仪。秦家懿将儒学看作是“崇尚道德的宗教”[93],这也与她对“礼”的理解是不可分割的。

首先,从词源学上看,秦家懿认为,“礼”字源于‘示’和‘丰’,前者是敬拜,后者是敬拜用的器皿,有浓厚的宗教色彩[94],其衍生的意义是指“仪式和礼仪以及指导这些仪式的规矩和惯例”[95]。许慎在《说文解字》解释到: “礼。履也。所以事神致福也”。这表明“礼”是脚步或行动,原本是一种可以被人重复践行的巫术活动。后来由纯粹的事鬼、事神逐步扩展到事天、事人、事政的方面。惟其如此,人才能获得幸福。正如《中庸》里写道: “郊社之礼,所以事上帝也;宗庙之理,所以祀乎其先也。明乎郊社之礼、禘尝之义,治国其如示诸掌乎 。”溯本追源,“礼”源于远古时代的宗教祭祀。儒家的祭天在很早的时候就已经形成,人们以熟牲祭献。屹立于北京内城之外的天坛可称得上是个绝佳的例证。

youshangkezhi,“li”zicongziyuanshangfenxijuyounonghoudezongjiaosecai。“li”debenyijiushizongjiaodejisihejipin,houjianzhijixianshenling,zaihoulaizhiyiqiejishenzhishi。zuxiandejisixuyaoyongli,duitiandejingbaiyeshaobule“li”。zuoweiyizhongxiangzhengxingdihuodong,“li”shiyizhongfeichangzhongyaodetiyuwaiweifangshi。takeyifanying、biaodahekendingyigeshehuideteshujiegouanpai。“li”keyijianghefaxingciyurenhezhidu。zongjiaodetezhengshishenrentiyuwaiweideyishi。chengran,zairujiawenhuazhong,baokuo “jili”、“jiaoli”、“shidianli”zaineidegezhonglidoushishenrentiyuwaiweideyishi。chulejitian,rujiahaiyoujizuheyixiliedezongjiaoyishi。rujiazhichizheixiezhuyaoheciyaodejili,laibiaodaleduizhigaowushangshendexinyang。zheixiezongjiaoyishizhonghanyouyinyudezongjiaoxing,youshihoukeyirangrenyimuleran。yinci,ruxueshizongjiao。

其次,秦家懿认为,“礼”是“自然法则在天理上的动态表现”[96]。在现实世界中,“礼”亦泛指“一切人际关系、风俗习惯、甚至包括法律,是进德去恶的媒介”[97]。由此可见,“礼”是一个综合性的概念,包含着人类文化的所有方面,呈现为一个综合了个人、家庭、国家、天下这四者的开展。秦家懿进一步指出,礼“可以指导人的行为,尤其是道德关系和内在精神的规矩和惯例;而内在精神又会激励人遵守这些规矩和惯例”[98]

zaiqinjiayikanlai,“li”benshenjiushiyigechongmanzhedaodezongjiaohanyidegainian。kongzicengshuo: “liyunliyun,yuboyunhuzai?leyunleyun,zhongguyunhuzai?”(《lunyu·yanghuopian》)kongzishenzhiyonggengweiqiangliedeyuqipingshushuo: “renerburen,rulihe?renerburen,rulehe?”(《lunyu·baqiaopian》)ciwai,kongzihaijianchi,“jiruzai,jishenrushenzai”。(《lunyu·baqiaopian》)lilezhibuguoshiwaizaidexingshi,erneizaide“ren”caishizhenzhengderenxinghexinhewenhuadegenben。lilezhuigensudiyeshifazirenxindeneizaiqinggan。duikongzilaishuo,liledezhenzhengyiyijiushizhengrenxin、suzaowanmeiderengexinli,zuizhongcujinyouzongjiaohezhengzhiweixideshehuihexiefazhan。huanyanzhi,“li”dezhongyaoxingbingbujinjinbaoliuzaiwaibudeyishizhong,rujipinhebansuideyinle,erqiehaibaoliuzaixianjihuozhecanjiayishiderendexingqingzhong。wuyongzhiyi,“li”zhongyunhanzhedaodedezhengquexing,keyizhidaorendexingshifangshi,rangrenzunxunzheixieguanlijinxingzitiyuwaiweixiushen。zheibujincushirendadaozitiyuwaiweichaoyue,erqiekeyiweixihecujinshehuidehexie,tianxiashengping,renminanjuleye,congershixianrujiasuoshuodeneishengerwaiwang。

体育外围qinjiayirenweiruxueshilijiao。tamingquezhichu:

自汉代以来,一套以国家为中心的敬天拜祖的礼仪逐渐形成……这类礼教系 统吸收了许多古代的宗教观念……至于礼仪方面,最隆重的是由皇帝亲自主持的祭天和祭拜皇族祖先的大礼仪……孔子被尊为至圣先师,备受历代学者景仰。儒家礼乐传统,一方面继承古代的遗产,同时又能为要成为君子的人提供礼乐和道德的教育。所以,在这方面看来,儒学常被中国人视为“礼教”。[99]

“礼”既指人际关系和风俗习惯等,又指蕴含了浓厚的宗教性的种种宗教礼仪。礼仪涉及的问题可能成为目的本身而不是自体育外围超越的手段,成为公众共同信仰的表示。[100]“礼教”之说颇具启发性,可谓一语破的,淋漓尽致。儒学的“宗教性”与“礼教性”相融合,彻底展现出中国文化中宗教的“人文化”的性质。从汉武帝罢黜百家,独尊儒术开始,礼教性和宗教性分裂开来。儒学的礼教性成为了政治体制的意识形态,并得到,而其宗教仪式行为只作为普通家庭的个人行为被保留了下来。换言之,分裂出来的礼教性因“公”的性质获得社会化,而宗教仪式行为依然以其“私”的性质保留了下来。人们从理性上被理解礼教性,从感情上信仰宗教仪式行为。然而,礼教性和宗教性绝非断为两橛。正如日本学者加地伸行指出,这种“宗教性”与“礼教性”的结合是以家庭伦理,特别是以“孝”为中心而联系在一起。[101]体育外围《礼记·祭统》云: “礼有五经,莫重于祭”。祭的目的是为了未死者的继志述事。另外,《小戴礼·祭统》云: “祭者所以追养继孝也。……是故孝子之事亲也,有三道焉。生则养,没则丧,丧毕则祭。养则观其顺也。丧则观其哀也,祭则观其敬而时也。”可以说,儒学的宗教性融入在礼教性之中。

四、内在超越的结果: 儒学既是哲学也是宗教

现代西方思想主要有两大来源:体育外围-_欢迎您

体育外围ruxueshizongjiao,haishizhexue,haishiyizhongshenghuofangshi?muqiandexueshujiepubianrenwei,rujiachuantongshi“renwenzhuyide”huo“shehui—zhengzhide”,shiguanyurenleijiazhi、sixiangdejiaoyi,shiduiyuzhuanbianshehuihewenhuaduofangmiandeguanzhu。jianyuci,ruxueyibanbeirenweishi“shisude”,ermeiyou“zongjiaoxing”。danshi,qinjiayiyongxifangzongjiaosixiangchanshuruxue,zhanzaizhongxifangwenhualichangshangjieshourujiaxueshuoguochengzhongdechanwu,bingtixingtiyuwaiwei,rujiadechuantongcongbutongyuqitazongjiaodeshijiaolaitantaorenxinghezhongjishiti。yinci,buyinggaibaruxuecongzongjiaodemailuozhongpaichuchuqu。qinjiayijiandingdirenweiruxuejuyouzongjiaoxing,rujiadeneizaichaoyuechongfentixianleruxuejuyounonghoudezongjiaoxing。zaitayanzhong,rujiayouyipihuaiyouzongjiaoqinghuaideweidasixiangjia,rukongzi、mengzi、xunzi、zhuxi、wangyangmingdeng,neimeruxuejiujingshizongjiaohaishizhexueni?

作为一名儒家基督徒,秦家懿认为儒学既是宗教又是哲学。首先,体育外围可以溯源到她对“宗教”的界定。她指出,“宗教”两字从字面上看是指“宗派”与“教导”,即从某个家系或传统传下的具有精神特征的教义。因此,这两个字并没有包含西方宗教学中所说的人与神双方之间存在纽带的涵义。[102]“宗”也指有血缘关系的族系,会让人联想到祖先,所以这也导致宗教与祖先崇拜在中国传统文化中总是交织在一起。在中国,对宗教的信仰有悠久的历史。秦家懿认为,中国文化是中国宗教的共同基础,不能脱离博大精深的中国文化去看宗教。[103]儒、释、道的并存和人们同时参与三教活动是中国文化的多元化特性。

qinjiayizhichu,

“宗教”不仅仅是信仰上帝或神(佛教已表明这是可行的),也是而且特别是一种自体育外围超越的努力,并同时对天、太极、自体育外围或西方净土敞开心灵。这样,这个第三宗教系统也要求体育外围重新理解宗教的意义,因为人本主义敦促其信徒不仅要在人际关系中超越自体育外围,更要指向另一个实体: 最高的现实(儒)、最深的现实(道)和最终的现实(佛)[104]

体育外围congshangkeyikanchu,qinjiayishicongjingshenxinyanghezitiyuwaiweixiuyangdejiaodujieding“zongjiao”yici。yifangmian,zongjiaodebenzhishishendexinyang。rujiadezongjiaoxinyangyitianweizhishangdeshenming,rendingtiankeyishangshanfae,wusuobuzhi,wusuobuneng。rujiaduizuxiansuisiyoushengdexinyangyouweishenke。yuruxuebutong,daojiaoshijiushidezongjiao,yizhangshengbusiweiqixinyangdezhongxin。zhengjiudeguochengxuyaoyikaozitiyuwaiweichaorandeliliangdexiezhuhebaohu,yikekaozitiyuwaiweinuli,quchaoyueduanzanbianhuanderensheng,zhuiqiujiledeyongsheng。fojiaodexinyanghenfuza,jiaoyizhongsuoxinfengdebushiyigeshen,ershizhuzhangtouguojinshiderenshengxiulianchengfo,dadaoyigezhangleqingjingdejingjie。lingyifangmian,chuleduishendexinyangwai,“zongjiao”yeshiduiyuchengshengdezhuiqiu,bingxiangrujiadezuigaoshiti、daojiaodezuishenshitihefojiaodezuizhongshitichangkaixinyangxinling。shishishang,zheigeshitijiushizhitian、taijihexifangjingtu。huanyanzhi,zongjiaodeshizhishirenyaonulichaoyuezitiyuwaiwei,congerdadaogengyuanmandezhenshanmei,jirenyaonulizairendaozhongtixiantiandao。zheizhuyaoshiyinweizhongguozongjiaoderenbenzhuyijingshenyaoqiurenzairenlunzhongheyulingyishitideguanxizhongchaoyuezitiyuwaiwei。qinjiayiduizongjiaodejiedingxianranxishoulerujiade“tianrenheyi”zhishuo,renweizongjiaoyuanyurendechaoyuezitiyuwaiwei。qinjiayiyong“tianrenheyi”defangshilijiezongjiaodapolechuantongzongjiaoguanlijiezongjiaodefangshi,congerxiaojieleshenhuochaoziranshijieduirendezhiyue。

qici,qinjiayimingquezhichu,ruxueshizongjiao。tajingpidilunshushuo:

假如宗教是指西方古典形式的教会体制,如罗马天主教,它有自己的等级制和僧侣制,有定义分明的一整套教义和道德戒律,有隆重的公共礼仪和圣事礼仪,那么前现代时期的儒学只及其余而不及全体。儒学有公众礼仪……儒学有敬天和祭祖的祭祀礼仪,他甚至允许为包括孔子在内的、‘半神化’的历史人物供奉香烛贡品。然而,它没有僧侣架构,只承认皇帝是‘大祭司’,是唯一有资格祭祀上天的人;至于一家之长,则是祖先之灵与活人之间的体育外围媒介。地方政府的官员通常主持在各地孔庙举行的祭祀仪式,而孔子的后裔则在圣人的故乡曲阜享有特殊的地位,是政府指定的主祭官员。这样,儒学便有一个世俗的僧侣体制,没有与社会的其它成员截然分离,没有寺院制度。事实上,儒学强调家庭生活,而子孙后代的概念从根本上反对教士制和寺院制的独身禁欲主义。另一方面,除非是旨在抗议社会,儒家关于社会义务的教诫憎恶自行与社会隔绝。[105]

《dayingbaikequanshu》duizongjiaoshizheiyangjieshide: “l)duishangdihuoqitachaoranliliangdefuconghechongbai;2)duizongjiaoxinyanghejiaoguidechengrenhexinfeng;3)zongjiaoguandian、xinyangheshijiandegerenquxianghuozhidutixi;4)gushihouzhiliangxin;5)reaihexinyangmouzhongshiye、yuanzehuoxinyangtixi。”qinjiayidejingpichanshiyizhenjianxuedizhichu,suiranzhongguomeiyouchuxianxifangshidezongjiao,danquekeyizaizhongguochuantongzhongzhaodaoyuxifangzongjiaozaigongnengshangduidengdebufen。genjuqinjiayidefenxi,ruxuesuimeiyoumingquedizhixiangyiweirengeshen,danshiruxuechuantongzhongyoushenhoudezongjiaoxingdezongjiaoliyi,youduishendechongbai,youduidaodedegongxing,youduidaodeliangzhideqiangdiao,youduineishengwaiwangdezhuiqiu,jineizaichaoyue,yijiduichaoyuejingjiederenshi。yinci,ruxuekanchengwei“rujiao”。

ciwai,tahaijinyibuzhichu:

历史上的儒学曾经在宗教和非宗教两方面都有其功用。不过,随着祭天礼仪的终止和公众的祭祖活动日渐式微,儒学在宗教礼仪方面作用不大,但在其内涵深处,仍然具有浓厚的宗教性,特别在新儒学对成圣和超越自体育外围的精神修养的教诲中可见一斑。此外,儒家的教诲指向一个人,这样也加强了人人平等的信念。可是体育外围不得不承认,儒学传统在今天的影响日益淡薄,有时甚至不易察觉它的存在。随着祖先崇拜的逐渐消逝,今天的儒学(或许只是今天如此)是哲学多于宗教。然而,儒学不仅是一种生活哲学,也是一个生气勃勃的哲学,真实地影响人的生活,指导那些响应它的呼唤力求超越现世的人们。从这个角度上看,或许儒学仍不失为宗教。[106]

在秦家懿这位基督教神学家眼中,探讨儒学宗教性的目的是探寻现代社会人们的精神去向。儒学绝不是过去的宗教,而是一个生机盎然的当代精神力量。儒学是朝气蓬勃、向上的生活哲学,因为它关注于人的终极关怀,告知人们为人处世的道理。它直接或间接地影响人民,甚至对民间宗教都有矫正作用,使民间宗教从功利主义宗教转化为特殊的道德宗教,并具有超越物质世界的内涵。秦家懿将中国宗教定义为“和谐的宗教”,因为它们都建立在“天人合一”的主题上。依她看,有两种和谐的宗教。第一种宗教旨在实现“人和上帝之间更大的和谐”,而第二种是实现“神和人类秩序之间的更大和谐”,如道家哲学,孟子的人文主义,新儒学的人文主义,以及中国大乘佛教哲学。仔细权衡这两种类型后,秦家懿相信儒学是“易接受宗教价值的人文主义”。秦家懿认识到孔子和儒学主要关注社会和伦理的事件,但她不赞成所有的人本主义者是“世俗论者或者至少是宗教的不可知论者”。她坚持认为,孔子是一位特殊的人本主义者,并且在作为儒学基础的道德教义中有深刻的精神性。[107]

体育外围shifouzheizhongshuofayouru“fangdeyuan”yileidebeilun?qishibingfeiruci。ruxueshibaorongderenwenzhuyidezongjiao,zhangxianchuleqizaizongjiaohezhexueshangdezhangli。ruxuesuibushidianxingdezongjiao,danquejuyouzongjiaoxing,youqitixianzaichengshenghechaoyuezitiyuwaiweidejingshenxiuyangzhong。congruxuezailishishangdeyingxiangdejiaodulaikan,ruxuecengzaizongjiaohefeizongjiaoliangfangmiandouyouqigongyong,youzhejiaogaodezongjiaojingjie。tiansuishidaodedexingshanggenju,juyouchaoyuexing,dantabushirengeshen,bunengfuyurenyiliangxinbenxin。renneizaidedaodezhixincaishizhenzhengdedaodezhuti。kejian,ruxuejiangtian,dangengzhongshiren。yibandezongjiaojiangqiudaodetalv,erruxuebaochizhedaodezilv,zhongguozhexuedeteseyebeideyichongfentixian。lingwai,ruxuedequeshinenggoubangzhurenshulizhongjituofu、anshenlimingdezhexue,zheiyecongcemianfanyingchuruxuejuyouzongjiaodeyihan。

秦家懿认为,只把宗教看做是对神灵的信仰,这是浅层次的认知。哲学不是总高于神学。如果把宗教认做是对终极价值本原的追求和信仰,儒学同样可以归入此类。儒学过去是、现在依旧是俗世的宗教。因而,秦家懿果断地得出结论: 儒学既是哲学又是宗教。正如新加坡学者龚道运指出: “孔子的儒学融宗教、道德、哲学为一体。它不是一般的伦理道德学,也不是普通的思辩形而上学”[108]

体育外围zongzhi,qinjiayizhuzhangruxuejuyounonghoudezongjiaoxing,shizongjiao,congzhengmiankendingleruxuezhongdejingtiansixiangheduichaoyuedezhuiqiu。qinjiayizai《zhongguozongjiaoyujidujiao》yishuzhongzhichu,zuoweizongjiaoderuxuedetesejiushiqiduiyuruxinyang、yishihezhidudezongjiaowentiderenwenzhuyifangfa,yijiduishisushijian,gerenchengzhang、jiatingguanxiheshehuihexiedezongjiaoguanhuai。jinguanzaizhongjiyiyishangruxuedejingshenxingdezitiyuwaiweichaoyuehexifangchuantongzongjiaoyiyishangdeduirengeshendechaoyueshixiangtongde,dantahaishiduierzhejinxingleyangedequfen。qinjiayirenweishangdidechaoyuehanyijuebuhuizaizhongguozongjiaozhongsangshidiao,jishishizaibeichengweishisuderenwenzhuyizhihouyebuhuixiaoshi。chucizhiwai,tabingweihulveruxueduirendecunzaijiqijiazhidezhongshi,youqishiduirendeneizaidexingyijishijiannenglideguanzhu。suoyi,qinjiayiyanzhongderuxueshirenwenzhuyidezongjiao,jieshoushangdidechaoyuejingshen。tashenzhirenweiruxuezuichushixianzhidezongjiao,xinyanggerendeshen。taanshi,tianrenheyiyuanzigudaiderenshenheyidexinnian,bingjiangxinruxuechuantongquanshiweichongmanzongjiaoyiyidechuantong。shishizhengming,rujiawenhuakeyicanyudaoxiandaihuazhizhong,weixiandaishehuidexinlingandunhedaodejiaohuatigongyizhongzhongyaodejingshenziyuan。

对话与比较: 个案研究

从佛教因明的量论思想看宗教多元论之可能性

钱雪松*

内容提要体育外围: 晚近不少宗教哲学家都对宗教多元论提出了某种类似的知识论驳难。这些批评者不仅认为宗教多元论是成问题的,而且还论证它在逻辑上是不可能的。本文首先指出这类针对多元论的驳难混淆了两种排他论的理解,因此既没有看到宗教多元论与宗教排他论的真正差异所在,也并不能对宗教多元论的现实可能性构成有力的反驳。其次,通过引入印度因明学中对“圣言量”的阐释和佛教“盲人问色”的寓言,本文将从正面回应宗教多元论的可能性问题,并指出这一观察角度对于宗教对话的积极意义。

关键词: 宗教多元论 宗教排他论 圣言量 现量 比量

自上世纪八十年代宗教的排他-包容-多元三分模式提出以来[109]体育外围,宗教多元论就一直在宗教间认知关系问题和宗教对话领域的讨论中扮演着积极出击的角色,向传统的宗教排他论立场提出了激烈批评。但是,在晚近的相关讨论中,这两者间的攻防战似乎出现了颇值得注意的“转向”: 许多学者不仅从哲学和神学对宗教排他论立场作出辩护,还反过来对宗教多元论作出尖锐的批评,甚至像德科斯塔(Gavin D’Costa)这样原先持有非排他论立场的学者也转投排他论阵营,成为坚定的排他论者。

zheiqizhong,youyileicongzhishilunjiaodutichudepaitalunbianhupoyoushichang,yehenyoudaibiaoxing。zheileipaitalunbianhushituzhengmingxikedengrensuodaibiaodezongjiaoduoyuanlunzairenzhiheluojishangdebukenengxing,yicifanguolaibiaomingzongjiaopaitalunnaishirenzhishangweiyikenengdelichang。benwenjiangyizheiyileipipingweiqierudian,kaochazongjiaoduoyuanlundekenengxingwenti。benwenjiangzhengmingzheileiduizongjiaoduoyuanlunzuofudichouxinshidebonanbingbuchengli,qigenbencuowujiuzaiyu,tamenjiangliangzhongwanquanbutongleixingdezongjiaopaitalunhunweiyitan。zhengshiyinweihuntonglezheiliangzhongpaitalunlichang,yincizheileipipingjiyangailezongjiaoduoyuanlunyuzongjiaopaitalundezhenzhengchayi,yemeiyouduizongjiaoduoyuanlundexianshikenengxinggouchengzhenzhengyoulidefanbo。suihou,benwenjiangtongguoyinruyinduyinmingxuezhongweirao“shengyanliang”deyizugainianlaiduifojiao“mangrenwense”yuyanyuyichanfa,congzhengmianhuiyingzongjiaoduoyuanlundekenengxingwenti,bingzhichuzheiyiguanchajiaoduduiyuzongjiaoduihuadejijiyiyi。

尽管宗教多元论的阵营内部有不同的观点和角度,但它们最基本的立场是共通的,即皆主张: 不止一个宗教在教义上拥有关于人生种种终极问题的真理性回答,或者在实践上都能提供救赎或解脱的有效途径。这一立场在晚近引发了不少尖锐的批评,其中一类来自排他论的批评颇值得注意。这一类批评主张: 在以求真为目标的信念抉择中,排他论实际上是体育外围无法避免的认知原则,甚至是宗教间关系问题事实上唯一可能的立场,即使宗教多元论者也不得不暗自接纳和采用。因此,排他论者相信,事实上并不存在独立于排他论立场的宗教多元论。借用德科斯塔更为形象的说法,无论是多元论者还是包容论者,其实都不过是“匿名的排他论者(anonymous exclusivists)”而已[110]

这一类针对宗教多元论的批评,其基本策略乃是利用逻辑的排中律和矛盾律来为其排他论立场之必然性作辩护。例如,普兰丁格(Alvin Plantinga)认为,在以求真为目标的认知选择中,对于某一命题信念p,除了支持接受、悬搁判断或者拒斥它外并没有第四种选择的可能性,而后两者实际上等同于说不选择相信p,只不过后者(即拒斥p)的力度更强,因为它还等同于主张非p。但这三种信念选择中的任何一种,实际上都是在主张某一立场的同时排斥与之不相容的立场,因而实际上都是排他论的立场[111]。细察普兰丁格这里的整个辩护,其隐含的前提即: 当面对某种缺乏充分理据与论证支持的信念多样性情境(他所谓的“条件集C”)时,一个人选择相信p,就等同于不相信与p不相容的信念,而这是多元论者也无法避免的排他论原则。在他看来,“这不过是简单逻辑(simple logic)而已”[112]

支持这种简单逻辑的当然不只普兰丁格一人。德科斯塔在1996年发表了“宗教多元观之不可能(The Impossibility of A Pluralist View of Religions)”一文,表明他从原来的包容论立场转向了排他论。文中,德科斯塔基于类似的辩护思路力求证明: “在逻辑上对诸宗教采取一种多元论观点是不可能的”[113]。在他看来,多元论者与排他论者尽管在宗教真理观的具体内容上各异,但逻辑形式都是通过诉诸某种形式的真理标准而必然在真理问题上有所取舍,因此多元论者在逻辑上与排他论者并无实质性差异。德科斯塔以约翰·希克(John Hick)和保罗·尼特(Paul Knitter)等多元论者为例,指出他们的宗教多元论都蕴含某种真理标准,并据此接纳某些主张又拒斥另一些主张。由于几乎不可能有不持有任何真理标准的多元论者(或包容论者),因此,德科斯塔的结论是: 在宗教的排他论和多元论之间并不存在“客观的区分”,多元论者不过是“不自知的排他论者”而已;他们(连同包容论者)其实都不外是“匿名的排他论者”罢了[114]

认为多元论者在实践上不可能避免排他论因而必然陷入言行不一之困境,这种批评在当代宗教哲学中颇有市场。[115]英国著名的神学家艾伦·托伦斯(Alan Torrance)高度赞许了从普兰丁格到德科斯塔这一系列批评的学术价值,认为“德科斯塔终于完成一直以来被哲学家(例如柏庭格[即普兰丁格——引者])所争辩的课题,就是体育外围要摒弃一个神话故事……这神话是无所忌惮的为所欲为,一直在欺骗体育外围,使体育外围看不到事实,也阻碍着体育外围对事实的了解,甚至严重地妨害宗教的研究”[116]。在托伦斯等人眼中,如此“罪大恶极”的“神话”才似乎是多元论的真实面目,而普兰丁格和德科斯塔的批评则终于成功地驳倒了这一神话,自然功莫大焉!

体育外围raner,wentizhenyouzheimejiandanma?

chukanzhixia,zheileipipingdequebaohanhelidechengfen。yinwei,zhiyaotiyuwaiweibushijiduandexiangduizhuyizhehuoxuwuzhuyizhe,jiudouhuichengren,zhenlixingdemingtixinnianzongshipaitade。zheizhongpaitaxingshouxianyizhi: dangtiyuwaiweixiangxinmingtipweizhenshi,yejiutongshiyunhantiyuwaiweixiangxinfeipweijia,huozhishaojujuejieshoufeip。zheishipulandinggesuochipaitalundejibenhanyi。qici,zaidekesitaneili,paitalunhaitezhizheimeyizhongtedingdeqingxing: dangtiyuwaiweisuojieshouzhimingtipbiaodadeshimouzhongzhenlipandingbiaozhun(truth criteria)shi,zebujinyugaimingtipzhijieduilideqitazhenlibiaozhun(tamenzhijieshuyufeip)huibeipaichi,erqieneixiebuweizheiyibiaozhunsuorongxudeqitajutixinnianmingtihuoxinnianxingweiyehuisuizhiweitiyuwaiweisuojujue。yigejiandingdixiangxin“sahuangwulunruhebukeyunxu”derenbujinbuhuizantong“sahuangyemeishenmedabule”,erqieyehuipaichiyiqiedehuangyan——zhiyaotazhendeyanxingyizhi。keyishuo,pulandinggeyudekesitadepaitalunshiyimaixiangliande,houzhebuguoshiqianzhedetedingqingxingyuluojiyinsheneryi,shijishangtamendoukeyiguijieweipulandinggeneizhongfeicijibide“jiandanluoji”。

但问题是,接受这种排他论就能构成对多元论可能性的决定性反驳吗?认为相信命题p就等同于相信与p不相容的其他命题为假或错谬,这当然是中学生都知道的“简单逻辑”,但是,由此认为这种真理命题的排他性能等同于希克等多元论者所反对的宗教排他论,这一推论却很可能只是过于简单的一厢情愿而已。因为,据体育外围所知,似乎还没有哪一位宗教多元论者会在严肃意义上反对这种基于矛盾律和排中律而来的真理信念的排他性,但他们却并不因此而认为自己就真的成了宗教排他论者[117]

下文将指出,这类批评的根本错误在于,它们将两种很不相同的排他论原则混为一谈了。为了说明这一点,让体育外围先区分“宗教排他论”一词的两种理解[118]体育外围。宽泛地理解,“宗教排他论”指的是坚持某种认知立场或某套真理标准来处理宗教真理的问题,凡是与此立场或标准相冲突的其他立场或标准都被拒斥在外,甚至视之为假或错谬。在这一意义上,希克或尼特的确可被视作宗教排他论者,因为他们的确采用了某种立场或真理标准对各宗教信念之真理性作出取舍评判。只是,在这一意义上确立的宗教排他论,所基于的其实是一般性真理陈述皆具有的排他性,因此可视作是基于“真理排他性”而来的排他论。

danshi,zongjiaoduoyuanlunzheshizaigengxiayihuogengtedingdeyiyishangshiyong“zongjiaopaitalun”yicide,jiyizhi: mouyitedingdezongjiaochuantongduizhongjishizaidelijiebiqitazongjiaochuantonggengweiyouyue,yinweizhiyouweiyidezongjiaochuantongshizhenzongjiao,qitazongjiaojieweijiahuocuomiu。yixiatiyuwaiweijiangjincong“weiyizhenzongjiaojiading(only-one-true-religion assumption)”deyiyishanglaishiyong“zongjiaopaitalun”yici,erjiangkuanfanyiyidepaitalunyuanzechengzhiwei“zhenlipaitalun”。

体育外围zaiciqufenjichushang,rangtiyuwaiweikaolvyixiasanzemingti:

(1)renhezhenliguanjunshejitedingdezhenlibiaozhun,yinerjuyoupaitaxing。

(2)zhiyouyigezongjiaoshiweiyidezhenzongjiao。

体育外围(3)buzhiyigezongjiaoshizhenzongjiao。

体育外围xianran,(1)shijiyuzhenlipaitaxingyuanzeerlaidepaitalunlichang,(2)he(3)fenbieshijingjianhuachulidezongjiaopaitalunhezongjiaoduoyuanlun。jiucieryan,xikehenitesuodaibiaodezongjiaoduoyuanlunxianranyu(3)tonglei,erbushuyu(2)suodaibiaodezongjiaopaitalunzhilie。pulandinggehedekesitadengrenduizongjiaoduoyuanlundepipingzexiangdangyuzhuzhang: suoyoujieshou(1)defeipaitalunzhejieshi“nimingdepaitalunzhe”。huanyanzhi,tamendepipingyinhanzheyixialichang: zongjiaoduoyuanlunzhedelichang(3)yaochengli,jiubixujujue(1)。danshi,zheilide“bixu”bingfeibuyanziming。yimingzongjiaoduoyuanlunzhebixujuchi(1)(huoleisibiaoshu)cainengbutongyi(2)(huoleisibiaoshu)ma?huozheshuo,zongjiaoduoyuanlunzheyidanjieshoule(1),jiubixuliandaidijieshouleisi(2)zheizhongjianchitedingzongjiaolichangdepaitalunma?ruoshiruci,zezongjiaopaitalunzheshijishangzhuzhangdeshi:

(S1)给定上述三类命题,则有: 如果(1)为真,则(2)为真,并且(3)为假。

huozhe,caiyongjiaoruodebiaoshufangshi,ji:

(S2)给定上述三类命题,则有: 如果一个人接受(1),则随之接受(2)同时拒绝(3)是最为合理的选择。

显然,无论(S1)还是(S2)均非不言自明,也并不合乎宗教多元论和宗教排他论事实上所持有的立场。因为无论是坚持(3)的宗教多元论者还是持有(2)的宗教排他论者,他们双方的立场本身并不与(1)有任何直接冲突。换言之,无论是宗教多元论还是宗教排他论,它们的真实区分并不取决于是否采用立场(1)。一名宗教多元论者完全可以根据(1)而对各种持有唯一真宗教假定的宗教排他论立场(如相信“只有基督教是真宗教”的基督教排他论)作出拒斥与批评。就此而言,普兰丁格和德科斯塔等人的批评就像是说,体育外围可以仅凭是否相信“一个人不可能同时选择两条路线”或“每个人一次只能选择一条路线”等一类抽象原则就可以知道通往某座城市的道路到底是“自古华山一条道”还是“条条大路通罗马”。其错谬显而易见。

这些排他论者似乎没有意识到: 他们所用以反驳多元论者的真理排他论实际上可为宗教排他论者和宗教多元论者所共享,仅仅坚持真理的排他性原则并不足以构成双方特定立场的任何否决因子(defeater)。正如贝辛格(David Basinger)所指出的,一名多元论者完全可以作为宽泛意义的真理排他论者同时继续坚持他的宗教多元论主张,而且前一意义的真理排他论立场并不会对其宗教多元论立场造成任何的削弱——只要他对这些宗教的解释框架内部并不存在逻辑和认知上的矛盾或冲突。[119]

体育外围youcikejian,yijujiandanluojierlaidezheiyipipingzhisuoyibunengchengli,zuizhuyaodeyuanyinbingbushiruyixielunzhesuorenweideneiyang,shiyouyuzheiyileibianhuqituzaizongjiaoxinniandelingyujianchi“yaomep,yaomefeip”dejiandanluoji,ershiyinweitashitujinjincaiyongzheizhongfeicijibidejiandanluojilaiqudaizongjiaoduoyuanlunyuzongjiaopaitalunzhijiandezhenshichayi。zheishijishangshijiangzongjiaoxinyangdepaitaxing(zhuzhangmouzhongpaitaxingdetedingzongjiaolichang)yuzhenlidepaitaxing(jianchiyibanxingzhenlimingtideerzhijiashe)hunweiyitan,congerjiangyuanbenshuyuzhenlipaitalundeyibanluojitexingtoutou“bangdingzai”jianchitedinglichangdezongjiaopaitalunzhizhong。keyishuo,paitalunzhedezheiyipipingjimeiyoutizongjiaopaitaluntigongzhenzhengyoushuofulidebianhu,yeweinengzhenduizongjiaoduoyuanlundezhenshilichangtichurenheyoushuofulidefanbo——tasuobodaodebuguoshipizhe“zongjiaoduoyuanlun”waiyidedaocaorenbale。

体育外围dangran,jinjinshuomingzongjiaopaitalunbonanbuchenglibingbudengyuzhengchenglezongjiaoduoyuanlundekenengxing。jinguanyijingqingchuzongjiaoduoyuanlunzhebingbushishenme“nimingdepaitalunzhe”,yekeyoucimingbaizongjiaoduoyuanlundeluojikenengxingbingmeiyouyincierbeituifan,danshi,zheiyanglaitanlunzongjiaoduoyuanlundekenengxingweimianguoyuchouxianghekongfan,duiyuzhengchengqixianshidekenengxingyebingwutaiqiangdeshuofuli。weilezhenzhenghuiyingzongjiaoduoyuanlundekenengxingwenti,tiyuwaiweihaiyinggaichangshiduizongjiaoduoyuanlundexianshikenengxingcongzhengmianyuyishuoming。

weilelejiezheizhongzhengmianshuominghuishizenyang,rangtiyuwaiweixianhuangejiaodusikao: yaozailixingshangqueliqizongjiaopaitalundejibenlichang,zhishilunshangbixumanzushenmetiaojian?jingshangjiefenxibunankanchu,jiyu“weiyizhenzongjiaojiading”erlaidezongjiaopaitalunyaoxiangchengli,tazhishaoxumanzuyixialiangdianzhishiluntiaojian:

体育外围(4)xinyangzheyouzugouhaodeliyouxiangxinmouyitedingdezongjiaoxinnianpweizhen,zheidengtongyuxiangxinyiqieyupxiangchongtudexinnian(feip)weijia。

(5)进而,信仰者有足够好的理由相信其他所有宗教的核心命题皆属于非p。[120]

只有(4)和(5)均成立,宗教排他论者才能合理地相信,只有唯一的真宗教,即主张信念p的宗教;同时其他一切宗教皆为错谬。然而,从上节可知,普兰丁格和德科斯塔等排他论者基于简单逻辑而来的批评仅仅认同了(4),却丝毫没有就(5)提出任何有说服力的证明或理据[121]。或许正是因为这一点,希克才会在另一篇回应中认为排他论者的批评错失了真正重要的问题[122]——宗教多元论者所以反对宗教排他论,并不是因为不接受(4),而恰恰是因为他们认为(5)并不可取!

体育外围yinci,jiejuezongjiaoduoyuanlunzhikenengxingwentidezhongxinyingluoshizai(5)shang。raner,zheirenwubingburongyi。dui(5)deshizhixingjiejue(wulunshizhichihaishifandui),jiqianshedaozhishilunzhonggezhonghelixinglilundepandingqushe(daodihezhongliyoucaishi“zugouhaode”),yeshejiduibutongzongjiaohexinmingtidelijieyupanding(daodiruhecaizhidaoqitazongjiaodemingti“shishishang”shuyufeip)。

不过,对此问题的实质性解决并非本文目标所在。对于“宗教多元论乃是逻辑和现实上不可能的”这一批评而言,体育外围只须证成它的确是“逻辑与现实上可能的”就足够了。换言之,本文只须表明,相对于体育外围目前的认知,“不止一个宗教在真理或救赎问题上之并行不悖是现实可能的”即可达到目标[123]。而这相当于证明: 当体育外围相信某一宗教信念p为真时,其他宗教信念在某种现实可能的情境下并不属于非p。

youjianyuci,xiawenbingbuzhunbeigoujianguanyuzongjiaoduoyuanlunkenengxingdeyizhengtaozhengmianshuoming,erjinchangshitongguoyizeyuyanlaixianmingzongjiaoduoyangxingdemouzhongkenengqingjing,youcibiaomingzongjiaoduoyuanlunzaitedingdeguanchashijiaoxiadequeshixianshikenengde。

zheizeyuyanjushuolaizifojiao,minjianbanbenpoduo,dandayijibenxiangtong。bizheshoutouyoudeqiahaoshinanhuaijinxianshengzai《shanhailice》zhongdexushu,zhailuruxia——

譬如有一盲人,问人曰: 白色者何状?答曰: 如白雪之白。盲人又曰: 白雪又是何状?曰: 如白马之白。盲人复曰: 白马何状?曰: 如白鹅之白。盲人再曰: 白鹅何状?答者无奈,取盲人之手比画之曰: 白鹅者,其头颈细长而能伸曲,有两翼,其鸣也呷呷然。盲人乃曰: 汝何不早说?如此,体育外围已知乎所谓白者,颈细而长,有两翼,其鸣呷呷。[124]

rangtiyuwaiweibufangzaifahuidianxiangxiangli: jiashezheiweitianshengdemangren(shengmangzhe)zaishengmangzhedeshijielixiangbutongderenqunxianhoubuyidizhuanshuleyouguanbaisedezheisanfanchenshu(“baiserubaixuezhibai”;“baiserubaimazhibai”;“baiserubaiezhibai”),youcifenbiexingchengbaixuepai、baimapaihebaiepaidengsandapaibie;gepaixinzhongyedouxianhoujiechudaobaixue、baimayubaie,duisanzhezhichushoulengnuan、xingzhuangyinshengdengjieyousuolejie;dantamenxianranwufayoucileijiechuerdachenggongshi,fandaoyincierweirao“baisezhehezhuang”yiwengezhijijian,fenzhengbuduan。

体育外围zheiyixiugaihoudemangrenwensebanbenkeshizuoleibizongjiaoduoyangxingmouzhongkenengxingqingjingdexiangzhenghuoshuoyinyu: butongzongjiaojianjiuzhongjizhenliyushijiansuogouchengdeduoyangxinggejujiuyourushengmangzheyouguanbaisesuoxingchengdesandapai,zheisandaleichenshuzaishengmangzhezhizhongdequecunzaiwufaxiaojiederenzhizhangli,danduimingyanrenlaishuozheixiechenshuzhiweizhenqueshiyimulerande。zheiyixiangzhengzongjiaoduoyangxingdeqingjingxianranqingxiangyuzongjiaoduoyuanlunlichang——tiyuwaiweidequeyoukenengzaibuzhiyigezongjiaoneilifaxianguanyuzhongjishizaidezhenshichenshuhuozhengquezhishi。

体育外围buguo,rucijieduhaiyirantingliuyubiaomian。weilegengshenrujieshizheizeyuyanduiyuzongjiaoduoyuanlunzhikenengxingwentideqifa,yixiajiangyinruyinduyinmingxuezhongyi“shengyanliang”weihexindeyizugainianzuoweichanshigongju。youyubenwenbuguoshiyaojiezhuzheizugainiansuotigongdeguanchajiaodulaikaochazheizeyuyandexiangzhengyiyi,yincizheilijinjianyaodijieshiqijibenhanyi,diandaoweizhi。tiyuwaiweidezhongdianhaishihuifangzaizheiyigainiansuoyongdaodeguanchajiaoduduiyubenwenluntideqifazhishang。

圣言量(āgama),又译“圣教量”、“声量”或“言量”,是印度因明学中普遍认可的知识来源之一。在古印度六派哲学中的正理派(尼夜耶派)那里,圣言量被定义为“可信赖之人的言教”,分作“根据可见之物而确立的圣言量”和“根据不可见物而确立的圣言量”两类[125]。这里的“可信赖之人”特指吠陀圣典[126]体育外围,而所谓“可见之物”是指世间人运用一般感官即可知晓之认知对象或所量,而“不可见之物”则是指作祭祀可升天这类一般人无法认知而只能信仰之对象或所量。因此对于正理派而言,圣言量还特指由处于知识权威地位之圣典《正理经》所启示的知识,包括一般人所能认知的和超出一般人认知能力之外的种种所量对象。

不过,到了陈那和法称所开创的佛教因明学传统中,圣言量不再被视为独立的量,而是归入比量的范畴,将之视作依名言分别和逻辑推理而来之认知[127]。所以如此,一个很重要的原因是,对陈那等人而言,认识的对象(即所量)只有两类: 现量认识自相,比量认识共相,除此再无其他所量。圣言量不过是依据证悟者之现量证悟再通过比量共相的方式传达给一般人,因此对于一般人而言,圣言量乃是以比量的方式(声闻)确立的。

体育外围youguanerliangjiqibutongduixiangdezheiyiqufenzaichenneisuokaiqidexinyinmingzhongshoucihuodelexitongershenrudelunshu。zhengrufubuzhengmingzaitandaochenneirenshilunyushenglunpailungainianzhifenqishisuozhichude: duichenneieryan,

实在的是个别相,从其他的东西区别开来。这个别相只有透过直接知觉而被捕取,而直接知觉是“离思维”的。这样,陈那阐明直接知觉与概念(语言)在关连到对象方面的本质的区别;这概念亦可包括基于它而来的判断与推理。直接知觉是以实在的个别相为对象的知识手段;概念则是以非实在的一般相为对象的知识手段。[128]

因此,陈那认为,比量并不以个体事物为对象,而是以一般性的共相为对象,由此,语言才能真正发挥它在语言上“排除他者”的功能,体育外围也才能从概念上“把握”和理解世界[129]体育外围。简言之,语言之对象乃一“有功能而无实体”的一般性对象(共相)。此处之自相和共相不能简单等同于西方中世纪唯名-唯实之争中的殊相(particular)与共相(universal),它们反倒是佛教因明学迥异于西方知识论的一个重要特质。关于二量各自对象及其功能之分野,宗喀巴在《因明七论入门》中作了简明扼要的解释:

所量,从证悟法方面分为: 自相及共相二种……谓能真正表达功能,为自相之性相,犹如青色;或如未混合方位时间而存在之物。不能真正表达功能之法,为共相之性相;或为方位时间相混合而现见之显境,比如: 分别心现见鼓腹而有底盘之物。[130]

体育外围yejiushishuo,zixiangyugongxiangshizuoweibutongleixingderenzhiduixiang(suoliang)bingtongguorendezhenshirenshinengli(zhijierenshiyujianjietuilishangde“zhengwufa”)erquelide,qianzheshizishennengzhenshifahuizuoyonggongnengdeshiwu,ruhuobenshennengfareshaoshuizhufan,gushuyuxianliang(lifenbieerwuqihuozhizhijierenshi)desuoliangduixiang;erhouzhezeshizhiyousiweifenbiezhizuoyongdegainian,ru“huo”yicizhinengyinfasiweifenbie(ji“paichutazhe”),bangzhutiyuwaiweiconggainianshangbawohelijieshijie,bingkedachengtiyuwaiweidemubiao,dantabingmeiyourexingdegongneng,gushuyubiliang(yimingyanfenbieerlaizhijianjierenshiyusiweituidu)desuoliangduixiang。

在体育外围看来,围绕现量、一般比量以及圣言量而来的这一组概念为体育外围提供了重要的观察视角,即从圣言量(基于明眼人现量而来的名言比量)和与之相对之世间量[131](生盲者之量)的二分来重新思考宗教多元论的可能性问题。就目前的宗教多样性问题而言,这样一个圣言量视角,可从两个层面来界定——

其一,圣言量可理解为源自神明(包括一神论之上帝)或圣贤(如证悟者)而传达的关于世界中“极隐秘”事物的语言文字。这侧重于从单纯的知识来源层面来界定圣言量。这类记述和指引所以只能源自圣言量,是因为其认知的内容特属因明“所量”中之“极隐秘”事物,因而超出了世间人依一般感官而来的认知领域,无法为世人所现见(现量)或依靠推理论证(比量)来获取,故唯有依靠对神明或圣贤的言语指示方有了达之可能[132]

体育外围qier,shengyanliangzaigenggenbendecengmianhaiyizhi,yiduishiwudewuwurenzhi(duizixiangzhixianliangzhengwu)weizhundelaiqueliyuhengzhunzheixieyuyanwenzijiluzhizhenlixing(yinmingzhongzhi“shengjiaoxing”)。zheiyicengmiandeshengyanliangbujinshizhishidelaiyuan,erqiehaishihengzhunyupandingrenzhizhenjiazhengwudebiaozhun。

总而言之,圣言量作为因明学中的知识论概念,既意指对一般人所无法认知之极隐秘事物的认知(由此与世间人依一般感官所能现见之事物相对),也意指在理解这些认知时所须遵循的判定标准(由此与作为认知标准的不可靠之世间量相对)[133]

体育外围xianzaikeyihuiguotoulaijiedumangrenwensedeyuyanle。xianran,zaicishexiangzhiqingjingzhong,shengmangzhezaicijiu“baisezhehezhuang”suoyinfaderenzhichongtubingfei,rupulandinggedengpaitalunzhesuozhuzhangde,shiyouyuzheixiexinnianzailuojishangshibuxiangrongde“pyufeip”guanxi,ershiyinweishengmangzheduiyuzheixiexinnianzhizhenzhengsuozhi——baisezhizixiang——queshaomingyanrenneizhongyimulerandezhijierenzhi,erjinnengtongguosanlei“baise”chenshuyuchujuetingjuedengfeishijuerenzhidebuqiadangguanlianlailijiebaisezhigongxiang(“baise”zhigainian)。tongli,zaizongjiaoduoyangxingzhongchengxianderenzhizhanglijinguanyu(1)xinnianduixiangzhibutong(rubaimabutongyubaixue)he(2)shehui、lishi、wenhuadengyujingfangmianzhichayijunyouguanlian,danbenzhishangqueyetongyangyoukenenglaizi(3)renleiyibanrenzhi(shijianliang)yujiyinmiduixianghuoshuochaoyueyibanganguanjingyanzhishizaiduixiangzhijiandebupipei(rushengmangzhezhiyuyansewufa“yimuleran”)。yibandezongjiaozhexue(baokuoxuduozongjiaoduoyuanlunzhe)wangwangcongqianmian(1)he(2)lianggejiaodulaijieshizongjiaojianderenzhichayi,quehushilezuihouyigecengmiangengshenkechayidekenengxing。shijianliangyushengyanliangdequfen,zhengshituchule“butongcengciderenshinengliyubutongcengcideshizaiduixiang(butongsuoliang)xiangpipei”zheiyangyizhongkenengxingyuguanchajiaodu,congerweizongjiaoduoyuanlunkaipichukenengxingdekongjian。

进而,盲人问色之喻还揭示了这其中存在的某种“量上的僭越”,即: 当体育外围试图以世间量之认知去衡量与判定关于极隐秘对象的种种圣言量之真假的时候,这种认知的摇摆不定与张力冲突就必然会出现,生盲者随之而来的信念选择也是基于既不充分亦不可靠的世间量认知。由此体育外围也就能够理解,为什么即使宗教多元论是可能的,但当体育外围站在宗教信念的外部来看时,总会觉得不同宗教间的信念冲突无法消解。作为“示月之指”的语言并不能令月亮之自相呈现为生盲者之现量对境,哪怕指示者所说无误。从盲人问色所提供的视角来看,宗教多样性中这种认知张力的无可化解感所折射的其实是人类一般感官经验(世间现量)以及语言(具分别性之名相)的限度所在。正是在这一意义上,宗教间的认知张力并不必然导致“要么p,要么非p”这种简单逻辑的命题对立,而可以视作对人类自身经验之限度(世间现量无法真正通达极隐秘对象)与语言之限度(概念之共相理解无法取代对概念自相之现量认知)在宗教多样性情境中的折射[134]体育外围。因此,这种量上的僭越揭示了宗教多样性中人类一般认知(包括语言)与终极认知之间的间距;而正是这一间距,构成宗教多元论所得以可能的真正空间。

raner,duiliangzhijianyuedechengren,bingbubirandaozhiduishengyanliangzishenjiazhidefouding。huanyanzhi,mangrenwensebingbujinjinshixiaojidizheshechurenleirenzhidejiexian,tongshiyeyinhanzheduizongjiaojianguanxiwentidejijiqifa。

pannika(raimon panikkar)cengyongyuedanhe、taibohehehenghezheisantiaojuyoushenshengyiweideheliulaixiangzhengzhuzongjiaochuantongzhifengfuduoyangxing。tongguoqufenzhuzongjiaozhi“lishixingxiangyu”yu“zhenzhengshulingdexiangyu”,pannikabiaodaleduizongjiaojianxiangyudeshenkedongjian:

诸河流并不相遇,即便在海洋中也不相遇。但“它们”还是要彼此相遇,也就是说,在天上。“它们”首先变成水蒸气,之后以云的形式相遇,最后作为雨降落人间,养育地上的众河流。诸宗教不会发展成为一个宗教,而且肯定不是为了要形成一个组织化的机构。仅当它们转化成水蒸气之后,完全变成灵之后——那时就以无数种语言倾泻而下……它们才相遇。[135]

zheizedangdaiyinyuyugulaodemangrenwensegushiyaoxianggongming,yizhengyifandibiaominglecong“shengyanliang-shijianliang”dejiaodukandaizongjiaoduoyangxingsuonengdadaodeshuangzhongjielun: congshijianliang(shengmangzhezhiliang)cengmiankan,zongjiaoduoyangxingdequezheshechutiyuwaiweirenleiyibanxingrenzhidejiexian,ranershengyanliang(mingyanrenzhiliang)decunzai,queyebaoliulerenkuayuezheizhongjiexiandekenengxing,jikuayueyuanyouzhongzhonglishi、wenhua、yuyannaizhizongjiaojiaoyizhijiexianxiangzhongjizhishizaiwanquanchangkaidekenengxing。jieyongpannikayiweishenzhangdeyinyu,zheizhongkuayuejiexianerzhankaidezongjiaojianduihua,bingbuzhuiqiugedachuantongzongjiaohexi“zaidishang”hengxiangdexiangyuyujiaohui(zheisihushibukenengde),tabiaozhengdeshizheimeyizhongtujing: duihuazhezhiyoutongguo“zaitianshang”duizhongjitazhedezongxiangcanyu,ranhoucaiyoukenenghuazuoyushuiqingxieerxia,“fanhuidishang”yigenghaodilijiezijiyutazhezaigenjichudemoyingguantong。

这样一种基于人之成长而来的宗教对话模式[136],意味着对以下两个假定的接受: 一是人对实在的认识程度取决于他参与实在的深度,或说依赖于人的整体性认知与终极实在各种面向的匹配程度;二是人拥有终极层面的成长空间,即拥有走向圆满的真实可能。这些假定合理与否只能留待另文论述。不过,须在此指出的是,即使承认这两大假定,不同的对话者对这两个条件的实现程度也是因人而异的,因此基于这种宗教多元论之假定之上的宗教对话必然首先是个体性的生存论参与,其经验可以分享却难以论证[137]体育外围。这种宗教对话已经超出知识论的范畴而走向宗教实践的领域,并且本身就带有宗教意味——它意味着对话者将面临无法预先了知的整体性更新的可能。这对于真诚的对话者来说,其挑战(无论是灵性上还是知性上)无疑是巨大的,然而也是难以抗拒的——

“他必须下海并开始行走,尽管他蹒跚而行,心中害怕。”[138]

《古兰经》中的耶稣形象

——从比较宗教的视角

徐弢 师俊华*

内容提要体育外围: 通过分析《古兰经》中的耶稣形象,既能窥见伊斯兰教与基督宗教在教义教理上的诸多相似,更能凸显两者之间的巨大差异。可见,两大宗教能否找到比较的中介和对话的平台,关键取决于双方能否以求同存异的态度看待彼此。

关键词: 古兰经 圣经 耶稣 比较

亚伯拉罕(在伊斯兰教中称易卜拉欣)传统的三大一神教(犹太教、基督宗教和伊斯兰教)同出一源,相互之间有着紧密的历史渊源。可是在相当长的历史时期内,由于受宗教偏见的影响,加上某些人别有用心的挑拨,它们相互之间的成见很深,有时甚至搞得水火不容。例如,中世纪的十字军东征,当代的巴以冲突和911事件等。为消除误解,维护和平,当今世界各国都在积极促进三大一神教的对话,尤其是作为世界性宗教的伊斯兰教和基督宗教之间的对话,因为正如当代学者汉斯·昆(Hans Kung)所说,在全球化时代,“没有宗教间的和平,就没有国家间的和平;而没有宗教间的对话,就没有宗教间的和平。”[139]

像任何宗教之间的对话一样,伊斯兰教与基督宗教之间的对话亦可以分为许多不同层次的对话。例如,宗教信仰层面的对话、宗教文化层面的对话、宗教体验层面的对话等等。在各种层面的宗教对话中,又以信仰层面的宗教对话最为关键和最为艰难。[140]体育外围无论在伊斯兰教的《古兰经》,还是基督宗教的《圣经》中,都可以找到大量有关耶稣(汉译古兰经中常译为“尔萨”或“尔撒”)这一关键人物的描述。这些描述不仅体现了两大宗教在教义教理上的和而不同,也为双方以求同存异的态度进行信仰层面的宗教对话提供了现实的可能条件。

一、《古兰经》中的耶稣形象的基本特征

jualaboxuezhemuhanmode·musitafa·muhanmodetongji,《gulanjing》zhonglunjiyesu(yiyiersahuoersa,xiatong)dejingwenda25chuyishang。chulezuowei“fengyinshizhe”demuhanmodezhiwai,yesushi《gulanjing》zhongtidaozuiduodeyiweirenwu。congzheixieyouguanyesudejingwenzhong,tiyuwaiweikeyikanjianyiweiyisilanjiaodeweidaxianzhihezhongyaoshizhedexingxiang。

《古兰经》中的耶稣是一位能力超凡的伟大先知。伊斯兰教宣称,在穆罕默德降生前,真主就曾向人类派遣过众多先知,尽管这些先知不是神,也不是天使,而是普通的凡人,但他们能向人类传达真主的启示,并按照真主的命令宣布某些预言。关于先知的人数,《古兰经》中没有精确说明,但耶稣无疑是地位仅次于穆罕默德的伟大先知之一。例如,《古兰经》很少论及其他先知的超凡能力,以防止人们因此而把先知误解为神或天使,但是为了强调真主对先知耶稣的特别器重,却用不少篇幅描述了真主赐予他的超凡能力,并且借耶稣之口明确宣布,这种能力是真主降示的迹象: “体育外围奉真主的命令,能医治天然盲,大麻疯,又能使死者复活,又能把你们所吃的和你们储藏在家里的食物告诉你们。对于你们,此中确有一种迹象,如果你们是信道的人”(古兰经3章49节)。[141]

《古兰经》中的耶稣也是一位承前启后的重要使者。按伊斯兰教教义,真主在不同时期向每个民族派遣过至少一位以上的使者(古兰经16章36节)。这些使者肩负真主赐予的特殊使命,告诫人类不要忘记真主的启示,故地位高于一般先知。《古兰经》中提到名字的使者共有28位,其中最著名的六位使者分别是阿丹(亚当)、努海(挪亚)、易卜拉欣(亚伯拉罕)、穆萨(摩西)、耶稣、穆罕默德。[142]体育外围在六大使者中,耶稣不是第一位,也不是最后一位,但作为穆罕默德之前降生的最后一位重要使者,他对真主的启示在人类社会的传播发挥着承前启后的重要作用。一方面,他证实了前任使者穆萨所颁布的《讨拉特》(犹太教的律法书),并遵照真主的旨意解除了其中的一部分禁令(古兰经3章50-55)。另一方面,他又向人类颁布了真主所赐的《引支勒》(基督宗教的福音书),并宣布了“封印使者”穆罕默德即将诞生的喜讯(古兰经61章6节)。

二、《古兰经》与《圣经》的耶稣形象之似

体育外围《gulanjing》bujinmingwenxuanbu“ersadeyinzhile”(yesudefuyinshu)laizizhenzhudeqishi,yaoqiumusilinbudeqishizheibujingdian(gulanjing2zhang136jie),erqiegongkaichengrenyesudemouxiejiaodao(rurenai、rennai、bubaiouxiangdeng)laizizhenzhu(gulanjing5zhang46-47jie),keyishirenxinhuairenyihelianmin(57zhang27jie),shenzhidedaozhengjiu(gulanjing2zhang62jie)。jutieryan,《gulanjing》yu《shengjing》zhongdeyesuxingxiangyouyixiasidianxiangsizhichu。

首先,无论在《古兰经》还是《圣经》中,耶稣都不是通过寻常方式降生人间,而是通过真主直接吹入童贞女玛利亚(汉译古兰经中译为麦尔彦,下同)体内的精神所生的(古兰经21章91节)。据《古兰经》记载,当玛利亚从真主派来的天使口中得知,她将诞下一个被真主所喜爱的儿子时,曾惊恐地询问: “任何人没有接触过体育外围,体育外围又不是失节的,体育外围怎么会有儿子呢?”(古兰经19章22节)但当天使告诉她,这一切都是真主的旨意后,她立即表示服从,并悄悄躲在一个僻静地方,等待孩子降生。几个月之后,玛利亚感到腹中疼痛难忍,便独自来到一棵干枯的椰枣树下,生下了一个不平凡的男婴,即后来被基督徒称为弥赛亚(汉译古兰经中译为默西哈,下同)的耶稣。由于担心有人指责她未婚生子,刚生下耶稣的玛利亚心中十分惶恐。就在不知所措的时候,从椰枣树下传来一阵奇妙的声音: “你不要忧愁,你的主已在你下面造化了一条溪流。你只要向前摇动树干,就会有新鲜成熟的椰枣落在你的身旁”(古兰经19章25-26节)。玛利亚听了这话,心里平静下来。吃完真主所赐的椰枣后,便抱着刚出生的小耶稣回到自己的族人中间。《古兰经》中的这些记载与《圣经》中有关玛利亚“圣灵感孕”的记载虽不尽相同,却不无相通之处,因为两者都没有一个人间的父亲,而是通过真主的精神或“圣灵”感孕所生,并且在出生的时刻,都曾得到真主的祝福和天使的帮助(参阅圣经·马太福音1章18-23)。[143]

qici,《gulanjing》he《shengjing》zhongdeyesudouyoushixingqijidechaofannengli。zhengru《shengjing》zhongdeyesucengtongguoyixiliechaozirande“shenji”laihongyangshangdideqishi,《gulanjing》zhongdeyesuweilehongyangzhenzhudezhiyi,yecengpingjiezhenzhusuocidenenglizhihaosemanghedamafengdengjibing,shenzhikeyirangsirenfuhuo。anzhao《gulanjing》zhongdejizai,yesucongjiangshengdeshihouqi,jiuyibiaoxianchumouzhongbutongxunchangdenengli: yinweidangmaliyadezurenmenduitaweihunchanziyishiyilunfenfenzhishi,shangzaiqiangbaozhongdeyingeryesubiannengzhangkougaosuzhongren: “tiyuwaiweiqueshizhenzhudepuren,tayaobajingdianshangcitiyuwaiwei,rangtiyuwaiweizuoxianzhi,yaoshitiyuwaiweiwulunzainalidoushiyoufude,bingqiezhufutiyuwaiwei,zhiyaohuozhejiuyaojinshoubaigong,wannatianke,xiaojingtiyuwaiweidemuqin,tameiyourangtiyuwaiweizuobadaodebomingren。tiyuwaiweizaichushengri、siwangri、fuhuori,douxiangshouheping”(gulanjing19zhang30-33jie)。kandaoqiangbaozhongdeyingerjurannengkaikoushuoyuyan,maliyadezurencaizhongyuxiangxintabushiyibanhaizi,zhiyoujishaoshukuangturengjujuexiangxin。zaizhenzhudebaoyouhemaliyadekanhuxia,《gulanjing》zhongdeyesuhenkuaichengzhangweiyigeyongyoujigaozhihuihepindedeqingnian。tajingchangyongzhihuidehuayulaijifengzhouweineixiecongshizhanbudengmixinhuodongdeyoutairen。dayuezaisanshisuizuoyou,yesukaishianzhaozhenzhudezhishichuquchuandao,xiangrenmenxuanjiangzhenzhuqishijitadeyuyan。weilezhengshizijideyuyanhebochineixiedihuizijidebuxinzhe,yesuhaijingchangdangzhongzhanshiyixiechaozirandeshenji。liru,tacengjingyongniniechuyizhixiaoniao,zaiduitachuishangyikouqi,zheizhixiaoniaobianlijibianchengyizhihuoniaobingfeizou。tahaiyikaochaofandenenglizhihaolexuduohuanyoudamafenghuanzhehetianshengdexiazi,bingkeyirangjiangshiqisihuisheng。yushi,renmenfenfencongsimianbafangganlailingtingtadejiaoxun,zhengdangtadezhuisuizhe。

disan,《gulanjing》he《shengjing》zhongdeyesudoumeiyouquanpanfoudingyoutaijiaodejingdianhelvfa,tongshiyoufanduiyijiaotiaozhuyihebaoshouzhuyidetaiduduidaiyoutaijiaodejingdianhelvfa。zai《shengjing》zhong,yesuyifangmiangongkaishengchengzijidejiangshengyingyanlejiuyuexianzhideyuyan,bingqiexuanbuzijideshimingshi“chengquanlvfa,erbushifeichulvfa”detongshi,lingyifangmianyouxuanchengzijiyaoyishangdideendianjiechulvfaduirendekunbangheshufu,bingjiangfansuodeyoutailvfajianhuawei“aishangdi”he“airenruji”dedaodejieming(canyueshengjing·mataifuyin5zhang17-20jiehejialataishu5zhang14jie)。tongyang,《gulanjing》zhongdeyesuyeyifangmianxiangzhuisuizhexuanbu,zijideshimingshibushifoudingmusade《taolate》(lvfashu),lingyifangmianyouanzhaozhenzhudezhiyi,feichuqizhongyibufenguoshidelvfa,bingbanbuyixiliexindejieming(gulanjing3zhang50he5zhang46-47jie)。

体育外围disi,《gulanjing》he《shengjing》zhongdeyesudoushiyiweihepingdeshizhe。zaijiduzongjiaode《shengjing》zhong,yesushiyiweihepingdejunwang,tazhongshenzhiliyushixianrenyurenzhijiande“hehao”yijirenyushenzhijiande“hehao”,shenzhiweiciminglingzijidementu“ainidechoudi,weibiponiderendaogao”(shengjing·mataifuyin5zhang44jie)。tongyang,yesuyicizaialabowenzhongdeyisijiushi“yuanzhucifutamen,bingshitamenpingan”,er《gulanjing》zhongdeyesuyezhongshenxuanjianghepingyurenaizhidao,bingrenweihoushidejidutuzhisuoyihuixianrujiaopaichongtuhechouhen,zhishiyouyutamenyiwangleyesudangchudejiaodao(gulanjing5zhang14jiehe57zhang27jie)。

体育外围zhengyinwei《gulanjing》he《shengjing》zhongdeyesuxingxiangyouzhuduodexiangsixing,suoyiyixieshuan《shengjing》deduzhezaikandao《gulanjing》zhongzheixieguanyuyesudezhongzhongmiaoshushi,nanmianhuichanshengmouzhongsicengxiangshideganjue。zheizhongganjuebingbuqiguai。shijishang,zaozaiyisilanjiaochuangjianzhichu,dangdiyidaimusilinweileduobimaijiaduoshenjiaotudepohai,erbeipotaowangaisaiebiyadeakesumuwangchaobinanshi,jiucengjingxiangxinfengjiduzongjiaodedangdiguowangbeisongguoshangmiansuoshuodezheixiejingwen。jushuo,guowangzaitingdaozheixiejingwenzhihou,cengbeigandongdereleiyingkuang,congerdayingweitamentigongyoulidebihu,bingyancijujuelemaijiaguizutichudeyinduyaoqiu。

三、《古兰经》与《圣经》的耶稣形象之别

yisilanjiaorenwei,congzuiyuanshidexingshishangkan,jiduzongjiaoyuyisilanjiaodejingdianyuanzitongyiweizhenzhudeqishi,zhibuguohoushijidutuyinweiguofenqiangdiaoyesudediweijiqizhengjiurenleidenengli,caibeililezhenzhuzuichudeqishi。yinci,zhenzhupaimuhanmodedanren“fengyinshizhe”demudezhiyi,jiushiweilejiuzhengjidutuduizhenshiqishidepianlibingzhixijiduzongjiaoneibudegezhongfenzheng。zuoweizheizhongsixiangdetixian,《gulanjing》zaichengrenyesushixinfengyishenlundeweidashizhehexianzhidetongshi,youduiqixingxiangzuochuleyoubieyujiduzongjiao《shengjing》demiaoshu。

体育外围zaijiduzongjiaode《shengjing》zhong,yesushidaochengroushendeshangdishengziheweiyidejiushizhu,yinwei“zaitianshangrenjian,meiyoucixiabiedeming,tiyuwaiweikeyikaozhedejiu”(shengjing·shituxingchuan4zhang12jie)。keshizaiyisilanjiaode《gulanjing》zhong,yesuzhishiyiweidianxingdemusilinshizhehexianzhidexingxiang。suirantabeimiaoshuweiyiweichengqianqihoudeweidashizhehenengxingshenjideweidaxianzhi,shenzhibeichengrenweizhenzhupaiqiandemaixiha(misaiya),danbingweibeishuochengzhenzhuhuozhenzhuzhizi,erzhishiyigeyouxueyourou,youshengyousidefanren(gulanjing5:72-75huo4:172)。shijishang,《gulanjing》zhisuoyibayesuchengwei“maieryanzhizi”,zhengshiweileshuoming,tasuibuxiangdaduoshufanrenneiyangyongyouyigerenjiandefuqin,danyifei《shengjing》zhongsuoshuodeneiweitaichuzhidaoheshangdishengzi。anzhaoyisilanjiaodezhengtongguandian,zhenzhuanlaweishijieshangdemeiyigeminzudoupaiqianlezhishaoyiweishizhehezhongduodexianzhi,eryesubuguoshizheixieshizhehexianzhizhongdeyiwei。tasuiranbei《gulanjing》chengweizhenlihezhihuidejiaodaozhe,danqizai《gulanjing》zhongdediweiyuandiyuzuowei“fengyinshizhe”demuhanmode,erqietabanbudexinyuebujinxuyaodedao《gulanjing》deyinzhenghebuchong,yebuxiangyougaoyujiuyueheqitashenshengjingdiandeduzundiwei(gulanjing2zhang136jie)。

更重要的是,在基督宗教的《圣经》中,耶稣之死是最宝贵的一次献祭,其功效足以永久赦免一切人的一切罪。可是伊斯兰教并不相信基督宗教的原罪说,自然也就没有后者的救赎论。在《古兰经》里,耶稣从未被任何人杀死,而《圣经》中一切关于他被钉十字架的记载均被视为谣传(古兰经4章157节)。据《古兰经》所说,耶稣在传授真理的同时,引起了一些企图利用宗教来牟取私利的犹太人的怨恨。这些犹太人担心自己的谎言被耶稣揭穿,从而失去欺骗群众的资本。于是企图将耶稣置于死地。他们便重金收买了一个名叫叶胡扎(即《圣经》中的犹大)的叛徒,让他带人来抓捕耶稣。耶稣得知此事后迅速隐藏起来,只在必要的时候才偶尔出来,为门徒传道解惑。有一天,犹太人终于通过叶胡扎的告密而掌握了耶稣与门徒正在一个果园里聚会的消息,便立即派人包围这个果园。就在这危急时刻,真主又一次向耶稣伸出援手。他让耶稣突然消失得无影无踪,又让一个长得与耶稣几乎一模一样的人出现在追捕者面前。这个人就是出卖耶稣的叛徒叶胡扎。这个假耶稣被追捕者五花大绑之后,押解到一个人声鼎沸的广场活活钉死了。消息传开之后,耶稣的仇敌们纷纷弹冠相庆,以为他们终于除掉了耶稣。但实际上,被他们钉死在十字架上的那个人并非耶稣本人,而恰恰是出卖耶稣的叶胡扎。[144]真正的耶稣已经被真主保护起来,并且在寿终正寝之后被真主“擢升到自己那里”。他要在那里一直等到时代的末尾,再作为“复活的预兆”重临人间(古兰经3章55节和43章61-64节)。受上述经文的影响,在后世伊斯兰教编撰的《圣训》中,甚至有耶稣将“砸碎十字架”之说。[145]

四、结语

体育外围zongshangsuoshu,《gulanjing》zhongdeyesuxingxiangjituchuleliangdayishenjiaozhijiandexiangsizhichu,yetuxianleliangzhezhijiandejudachayi。yinci,duiyuzheixieheerbutongdejingwennengfouzuoweijiduzongjiaoheyisilanjiaozhijiandebijiaozhongjieheduihuajichu,renmenkendingyoubutongyijian。zaitiyuwaiweikanlai,zheiyiwentideguanjianhaishiqujueyubijiaozheheduihuazhedetaidu。ruguoshuangfangdouchipaitazhuyidetaidu,dangranwufajiutamenzhankaishenrudebijiaoheduihua。fanguolai,ruguoshuangfangdounengyiqiutongcunyidetaidukandaitamen,neimetamenduiyucujinshuangfangdebijiaoheduihuabianhenyoujiazhi。

毕竟,在历史上的大多数时期和地区,伊斯兰教政权不仅把基督宗教视为一个“合法的宗教”,而且一直允许基督徒群体在其统治区域内的合法存在,只是禁止他们公开组织针对穆斯林的传教活动。正因为如此,一些当代的基督宗教学者不得不承认: “评情而论,伊斯兰教对基督徒是颇为宽容的,至少比基督宗教对待其他的异教要好得多;所以在与外界中断关系这么多年后,这些小教团(笔者注: 此处的“小教团”指的是发布在今叙利亚、约旦、亚美尼亚、伊拉克、伊朗等一些伊斯兰国家境内的古老基督徒社团)依然可以保存下来。”[146]

膜拜团体成员心理矫治中的世界观问题研究

黄超*

内容提要: 在如何认识和处理膜拜团体成员的世界观问题方面,当前国际学界存在三种有代表性的矫治理论和实践形态。第一,基于心理咨询的外在干预。该理论由于强调定义破坏性膜拜“基于行为而不是信仰”,因此,一方面揭示膜拜团体经由思想改造导致的破坏性行为,另一方面在矫治理论和方法上坚持“世界观悬置”;第二,基于哲学咨询的思想对话。该理论以思想观念和世界观为对话的场域,在价值观上采取完全中立,在方法论上坚持“不使用方法”,“自由漂浮”( Free-floating)是其理论和实践的自体育外围描述和外在特征;第三,以世界观为中心的社会化矫治。该理论强调世界观与社会行为的关联性,在世界观上坚持明确的价值取向,将世界观的纠偏和重建视为矫治工作的核心和判断成功与否的标准。本文将尝试说明,重视世界观问题,推动上述三种理论、方法的相互借鉴和在具体矫治过程中的综合运用是膜拜团体成员心理矫治的内在需求和发展趋势。

关键词: 膜拜团体 心理矫治 世界观悬置 社会化矫治

尽管存在价值评判上的争议,但是,国际学术界已经形成一个现象层面的广泛共识: “思想改造”(Thought reform) 或“洗脑”(Brainwashing)是定义破坏性膜拜的核心要素之一。著名膜拜问题专家、心理学家玛格丽特·辛格指出,膜拜团体的思想改造“让人彻底重新诠释他或她的人生经历,从根本上改变世界观并接受新的现实与因果关系。”[147]体育外围因此,从某种意义上说,膜拜团体成员心理矫治的核心就是世界观的纠偏和重建。但是,基于文化传统和学科背景的差异,在如何认识和处理膜拜团体成员的世界观问题方面,当前国际学界存在三种有代表性的矫治理论和实践形态。第一,基于心理咨询的外在干预。该理论由于强调定义破坏性膜拜“基于行为而不是信仰”,因此,一方面揭示膜拜团体经由思想改造导致的破坏性行为,另一方面在矫治理论和方法上坚持“世界观悬置”;第二,基于哲学咨询的思想对话。该理论以思想观念和世界观为对话的场域,在价值观上采取完全中立,在方法论上坚持“不使用方法”,“自由漂浮”( Free-floating)是其理论和实践的自体育外围描述和外在特征;第三,以世界观为中心的社会化矫治。该理论强调世界观与社会行为的关联性,在世界观上坚持明确的价值取向,将世界观的纠偏和重建视为矫治工作的核心和判断成功与否的标准。本文将尝试说明,重视世界观问题,推动上述三种理论、方法的相互借鉴和在具体矫治过程中的综合运用是膜拜团体成员心理矫治的内在需求和发展趋势。

一、心理咨询与世界观悬置

xiangduilaishuo,dangqianguojishangbijiaoxitonghuahechengshudemobaichengyuanxinlijiaozhililunheshijianlaiyuanyuxinlizixunlingyu,qishijianzhutizhuyaoshixinlixuejiahexinlizixuncongyezhe。ershishijiqishiniandaidefanmobaiyundongcaiquyumobaixinaofanxiangde“fanchengxu”,youjiatingjiangmobaichengyuancongmobaituantikongzhizhongqiangxingjiejiuchulai,zaililunshangchanshengle“lunlixingdeqiangzhixingshuofu”yu“fanlunlideqiangzhixingshuofu”dezhenglun。youyufalvhelunlishangdeyuanyin,“fanchengxu”henkuaizouxiangshuailuo。suizhexinlixuejiahejingshenjiankangzhuanjiadeshendujieru,zhujianxingchengyizhongyumobaixinaoyangequfendefeicaozongxingganyuguocheng(the process of cult intervention)。

非操纵性原则贯穿整个膜拜干预过程。美国膜拜问题研究学者瑞克·艾伦·罗斯认为,膜拜干预过程是一个信息驱动的教育对话过程,任何涉及操纵的因素都被严格排除。具体来看,第一,“既不能运用神经语言学编程(NLP)技巧,也不可使用催眠术,这两者都是提高被暗示性和操纵对象的技术”,这些技术直接影响教育过程的道德属性。第二,与“膜拜洗脑”过程中隔绝成员与其家人和朋友的接触不同,干预过程则以被干预者与家人和朋友的有意义的接触为基础;第三,由于膜拜操纵往往是借助剥夺睡眠和超负荷的信息来实施,干预过程则绝不可复制这种膜拜操纵,因此,被干预者拥有适当的睡眠和充足的私人时间十分重要,干预者在信息提供上也不宜太多太快。最后,也是最为重要的,在干预过程中,虽然被干预者的家人和朋友可以采取道德劝说方式敦促他或她留下来,但是,被干预的成年人在任何时候都可以自由离开[148]

具体的干预过程主要围绕“定义破坏性膜拜”这一核心展开。精神病学家罗伯特·杰伊·利夫顿在《膜拜的形成》[149]一文中所提供的定义被广泛采用。利夫顿指出,“膜拜可以用以下三个特征来鉴别: 1、在原本可以维系该团体的一般原则失去作用后,日益成为崇拜对象的一个极具魅力的领导;2、一个被称为‘强制性说服或思想改造’的过程;3、领导人及其统治小圈子对其团体成员在经济、性和其他方面的剥削。”罗斯认为,该定义的特点是基于行为而不是信仰。“避免攻击信仰,而专注于该团体行为、动力及其权力层次结构是很重要的。” 膜拜干预理论似乎有一个基本假定: 膜拜“思想改造”只是由外在行为模式对人的心理产生不当影响所致,与具体的膜拜思想内容无关。而对于“思想改造”结果的判断标准仍然是行为,“破坏性膜拜成员其行为常常不符合自己的最大利益,而只代表其团体或领导人的最佳利益”。

干预理论的核心只在于探讨和揭示膜拜团体外在行为的不当。心理学家玛格丽特·辛格(Margaret Singer)[150]将膜拜团体使用的强制性说服或“思想改造”与教育、广告、宣传和教化之类的说服形式区分开来,指出膜拜“思想改造”具有强制性,不能容忍另一个参照体系并且故意欺骗。社会学家理查德·奥弗希(Richard Ofshe )[151]则提出了“将强制性说服与其它培训和社会化计划区分开来的四个关键因素”。1、依靠强烈的人际关系或心理的攻击来动摇人的自体育外围意识以促使其顺从。2、利用有组织的同龄人团体。3、施加人际关系压力以促使其顺从。4、通过对一个人所处社会环境的全面操控来固化其已被说服改变的行为。利夫顿还在其著作《思想改造和极权主义心理学》[152]中列举了“思想改造”的八条标准: “社会环境控制”、“神秘操纵”、“纯洁性要求”、“裸露的坦白”、“神圣的科学”、“加载语言”、“强加于人的教条”、“丧失生存权”。埃德加·沙因概括了强制性说服过程的三个步骤: [153]融化(解冻)、改变与再冻结。在对膜拜“思想改造”方法的深入研究基础上,心理咨询专家提出了一系列预防、干预膜拜“洗脑”原则和方法,当然,对于这种干预方法的普遍意义问题,也有其他领域学者提出质疑,在荷兰学者哈特劳看来,“在基于证据的心理治疗形式中,一个基本的观点被用于一个独特的个体。为了达到或者重复这种效果,个人的性格特征是被忽略的。独特的个人会被按照一个标准的个体来复制”。[154]哲学咨询的首倡者阿肯巴赫反对实证论者认为必须要有方法的观点,提出“超越方法的方法”,他主张: “哲学不是方法,它发展方法;哲学不使用理论,而是发展理论”。[155]

zongtilaikan,mobaiganyudejibenyuanlizaiyu: zhitaolun“sixianggaizao”guochengzhongdebudangxingwei,tongguojieshimobaiwaizaixingweidebudangjiweihaixing,bangzhumobaichengyuanrenqingbingcongmobaijingshenkongzhizhongtuolichulai,jibenbushejibeigaizaode“sixiang”benshen。qililunyifangmianxiquleluojiesi“yirenweizhongxindeliaofa”,tuxianlerendejiazhi、zunyan、xuyao、lijiedengyaosuduimobaichengyuandezhongyaoyiyi,lingyifangmian,yezhuzhongrenzhiliaofaduisiwei、lixingzuoyongdeyanjiu,kaolvdaolerenzhiduigetiqingxuhexingweidezhongyaoyingxiang。danshi,zaimobaichengyuanxinlijiaozhideshijiancengmian,mobaiganyujianchi“buwenxinyang,zhiwenxingwei”deganyucelve,jiangsixiang、xinyanglingyushiweibunengchupengdejinqu,tongguokansizhonglide“shijieguanxuanzhi”fanhuilexinlizixunzhezuiweishuxidexingweizhuyi。erjiyuxingweizhuyidexinlijiaozhijuxianxingshifenmingxian,liru,zaimianduiyixietuichonghemilianjiduanxingweidemobaituantijiqichengyuanshixianyukunjing,meiyoujinyibutanjiumobaide“siwei”he“shijieguan”genyuan,zhishiyi“renzhishidiao”laiyingfu。zaidaweijiaopaiweikecananzhong,dahuoduoqule76tiaodaweijiaotudexingming,xingcunzhekelifu•daoer(clive doyle)hexila•mading(sheila martin)zaishiquduomingqinrendeqingkuangxiarengranjixujianchixinfengdawei·kaoleishen。lingwai,mobaituantichengyuanduiqijiatingchengyuan、weichengnianzinv(shenzhichengnianzinv)de“sixianggaizao”bingbujuyouganyulilunsuoqiangdiaoderenhewaizaideqiangzhiheqipiantezheng。

二、哲学咨询与价值中立

jiyuxinlizixundemobaiganyuyouyigemeiyouyanmingdeyusheqianti: mobaixinaochanshengde“shijieguan”shilingrenzhiyide,xiuzhengzheizhongniuqudeshijieguanzhengshiganyudeshencengmubiao。fouze,ganyuhewei?danshi,xinlizixunyibanbuchengdantanjiugetisixiangderenwu,gengbuyongyanjiutamendeshijieguanhuozhesixiangjichushishenme,yejiushishuo,“shijieguanwenti”chaochuleyibanxinlizixundexuekeheshijianlingyu。wentizaiyu,“shijieguanwenti”keyizaimouyixuekelingyubeixuanzhiqilai,danshi,zheibingbuyiweizhexianshizhongde“shijieguanwenti”buxuyaodedaoguanqie,zhengshidaizhezheizhongzhiyi,zhexuezixunyiyizhongtiaozhanzhedezitaichuxian,chengweiyizhongxunsufazhandezhexueshijianyundong。

E. Ruschmann指出,整个哲学史“可以被视为及被用作不同世界观的连续体”。[156]哲学咨询的目标是通过哲学探讨揭示被咨询者潜藏的“世界观”,帮助他们清晰地察觉内心隐藏的观念或者主观看法。拉夫(Lahav 1995b)将澄清和探索个体世界观视为哲学咨询基本原则,他认为每个个体都有他们自己的“个体哲学”或者世界观,它们体现了个体对自体育外围和世界的总体观点[157]。哲学咨询不包括对个体心理的动力或机制的解释,而是建构了帮助个体检查他或她的“世界”或“现实”的基本假设或概念。通过关注个人用以理解他生活的概念,一个更有意义的、连贯的世界观能够被建构起来。“体育外围可以把日常出现的问题和困境——例如意味深长的危险、厌倦和空虚的感觉、人际关系困难和焦虑等等——解释为表达出个人世界观中有问题的方面: 例如关于生命应当如何度过的两个观念之间的矛盾或是紧张,隐藏没有被检查到的假设,缺乏多种不同考虑的观点,过分概括,不能实际地满足的期望,不合理的解释等等。”[158]

从某种意义上说,哲学咨询就是关于个体“世界观”的咨询,凸显了“以人为中心”、对被咨询者的个体化的人文关怀。但是,令人遗憾的是,由于深受后现代主义哲学的影响,以及对自身独立存在的合法性的焦虑,当代哲学咨询的先驱们采取了一种在世界观上看似“完全客观中立”的实证立场。阿肯巴赫以超越方法的名义提出哲学咨询的四条工作原则,其中第三条为: 哲学咨询师不能预设立场,永远不要试图改变来访者。马瑞诺夫无论是在其早期的规范的、非指令性的伦理咨询法,还是成熟期提出的“宁静法”中,都强调咨询师不能给出自己的明确意见,而是让来访者通过咨询师的引导,进行自体育外围分析,最终做出自己的决策。这种世界观上的价值中立严重制约了哲学咨询作为一个行业的发展,加拿大哲学咨询领军人物Peter B.Raabe指出,阿肯巴赫和马瑞诺夫的观点是一种后现代主义的哲学观在哲学咨询领域里的体现,后现代主义哲学的显著特征就是严重的“反现实性”,它的极端形式就是宣称体育外围所依赖的所谓的外在事物并不存在,反映在人们处理问题上就是随心所欲性。[159]所以,Peter B.Raabe认为,阿肯巴赫的致命缺陷就是给人一种随心所欲的感觉,而马瑞诺夫把咨询师置于完全中立的地位,来访者改变或不改变与咨询师无关,这不利于来访者做出决定,不利于他们寻找幸福和快乐。

体育外围知道,心理咨询和心理疗法的历史发展与有组织的宗教活动之间有密切的关系[160]。哈尔穆斯(Halmos)(1965)的研究证明20世纪英国牧师人数的下降与心理咨询师人数的上升之间存在着对应关系。霍尔菲尔德(Holifield)(1983)的研究证明,美国最早的“精神治疗学家们”事实上属于教会的一部分,后来才逐渐地转变为一种独立的职业。也许,哲学咨询的开创者们从这种历史事实中吸取了灵感与教训,为了获取职业上的独立性,他们必须在“世界观”上保持价值中立,从而既与每一种哲学保持距离,同时又凸显自身在哲学上的纯正性。但是,这种努力的结果却将哲学咨询置于哲学与心理咨询的夹缝中,在理论和实践上始终处于“自由漂浮”的状态。美国哲学咨询和精神治疗学会的ElliotD. Cohen指出: 美国哲学咨询业成长的最大障碍,是得到现有的精神健康界的认可。心理学和精神病学界认为马瑞诺夫对精神健康问题一窍不通,他为没有受到过任何临床训练的人做资历认证,这样会害了客户。法国哲学家和史学家哈多德则指出,检验哲学最重要的工作就是要显示一种作为治疗的激情,要带来个人在做人处事的行为上产生某种深刻的转变,一种关乎体育外围世界观的转变,以及一种关乎体育外围性格上的质变。[161]哲学咨询者们也逐渐认识到自身必须摆脱自缚手脚的窘境,Peter B.Raabe彻底抛弃了在“世界观”上价值中立的骑墙立场,主张回到一种纯哲学的哲学咨询,“咨询师应该不是中立的,应该给来访者以积极的建议”。[162]

哲学咨询的兴起和发展也为膜拜干预提供了新的理论借鉴和具体思路。Shlomit C. Schuster在其《哲学诊治——谘商和心理治疗的另类途径》一书中饶有兴味地讨论了利用斯宾诺莎和奥古斯丁哲学对膜拜成员进行干预的案例。[163]近年来,从事膜拜团体研究和干预实践的学者开始了一种从“方法论”到“世界观”的范式转换,在膜拜干预的方法和程序日趋完善和精致的前提下,“世界观问题”被重新发现并凸显出来。2009年,国际膜拜团体研究会以“转化与世界观”为专题进行讨论,探讨膜拜信仰如何通过转换成员的世界观,使他们对自身、世界和各种关系的认知发生转变。与此前的“世界观悬置”立场不同,此次会议提倡一种基于不同世界观的“跨文化沟通”,强调膜拜成员的亲人和朋友应该了解被转变者的新世界观,通过“跨文化沟通”的方式与其加强联系、减轻冲突。

三、以世界观为中心的社会化矫治

中国有一句家喻户晓的谚语: “心病终须心药治,解铃还是系铃人[164]体育外围。”前半句讲思想方面的问题只有通过思想本身才能得到解决,后半句则突出思想主体自身的主观能动性。中国古代典籍所记载的“心病”涵指范围比较广泛的思想、精神领域的问题,而“心药”则直接关涉到比较系统的世界观、价值观和方法论。因此,体育外围不难理解,在中国的文化传统中,正确的世界观和思想方法即是治疗“心病”的一剂良药。二十世纪末,膜拜团体成员的心理矫治问题引起了中国学术界和社会工作者的关注,在不长的时间里,大量欧美时兴的膜拜干预、心理矫治理论和方法被介绍到国内,并在一定程度上得到运用。经过近二十年的发展,在总结、吸取欧美合理经验的基础上,立足于中国传统文化与现实社会,中国社会的膜拜干预与心理矫治逐渐形成自身特色,体育外围大致可以将这种特色概括为以世界观为中心的社会化矫治理论与实践,其标志为出现了一大批以前成员和志愿者为主体、有明确的世界观价值导向、依托于社区的帮扶平台,如南京的“爱心家园”、武汉的“楚凤清音”、上海的“老王帮教工作室”、徐州的“金色海岸”等。

国际膜拜问题研究会执行主任迈克尔·朗格尼(Michael Langone)将由教团创始人或过去的领导所开发和培育的教团“变态”形式视为膜拜机制的根本因素,这种因素即便在最初组织形态消失后仍然嵌入膜拜团体中。因为它产生了一个“神秘的基础结构”,这种“神秘的基础结构可能给操纵和滥权提供舞台”[165],所以,膜拜团体自身不触及核心的外部“改革”不能真正达到去破坏性效果,正如“树木从根烂起,再怎么修剪也无法清除种子的毒素”。[166]对于中国学者来说,朗格尼仅仅将导致膜拜团体破坏性行为的“种子的毒素”归结为外在的“神秘的基础结构”是不够的,中国传统强调“心正而后身修”,“世界观问题”是更为根本和基础的因素,或者可以这样理解,膜拜团体的“神秘的基础结构”其实是一种嵌入“世界观”的变态精神形式。

中国的膜拜心理矫治模式离不开中国传统的思想资源,例如,比较道教“求仙”与膜拜团体的“圆满”不同,葛洪在《抱朴子内篇·对俗》的观点: “欲求仙者,要当以忠孝、和顺、仁信为本,若德行不休,而但务方术,皆不得长生也。”使被干预者认识到“放下亲情”等背离世俗伦理的思想和行为并不符合传统宗教的“圆满”之道。又如,《抱朴子内篇·微旨》: “凡保健者,欲令多闻而体要,博见而善择。偏修一事,不足必赖也。”让膜拜团体成员放下“破坏大法”的恐惧心理,广泛接触其它理论和社会现实。运用传统文化资源“以法破法”的方法类似于欧美哲学咨询中的逻辑推演法,即“咨询者针对来访者的生活方式,指出来访者存在的两个以上的互相对立的世界观以及多种相互冲突的价值观。”[167]“以法破法”也是中国学者从事膜拜团体研究的重要视角,例如,业露华在《论邪教的精神控制》一文中,重点不在于探讨精神控制的外在形式,而是借鉴西方的语言学理论,揭露破坏性膜拜团体如何利用语言及其构成的思想体系实施精神控制,从而帮助膜拜成员理解“大法”、“修炼”、“消业”、“上层次”、“常人”、“超常人”、“过关”、“圆满”等等概念如何被用来进行精神和行为操纵。

“爱心家园”的志愿者大都经历过脱离膜拜团体后的内心迷茫期: 脱离膜拜团体后怎么会有这么痛苦?生活的目标和方向在哪里?因此,寻求新的精神支柱是所有膜拜团体前成员的一个自然的心理过程,其表现为重新开始接受以前排斥的宗教和文化,大量阅读和热烈讨论各种灵修和哲学书籍。在这一阶段,许多成员的思想和世界观处于“自由漂浮”状态,进行正确的“世界观”引导与“个体化”的精神关怀尤其重要。曾经出现过干预失败的案例,一些膜拜团体前成员和群体在摆脱旧的膜拜团体后,加入或组织了新的膜拜团体。据相关统计,南京“爱心家园”的前成员志愿者中,在来到“爱心家园”之前,由于思想的飘浮,心无所依,46%经历过反复。针对膜拜团体极端地“反人类”、“反社会”、“反科学”,其成员的“世界观”一般消极、狭隘,南京“爱心家园”主办单位:体育外围-_欢迎您

体育外围shijieguanbushituolixianshishehuigulicunzaide,mobaituanti、mobaichengyuandeshijieguandexingchengwangwangshouduozhongyinsudeyingxiang,chulemobaituantitongguoxinaofangshiwaibu“qianru”wai,yeyuzishendeshenghuotiyan、shehuichujingxiangguan。yinci,xinlingzitiyuwaiweixiufushiyigezonghedeshehuihuaguocheng,cujinshenxinhexieyuyouxiaoshehuicanyushizheiyijieduandeguanjian。“aixinjiayuan”yituoyushequ,qituchudeshehuixingzaizheiyiguochengzhongfahuileduteyoushi。shouxian, “aixinjiayuan”quedinglezishendehuodongyuanze: “pingdengzunzhong,jieshoujiaoyu,zizhuhuzhu,tanchengkaifang”。zheiyiyuanzebujinxiqulexinlizixunde“feicaozongxingyuanze”,youzaifangfalundecengmianjiejianlezhexuezixunde“jiazhizhongli”,qichengyuankeyigenjuzijideshijian、xingquheyiyuanziyouxuanzehuodongneirong、fangshi,laiquwanquanyougerenzizhujueding;dier,zhiyuanzhegouchengbaokuofalvjie、zongjiaojie、xinlixuejie、jiaoyujie、qiyejiedengrenshi,shibangfupingtaizishenyegouchengleyigexianshishehuidesuoying;disan,“aixinjiayuan”dehuodongjuyoushehuixing,baokuoxinlifudao、zhishijiangzuo、zhuanjialuntan、falvzixun、kepuxuanchuan、chuantongwenhua、jianshenqigong、shengliweisheng、yinlewudao、bianzhijiqiaodengdeng,duiyucanjiazheixiehuodongdebangfuduixianglaishuo,“‘aixinjiayuan’jishizitiyuwaiweijiaoyudeketang,youshijiehuoshiyidegangwan,haishixinlingweijiedeyizhan”。

综上所述,既然膜拜洗脑的目标在于“从根本上改变人的世界观”,可见,“世界观问题”是膜拜成员心理干预过程中不容回避的问题。心理咨询的膜拜干预理论给体育外围提供了一整套规范的干预方法和程序,但是,其“世界观悬置”的学科特征使心理咨询的干预活动停留在了外在和初始的阶段;哲学咨询基于个体化的世界观展开哲学对话,关切每个个体的精神世界,但是,在世界观层面的绝对“价值中立”使具体的哲学咨询活动既背离哲学传统,又脱离具体现实,成为“漂浮”在乌托邦中的语言游戏。另外,欧美的心理咨询和哲学咨询理论和从业者往往强调自身的执业地位,彼此猜忌与排斥,不能形成合力。[168]体育外围在中国传统文化中,“世界观”上的价值相对主义往往被形容为“乡愿”和“德之贼”。以“爱心家园”等从中国社会的具体实践中产生出来的膜拜团体前成员互助平台,其心理矫治方法始终以世界观为中心,以中国社会的主流价值观为导向,以平等互助的方式提供社会化的矫治平台,但是,这些平台并非基于特定的专业学科背景,一方面打破了僵化的专业界限,另一方面也表现为缺乏系统、一贯的理论指导。因此,如果能够撇开文化、社会、学科的差异和偏见,将这三种心理矫治方式有机结合起来,相互借鉴,取长补短,必将取得事半功倍的效果。

shilunyitengrenzhaiduizhoudunyi《taijitushuo》dechanshi

——从中日比较哲学的视角出发

连凡*

内容提要: 本文从中日比较哲学的视角出发,分析比较了朱熹、黄宗羲、伊藤仁斋对周敦颐《太极图说》的哲学阐释。结论指出: 朱熹对《太极图说》的阐释可称为反汉唐古训的理学阐释,黄宗羲的阐释可称为反朱学的心学阐释,伊藤仁斋的阐释则可称为复古反宋学的朴学阐释。三者在学术思想发展脉络上恰好形成一个序列。伊藤仁斋对理学的批判虽不免失之“了解之同情”。但总的来说,其阐释与批判有理有据且切中要害,值得体育外围加以比较分析与借鉴。

关键词: 伊藤仁斋 黄宗羲 朱熹 周敦颐 《太极图说》

伊藤仁斋(名维桢,号仁斋,1627-1705)是日本江户幕府时代前期的著名哲学家,古学派之一的古义学派(又称堀川学派)的创立者。仁斋在哲学思想上早期崇奉宋儒程朱的理气学说。后来受到批判程朱理学的中国明朝哲学家吴廷翰(号苏原,1491-1559)的气一元论思想之影响,于37、38岁时怀疑宋儒背离先秦孔孟学说之本义,于是摈弃朱子学而独尊孔孟,主张恢复儒家经典的古义。仁斋十分重视《论语》和《孟子》两书,力主建立所谓的“圣学”,虽然遭到当时朱子学派的攻击,[169]体育外围仍坚持己见,并创立了古义学派,在日本哲学史上占有重要的地位。主要著作有《语孟字义》、《论语古义》、《孟子古义》等。其学术思想由长子伊藤东涯(1670-1736)继承并得以发扬光大。

作为当时官方哲学朱子学的反对派,日本古学派的兴起有其复杂的社会政治与学术思想背景: 一方面从社会政治层面来看,反映了当时统治阶层中的中下层对当权的幕府上层的反抗,一方面从学术思想的内在理路上来看,反映了反宋学的异端思想对当时僵化的官方正统朱子学的批判。[170]即在复古的名义下以气一元论批判官方朱子学的理气二元论,力求复归于中国古代儒家学说之本义。代表人物有崛川学派伊藤仁斋、东涯父子以及萱园学派的荻生徂徕、山县周南等。另一方面,日本古学派蕴育和兴起的江户时代前期恰逢中国的明末清初,当时中国官方的程朱理学早已失去活力,而明代中期以来风靡全国的阳明学因其束书不观、空谈心性的流弊而越来越受到学者的批判。特别是1644年前后随着明朝的灭亡,出于对于动荡不安的社会局势之学术反思,一方面出现了如东林学派的高攀龙那样以朱子学的修养工夫论纠正王学末流之流弊的学者,[171]进而朱子学被清朝统治者指定为官方统治思想。一方面以清代浙东学派为代表的经世致用之学,以及反对“宋学”的主观义理阐释而提倡以“小学”为手段对先秦儒家经典进行客观解读(所谓“原典回归运动”[172])的考据学(汉学)兴起并最终成为清代学术的主流。虽然中日两国在具体社会历史形势及其学术思想上有所不同,但作为当时东亚儒学文化圈的中心,中国的哲学思想辐射并深深影响了当时的日本学界。如日本古学派的复古反宋学的特征便与上述中国明末清初的学术思潮相呼应。事实上,日本的朱子学派、古学派、阳明学派等各学派甚至均可视为“中国哲学之有条件的移植”。[173]

体育外围huangzongxi(1610-1695)zuoweimingdaixinxuedianjunliuzongzhoudedizi,youshoujiaxuechuanchengjishidaifengqideyingxiang,changdaoyiliujingweigendi、yishishuweiyuyidejichushangfanqiuzhujixinde“yibenwanshu”、“jingshizhiyong”detiyongshixue,congerkaichuangleyingxiangshenyuandeqingdaizhedongxuepai,bingzaisongminglixue(baokuolixue、xinxueyuqixue)xiangqingdaipoxuedeyanjinguochengzhongqidaolechengshangqixiadezhongyaozuoyong。zaiqibianzuandezhexuesixiangshijuzhu《mingruxuean》yu《songyuanxuean》(“huangshiyuanben”)zhong,huangzongxixitongzongjielesongminglixuedefazhanmailuoyujingyanjiaoxun,bingjiyuqizishenxueshulichangduigejiagepaidezhexuesixiangzuolepinglunhechanshi。

benwenyizhoudunyi《taijitushuo》dechanshiweiqierudian,zhanzaizhexuesixiangshidedabeijingxia,bijiaofenxizhuxi、huangzongxi、yitengrenzhaidui《taijitushuo》dechanshijiqigezidezhexuesixianglichang。zhongsuozhouzhi,zhuxizailishishangshoucijiangzhoudunyidequanbuzhuzuozhenglijiejibingjiayizhushi。jintongxingben《zhoudunyiji》zhongshouluyoubaokuo《tongshu》yu《taijitushuo》zaineidezhoudunyiquanbuzhuzuoyijihoushixuezhedexiangguanlunshu,bingfuyouzhuxisuozuode《taijitushuojie》yu《tongshujie》。suizhezhuzixueguanxuequanweidiweidequeli,zhuxijiyuqilibenlunsixiangtixiduizhoudunyisixiangsuozuodechanfayechengweilequanweiguandian。houshidexuezhebulunshizanchengyihuohaishifandui,zongzhibukenengraokaizhuxidechanshi。huangzongxiyuyitengrenzhaidangranyebuliwai。yincibenwenyibanxianfenxizhuxidechanshi,yiciweijichuzailailunshuhebijiaohuangzongxiyuyitengrenzhaidechanshi。

黄宗羲父子对于周敦颐《太极图说》的阐释集中保留在《宋元学案》卷十一、卷十二《濂溪学案》的案语及附录文章中。其内容构成如下: 卷十一《濂溪学案》上按顺序辑录了周敦颐《通书》的全文(共四十章),并辑录了刘宗周《学言》中的相关评语,进而还附有黄百家等人的案语。卷十二《濂溪学案》下收录了周敦颐的《太极图》与《太极图说》之后,又收录了刘宗周《圣学宗要》的评语与黄宗羲的案语,其后又附有《棃洲太极图讲义》(黄宗羲)、《朱陆太极图说辩》(陆九渊、朱熹)及与其相关的王柏、刘因、吴澄、许谦、黄宗炎的评论与黄氏父子的案语等资料。需要指出的是,《濂溪学案》中的思想资料是按《通书》在前《太极图》与《太极图说》在后的顺序排列的。与由朱熹编定的通行本《周敦颐集》中的排列顺序恰好相反。这涉及到对《太极图》的学术渊源及其价值的考辩,因与本文论题无关,且非常复杂,此处不拟讨论其原因。[174]只想指出一点的是,黄宗羲父子在哲学思想上主要继承的是刘宗周的心学思想,在其阐释《太极图说》时也贯穿了这一思想立场。

yitengrenzhaifuzichanshi《taijitushuo》dezhuzuozhong,《dujinsiluchao》yizixukezhizuoyuyitengrenzhai65suishi,xirenzhaiduisongruxinglixueshuodepinglun,danqineirongjinsheji《jinsilu》shoujuanshoutiaodezhoudunyi《taijitushuo》,queqiedishuozhipinglundaole《taijitushuo》de“wujizhizhen,erwuzhijing”zheiyiju,qihoudeneirongmeiyouwancheng。danzheibingbudaibiaorenzhaizaishengpingjiangxuezhongmeiyoudui《taijitushuo》quanwenjinxingpinglun。shishishang,《taijitushuoguanjian》yu《taijitushuoshilun》jishiqizidongyayijurenzhaishengqiandui《taijitushuo》quanwendejianglunjiayishaoshufuyanercheng,qixueshuguandianyimaixiangcheng,keshiweiyitengfuzidehezhu。qizhong《taijitushuoguanjian》dui《taijitushuo》quanwendoujiayilepinglun,shidongyaduirenzhai《dujinsilu》dejichengyuxiubu。《taijitushuoshilun》zexicong《taijitushuo》quanwenzhongxuanqu“wujiertaiji”、“wushengwuchou”、“jishanchengxing”、“wuxingyiyinyang”、“wujizhizhen”、“wuxinggandong”、“yangshanyine”、“dingzhiyizhongzhengrenyi”、“wuyugujing”、“tilierhouyongxing”zheishigeluntizhuyijiayipinglunbianboercheng,shirenzhaishishiqianyinianshourenyaoqingjiangjie《taijitushuo》dejiangyi,youdongyajiayijiluhefuyanercheng。yishangsanshujizhongfanyinglerenzhaifuzidui《taijitushuo》dechanshi,qizhongyoubushaozhidetiyuwaiweizhuyideguandian。ciwai,dongyabianzhude《tongshuguanjian》shidui《tongshu》quanwendepinglun,qizhuzhiyushangshuzhuzuoyizhi,kexianghufaming。

xiamianzhuyaoweirao《zhoudunyiji》zhongde《taijitushuojie》(zhuxi)yiji《songyuanxuean》juanshier《lianxixuean》xiasuoshouludesixiangziliao,jiangqiyuyitengrenzhaifuzideshangshuzhuzuojinxingbijiaofenxi,nongqinggezidezhexueguandianyusixianglichang,jinerbijiaoqiguandianyitongbingchanmingqideshiyuyiyi。

一、关于宇宙本体论的阐释——“无极”、“太极”、“阴阳”

zhoudunyide《taijitushuo》keculvefenweiliangdabufen。congkaitoude“wujiertaiji”dao“wanwushengshengerbianhuawuqiongyan”deqianbanbufenzhuyaoxushuqiyuzhoulun,cong“weirenyedeqixiuerzuiling”zhimoweidehoubanbufenzezhuyaoxushuqi“zhujinglirenji”dexiuyangfangfalun。qizhuzhizaiyuyitiandaoguidingrendao,zaitongguozhujingdexiuyanggongfushirendaoheyutiandao。zhoudunyide《taijitu》yu《taijitushuo》wenshihouzaihenzhangshijianneibuweirensuozhongshi,zhizhinansonglixuedejidachengzhezhuxizaibianzuanhezhushizhoudunyidezhuzuoshi,chuyujiangoulixuedeyuzhoubentiluntixidexuyao,jiang《taijitu》yu《taijitushuo》zuoweizhoudunyisixiangdeganglingyuyibiaozhanghechanfa,bingjiangqizhiyu《tongshu》zhiqian。ranerweiraozhe《taijitushuo》dechanshi,zinansongdezhuxi、lujiuyuanyilai,gujinzhongwaixuezhezhijianchanshenglejiliedebianlun。benwenguanyuyuzhoubentilundechanshizhuyaoxuanqu《songyuanxuean・lianxixuean》suoshouzhuxi、lujiuyuan(yishangerrenweiyizu)、liuzongzhou、huangzongxi(yishangerrenweiyizu)delunshuolaijiantaotamenduizhoudunyitaijishuodechanshi,zaijiangqiyuyitengrenzhai、dongyafuzi(yishangerrenweiyizu)deguandianjinxingbijiaofenxi。weifangbianlunshu,zixianyin《songyuanxuean》juanshier《lianxixuean》xiasuozai《taijitushuo》quanwenruxia:

无极而太极。太极动而生阳。动极而静,静而生阴,静极复动。一动一静,互为其根。分阴分阳,两仪立焉。阳变阴合,而生水火木金土,五气顺布,四时行焉。五行一阴阳也,阴阳一太极也,太极本无极也。五行之生也,各一其性。无极之真,二五之精,妙合而凝。乾道成男,坤道成女。二气交感,化生万物,万物生生而变化无穷焉。惟人也得其秀而最灵。形既生矣,神发知矣,五性感动而善恶分,万事出矣。圣人定之以中正仁义,而主静,(自注云: 无欲故静。)立人极焉。故圣人与天地合其徳,日月合其明,四时合其序,鬼神合其吉凶。君子修之吉,小人悖之凶。故曰: “立天之道,曰阴与阳。立地之道,曰柔与刚。立人之道,曰仁与义。”又曰: “原始反终,故知死生之说。”大哉《易》也,斯其至矣![175]

guanyu“wuji”dejieshijiqiyu“taiji”deguanxi。lujiuyuanzaiqiyuzhuxidebianlunzhongzhichu《taijitushuo》zhongde“wuji”yiciyuanbenchuzidaojia《laozi》“zhiqixiong”zhangde“fuguiyuwuji”,renweiqiyu《laozi》shouzhangsuoshuode“wumingtiandizhishi。youmingwanwuzhimu”zhong“youshengyuwu”zhi“wu”yiyangzhishengchengtiandidechouxiangbenti,yurujiasixiangbeidaoerchi,yincizhoudunyibuyinggaizai“taiji”zhishangzaijia“wuji”erzi。zhuxizeyi“wuxingeryouli”laijieshi“wujiertaiji”,renwei“wuji”bingfeirulaozide“youshengyuwu”neiyangliyushi“you”(taiji)zhishangdexiantianchouxiangbenti,erzhibuguoshixingrongzuoweiyuzhoubentidetaiji(li)zhi“wuxingwuxiang”tezhengdeciyubale。youciduiyu《taijitushuo》zhongde“taijibenwuji”zhiyu,zhulujianyechanshenglelijieshangdefenqi。lujiuyuanjiang“wuji”shiwei“taiji”degenyuan,yincijiang“taijibenwuji”jieshicheng“taijibenyuwuji”,zhuxizejiang“wuji”zuoweixingrong“taiji”zhiwuxingwuxiangdeciyu,yincijiang“taijibenwuji”jieshichengle“taijibenlaiwuji(wuxing)”。

黄宗羲引述其师刘宗周的《圣学宗要》之说,与朱熹一样认为“无极”不是独立于“太极”之外的实体,但同时又认为朱熹以“无形”来解释“无极”仍然是不够透彻的,提出应将“无极”解释为“无此极”。这种差异实际上是基于其本体论(理气・道器论),即在刘宗周与黄宗羲看来,作为阴阳之道的太极并非朱熹所说的理、道那样立于形而下的气、器之上的形上本体,其实只不过是对一阴一阳变化消长之道的指称。从这点来说,阴阳(器)之外别无所谓“太极”(道),因此周敦颐才特意在“太极”之上加了“无极”二字予以说明。[176]体育外围从以上分析可知,刘、黄二人将“太极本无极”理解成了“太极本来无(此)极”。

关于“太极”的解释及其与“阴阳”的关系。“太极”一词原本出自《周易・系辞传》中的“易有太极,是生两仪”。陆九渊从其道器合一论出发,结合《易传》中的“一阴一阳之谓道”与“形而上者谓之道,形而下者谓之器”,将形而下之阴阳(气・器)与作为宇宙万物之原理和本体的形而上之道・理(太极)统一了起来,[177]认为太极(元气)、阴阳、五行只存在生成序列上的先后不同,其本质则同是气化之流行展开。[178]另一方面,《中庸》说“中也者,天下之大本也。和也者,天下之达道也”。在陆九渊看来,“中”也好,“一”也好,“极”也好,虽然名称不同,但其实都是指此“理”——即宇宙的根本原理(大本)。[179]朱熹则继承了程颐的道器(理气)二元论,以“太极”为形而上(无形)之道(理),以阴阳为形而下(有形)之器(气),认为太极是作为阴阳之根据的形上本体,所以太极与阴阳是二元对立的关系。在朱熹看来,“极”是说理(太极本体)之“至极”,“中”是指气化流行之无过无不及的中和状态,也就是《中庸》所说的喜怒哀乐之未发,但“中”本身并不是道体(理・太极)。[180]需要指出的是,朱陆之前,北宋的吕大临与程颐已围绕着《中庸》的“中和”说展开了论争。其关键即在于“中”与“道”的关系问题。吕大临以“中”为天下万物之唯一本性(道体),其说可谓开朱陆之辩中陆九渊观点之先声,而程颐将“中”视作形容性之词语的主张则可谓开朱熹观点之先声。[181]对于“极”字的意义,陆九渊与朱熹的解释虽均有其训诂上的依据,但陆九渊指出在训诂上一字往往有多个意义,且还有“虚字”(虚词)与“实字”(实词)的区别,认为如果说朱熹以“无形”来解释“无极”,即以“形”来解释“极”能说得过去地话,那么对“中”、“极”、“至”之解释是完全可以相同的。[182]体育外围虽然朱陆二人在字义训诂上争论不已,但两者的差异不在表面字义的解释上,而是在于字义背后隐藏的道器(理气)二元论与一元论的根本对立。

在黄宗羲看来,朱陆围绕着各自对“无极太极”之理解往复争论不已,但实际上双方之异同只限于字义的层面上,究其观点并没有太大的区别。黄宗羲也以“至极”或“极至”来解释“极”字,但又认为“太极”并不是朱熹所说的那样独立于形而下的气之外的形上本体,实际上不过是阴阳自身之属性罢了。黄宗羲又引刘宗周之说,依据《易传》的“一阴一阳之谓道”,认为阴阳运行变化之道即是太极,进而又指出“天地之间一气而已”,将气视作天地间的唯一实体,因此反对朱熹的“理先气后”说,认为有了“气”之后“理”方才具备,而从形而下的阴阳之中指认形而上之存在的话称其为太极,但太极并不是独立实体。[183]黄宗羲进而指出,阴阳二气运行而有条理秩序就是理,而穷至其极至之处便称之为太极,朱熹从其“理先气后”、“理本气末”的理本论出发规定太极与阴阳的关系,实际上是误解了周敦颐所说“太极”之本义。[184]最后,黄宗羲引用明儒罗钦顺(整庵)的《困知录》之说,指出朱熹由对太极与阴阳之相互关系的理解直接导出其理气二元论,与周敦颐“气外无理”、“理气不二”的观点相背离,因而只不过是朱熹自己的主张罢了。[185]从以上分析可知,黄宗羲在调和朱陆异同的同时,其对于太极、阴阳关系的理解还是倾向于陆九渊的道器合一论阐释,并批评了朱熹的道器二元论阐释。

体育外围youleshangshufenxizuoweicanzhao,xiamianzailaitaolunyitengrenzhaifuzidui《taijitushuo》dechanshi,bingjiangqiyushangshuzhu、lu、huang(liu)deguandianjinxingbijiaofenxi,jinertantaoqideshi。

关于“无极”的解释及其与“太极”的关系。伊藤仁斋父子认为朱熹以“无形而有理”来解释“无极而太极”不符合周敦颐的本意,而周敦颐的思想又不符合先秦儒家原典的本义。具体来说,仁斋指出: “盖周子之意以为,有斯理而后有斯气,故曰无极而太极。无极者,谓无物之前自有理。太极即指一元气而言。其意甚分明。”[186]东涯进而敷衍仁斋之说指出: “无极而太极。首提起一句,言理之生气。无极理也,太极气也。易曰: ‘易有太极,是生两仪。’太极即元气也。而其所以然,则本无声臭之可言,即所谓理也。故曰无极而太极。宋《国史》旧传,作‘自无极而为太极’。其意亦同。岂周子之旧本与。《图解》以太极亦为理之名。然考下文,言动静则曰太极,言真则曰无极。周子之意,以太极为气而以无极为理。明矣!”[187]体育外围可知仁斋父子认为“无极而太极”的原文应为“自无极而为太极”,实质即是“理生气”,其中“无极”指“理”,即所以然之理。“太极”则指“元气”。在这里,仁斋父子的阐释与上述陆九渊的解释相近,而与朱熹、黄宗羲二人的解释互有异同。具体来说,与上述陆九渊道器一元论的阐释相比,仁斋父子在认定“无极”为出于老子所谓先于天地而存在的抽象本体这一点上与陆九渊是一致的,并且同样认为“太极本无极”就是“太极本于无极”,即“气本于理”。另一方面,仁斋父子虽批判朱熹的理本论,但其阐释又吸收了朱熹的理气二元论解释,只不过相比仁斋而言,朱熹以“太极”(即“无极”)为“理”,以“阴阳”为“气”,中间缺失“元气”(太极)这一环节。而与刘、黄二人的元气实体论解释相比,仁斋父子虽然同样也以“太极”为“元气”,但同时又认为“无极”指“理”本体,这又与刘、黄二人以“无极”为虚词的阐释不同了。

关于“太极”的解释及其与“阴阳”的关系。仁斋反对朱熹以“太极”为“理”的阐释及其“理生气”的太极阴阳关系说。其依据首先来源于对《太极图说》中“太极动而生阳,动极而静,静而生阴,静极复动。一动一静,互为其根。分阴分阳,两仪立焉”中的“太极”与“阴阳”之关系的理解。仁斋指出“一动一静,互为其根,分阴分阳,两仪立焉。则可见太极者即指一元气而言。其生字是分生之生,非生出之生,故曰分阴分阳。朱子谬为生出之意。故以太极为理,而□(今按: 原文此处空缺,疑当为“气”字)生于太极,而不知理无动静也”,[188]认为所谓“太极动而生阳,……静而生阴”中的“生”并非如朱熹所理解的“生出”(生成),而是指“分生”(分化),即依太极元气之动静而分化出阳(太极元气动而为阳)与阴(太极元气静而为阴),而非从寂然不动的本体(理)中生出阴阳二气。这从太极“分阴分阳”中的“分”字不难体会出。仁斋进而指出,朱熹以“太极”为“理”,为寂然不动的天道本体,但又说由这个不动的本体自然能动静生出阴阳,这在理论上是难以成立的。这实际上也是朱熹的所谓理乘气而动的“死人(理)乘活马(气)”的理气缝隙难题。所以明儒曹端认为“理”也能动静(所谓“活人乘活马”),试图调和这一矛盾,但仁斋指出: “谓有动静者理也,则可。谓理有动静则不可。若曰理有动静,则理与气何分?其不可也必矣。”[189]可知朱熹、曹端在这里陷入了两难的理论困境。如果说“太极”是寂然不动的理本体,则其本身不会有动静,无法分生出阴阳二气来。而如果“理”有动静的话,那么形而上的“理”实际上就与形而下的气无从区分了,相当取消了“理”的形上性。这当然是朱熹、曹端的理本论所无法接受的。所以朱熹对“太极”“阴阳”的理气二元论解释是难以自圆其说的。而以“太极”为“元气”,即以太极“元气”作为无极(“理”)与阴阳(“气”)之中间环节的话,“太极”之动静就不成问题了。其次,仁斋就《太极图说》“太极本无极”一句指出“周子以太极为一元气,以无极为理,至此益明矣。详其语势。自五行而阴阳而太极而至无极而止。太极之于无极,犹五行之于阴阳,阴阳之于太极,皆推本言之。而发明有理而后有气之义。故不曰太极即无极,而曰太极本无极。多少分晓,观‘本’字可见”,[190]认为“太极本无极”与“五行一阴阳也,阴阳一太极也”的句式一样,分别是指太极元气本于无极本体,五行本于阴阳二气,阴阳二气本于太极元气,而不是朱熹所理解的“太极本来无极(形)”或“太极即无极(理)”。最后,仁斋指出《太极图说》中的“无极之真,二五之精,妙合而凝”源出于“《老子》‘孔德之容’章云: ‘其中有精,其精甚真。’林希逸注曰: 发明无物之中真实有物。《图说》“精”、“真”二字。盖本于此。无极之真,即谓无物之中真实有理。所谓未有天地之先,毕竟是先有此理。二五之精,统阴阳五行之气而言之,即太极也。所谓五行一阴阳,阴阳一太极,是也。观周子不曰太极之真,而曰无极之真,则知太极则一元气,而无极者即其所以然之理也。以无极太极为一而无别者,非周子之本旨。罗整庵深讥妙合二字有害于理。甚是。”[191]朱熹以“无极之真”为“太极”(“理”),仁斋则以之为“无极”(“理”),并批评朱子在这里混“无极”、“太极”为一,朱熹以“二五之精”为“气”,仁斋则以之为“太极”(元气)。朱子以“妙合”为“理”与“气”的结合而生人、物。正如仁斋所指出的,明儒罗钦顺已经指出朱熹的理气二元论即根源于其对“妙合”的阐释,并批判了由此带来的割裂理气、形上形下,视理、气为二物的弊端。总而言之,朱熹从其道本器末的理本论立场出发,视太极为形而上之理。陆九渊与黄宗羲则从其道器合一的心学立场出发,视太极为阴阳之道,也即是元气。伊藤仁斋则从其客观解释的朴学立场出发,以无极为理,以太极为元气。上述四种主张可用图表表示如下:


wuji

taiji

yinyang

zhuxi

wuxing(li)

li

qi

lujiuyuan

xuwu

dao(yuanqi)

qi

huangzongxi

wuxing

yuanqi

qi

yitengrenzhai

li

yuanqi

qi

相比较而言,伊藤仁斋的阐释是基于其“以孔还孔”、“以周还周”、“以朱还朱”的客观解释学立场,朱熹与黄宗羲的阐释则立足于“六经注体育外围”的主观解释学立场,只不过朱熹是基于其理学立场,黄宗羲则是基于其心学和气学立场。这实际上是出于他们建构自身哲学体系的需要。那么到底哪种阐释比较符合周敦颐的本义呢。回答此一问题的关键在于对“太极”的理解。具体来说即“太极”是“元气”还是“理”的问题。正如仁斋所指出的,[192]从思想史发展的大背景来看,汉唐以来,以孔颖达《周易正义》为代表的“太极元气说”成为了太极说的主流。[193]而与周敦颐一样出自陈抟流派的宋代象数易学代表人物刘牧(河图洛书的作者),与周敦颐同时代的邵雍、胡瑗、李觏、王安石等人均持《周易正义》的太极元气说。周敦颐虽未明言太极为元气,但从其《太极图》的图式与《太极图说》的内容来看,遵循的是一条“无极→太极→阴阳→五行→万物”的宇宙生成序列,属于老子的“道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物”、“天下万物生于有,有生于无”的宇宙演化模式。而从不同版本的文字来考察的话,“无极而生太极”(周敦颐家藏九江本)、“自无极而为太极”(见洪迈所修《国史》)的文本虽不知是周敦颐的原本,抑或是出自篡改,但这些文本的存在本身已充分表明当时人以太极为无极所派生出来的元气这一普遍认识。因此仁斋将周敦颐所说的太极解释成元气确实是有汉唐古注作为其依据的。这也就是仁斋所追求的“古义”。但另一方面,从本体论的立场来看,周敦颐虽未明言太极是作为宇宙本体的理(道),但“无极而太极”中的“太极”包含有抽象的形上本体之意味,这也是朱熹基于其哲学立场采取“无极而太极”(延平本)这一文本的主要原因。进而结合周敦颐思想的全貌来看,《通书・理性命》第二十二章中,论述了人所具有的德性之本源——“万”与宇宙之根本原理——“一”(太极乾元)之间的相互关系,其中已经包含有后来朱熹所说的总天下万物之理为一太极,而事事物物又各具一太极(分殊之理)的“理一分殊”思想的萌芽。[194]体育外围总之,周敦颐的太极说在继承汉唐以来的太极元气说的宇宙生成论的同时,又表现出向理本论的宇宙本体论过渡的倾向,因而其思想体系可说是兼具宇宙论(太极元气说)与本体论(太极理本论)两方面的特征和内容。

从周敦颐本人的思想发展来看,《太极图说》中“无极”被置于“太极”之前,因而宇宙生成论的意味很浓厚,相反《通书・动静》第十六章中则只言五行、阴阳、太极而不言无极,因而本体论的意味很浓厚。陆九韶、陆九渊兄弟据此认为《太极图说》与《通书》的思想体系不相似,推断《太极图说》可能不是周敦颐的著作,或者只是周敦颐传他人之文章,抑或是其思想体系尚未成熟时的作品。[195]依据陆氏兄弟的观点,可以得出他们是将《通书》中的本体论体系视为周敦颐的晚年定论,与其早年《太极图说》中的宇宙论体系属于不同思想体系的结论。朱熹则直接依据理本论将二者统一了起来,从而构建了其理本论的宇宙本体论体系。但明代中期开始伴随着气学派对理学派与心学派末流空谈心性义理的批判,出现了以“元气实体论”为主旨的学术思潮。其代表人物王廷相与罗钦顺等人均主张理气合一论或气一元论。刘宗周及黄宗羲一方面继承了阳明学的心学思想,一方面又受“元气实体论”的实学思潮影响,[196]从其理气合一的立场出发解释了周敦颐的太极说,批判了朱熹理本论的太极说阐释。归根结底,黄宗羲与朱熹的阐释都是出于构建其自身思想体系的需要。相比之下,仁斋父子的阐释更为客观,可能更符合周敦颐思想的实际情况,即“无极(理)→太极(元气)→阴阳(气)”的解释正好表明了周敦颐的太极说处于汉唐的太极元气说与宋代的太极理本论之间过渡阶段。具体来说,仁斋一方面反驳了朱熹以太极为理的理本论解释,从而复归于太极的汉唐古义(元气),但另一方面又不像陆九渊那样出于与朱熹争道统的需要而否认周敦颐的学术贡献。仁斋父子仍然承认周敦颐的宋代理学开山地位,指出周敦颐借鉴并改造了佛道二教的先天抽象本休,以“无极”为“理”,发前人所未发,[197]体育外围朱熹进而以“太极”为“理”,实皆指儒家所倡导的仁义礼智之道,以理本体(无极、太极)为“三纲五常”等儒家伦理道德的形上根据,从而超越汉唐章句训诂之学而建立起了一套儒家的道德形上学。

二、关于修养工夫论的阐释:

“五性”、“中正仁义”、“无欲”、“主静”

体育外围ruqiansuoshu,zhoudunyizai《taijitushuo》dehoubanbufenyun“weirenyedeqixiuerzuiling。xingjishengyi,shenfazhiyi,wuxinggandongershanefen,wanshichuyi。shengrendingzhiyizhongzhengrenyi,erzhujing,(zizhuyun: wuyugujing。)lirenjiyan”,tichule“zhujing”dexiuyanggongfulun。guanyuzheiyibufendechanshi,zhongwaixuezhejianyeshijusongfenyun,mozhongyishi。zheilixuanqusigeluntilaijiayitantao: qiyishi“wuxing”dehanyi。qiershi“zhongzhengrenyi”dehanyi。qisanshi“wuyu”dehanyi。qisishi“zhujing”dehanyi。xiawenyibananzhaozhuxi、renzhaifuzi、huangzongxideshunxulaizhuyibijiaofenxitamenduizheisigemingtidechanshi。

首先是关于“五性”的涵义。朱熹在其《太极图说解》中认为人、物生来都具有太极之道(天理),而人因其禀得天地之秀气而其心最灵,从而超出物类之上,能全其五常之性(仁义礼智信)而为天地之心。然而五常之性感物而发动,从而产生情欲善恶,所以需要圣人以中正仁义为标准来纠正它。[198]可知朱熹认为《太极图说》中的“五性”是人禀受自天的五常之性,也即是仁义礼智信,是人性中先天固有的道德理性。对此,仁斋父子指出“万物之生,唯人最灵。既有形焉斯有神矣。其为性也。刚善刚恶。柔善柔恶,不刚不柔而中。此五者感乎中而动乎外,或善或恶,各以类分。《图解》以仁义礼智信五常为五性者。非也。《通书》以仁善等五者为德,以刚柔等五者为性。最可证也”,[199]认为此处的“五性”应当结合《通书・师》第七章中所说的“性者,刚柔、善恶,中而已矣”[200]一句来理解,也就是说“五性”具体是指《通书》中所说的刚善、刚恶、柔善、柔恶、中(不刚不柔)。朱熹因主要继承张载、程颐的人性论而区分人性为禀自天理而来的先天纯善的“义理之性”(即五常之性)与天理堕入气质之后形成的善恶混在的后天“气质之性”。因此在朱熹看来,刚柔善恶中都是指善恶混在的后天“气质之性”,非人的先天“义理之性”(本性)。对此,仁斋父子指出周敦颐在《通书・诚几德》第三章中云“德: 爱曰仁,宜曰义,理曰礼,通曰智,守曰信”,再结合上述《通书・师》第七章中以刚柔善恶中为“五性”的说法,可知周敦颐是以仁义礼智信为“五德”而非“五性”。仁斋父子指出“四端之端。古注疏曰: 端本也。谓仁义礼智之端本起于此也。按字书又训始训绪,总皆一意。而考亭特用端绪之义,谓犹物在于中而绪见于外也。然训字之例,虽有数义,俱归于一意。绪字亦当与本始字同其义。……若考亭之所谓,则与本始之义相反,非字训之例。孟子之意以为人之有四端也。犹其身之有四体,人人具足,不假外求,苟知扩充之,则犹火燃泉达,竟成仁义礼智之德。故以四端之心为仁义礼智之端本。此孟子之本旨,而汉儒之所相传授也”,[201]认为孟子所说的“四端”(恻隐、善恶、辞让、是非)即是人生来就固有的本性(“性”),而“仁义礼智”(四德)是扩充此“四端”(人性)而来的道德规范。“四端”之“端”依古注(《孟子注疏》)为“本”(端本)之意,而非朱熹所强调外在的端绪(与“本”相对立的“末”)。仁斋父子的阐释与朱熹将“四端”视作情(作用),将“四德”(仁义礼智)视作规定“四端”之性(本体)的二元对立阐释可说恰好相反。仁斋以“四端”(性)为“四德”之本,朱熹则以“四德”(性)为“四端”之本。仁斋父子又指出《太极图说》中说“圣人定之以中正仁义”,如果“中正仁义”(朱熹认为即礼智仁义四德)是人的先天具有的自然本性的话,那还需要圣人来“定”(制定)吗。说圣人来“定”正好表明周敦颐是以仁义礼智是需要扩充本性才能达到的“德”,而真正的人性即人生来由其气禀而具有的刚柔善恶中“五性”。[202]由上述分析可知仁斋父子基于其客观解释的朴学立场批判了朱熹以禀自天理的仁义礼智为先天本性的“理性论”并以之曲解周敦颐本意的失误。

其次是关于“中正仁义”的涵义。朱熹在《太极图说解》中说: “盖人禀阴阳五行之秀气以生,而圣人之生,又得其秀之秀者。是以其行之也中,其处之也正,其发之也仁,其裁之也义。”[203]在《通书解》中对《通书・道》第六“圣人之道,仁义中正而已矣”一句解释说“中,即礼。正,即智。图解备矣”。[204]朱熹又说: “仁义中正,同乎一理者也。而析为体用,诚若有未安者。然仁者,善之长也;中者,嘉之会也;义者,利之宜也;正者,贞之体也。”[205]可知朱熹把“仁义中正”等同于“元亨利贞”四德,“元亨利贞”是乾元(天道)之四德,人心禀受此天德为仁义礼智之“四德”。所以朱熹以“中正仁义”的“中”为“礼”,以“正”为“智”。这样就把“中正仁义”解释成“礼智仁义”了。这里再一次显现出朱熹以自己的哲学观点强加于周敦颐思想之上的主观解释学立场。对此,仁斋父子指出“人性之感,善恶不一。故圣人定之以仁义之中正者也。仁而弗中正,墨子之仁也。义而弗中正,杨子之义也。故圣人要之于中正。周子恐人之认中正为一物,故特下注曰: 仁义中正而已矣。明仁义之不可不中正也。《图解》以中为礼,以正为智,以中正仁义,为圣人之德。可疑也。孟子以来,恒言必称仁义礼智,未尝言礼智仁义,又未尝有以礼称中,以智称正者也。如此为序,则犹言夏冬春秋,言火水木金,言亨贞元利,殆不成语。且据《图解》说,则中仁二者属阳为用,正义二者属阴为体。夫动必主乎静,体立而后用行。然则谓仁礼二者,却卑于义智。可乎?尤不可解。盖周子以仁义为道为德,至程子始以仁义礼智信为五性。朱子以中正仁义,强解为五性,本非周子之本旨”,[206]体育外围认为“中正仁义”实指“仁义之中正”而非朱熹所理解的“礼智仁义”,因为光讲仁(爱)而做不到中正的话,便会流于墨子之仁(兼爱),同样光讲义(别)而做不到中正的话,便会流于杨朱之义(为体育外围)。圣人正唯恐产生此流弊,因此要求人们以中正为定向指针来引导仁义,使之不至于走向极端或歧途。仁斋父子进而指出周敦颐正是担心人们把中正看作实指名词(如朱熹所说),所以在《通书》中强调“圣人之道,仁义中正而已矣”,其意是指仁义离不开中正。朱熹以“中”为“礼”、以“正”为“智”所带来的一大问题就是“中正仁义”变成了“礼智仁义”。但众所周知,自孟子以来,学者言必称“仁义礼智”为人(心)之四德,四者的顺序也是一定而不可颠倒的,况且以“中”为“礼”、以“正”为“智”在训诂上也缺乏依据。因此朱熹的解释违背自古以来的通例,在周敦颐这里是讲不通的。仁斋进而指出周敦颐是将仁义视作道与德,到了程颐才直接将仁义礼智信视作人性(五性),到了朱熹又将中正仁义强解为五性,显然不符合周敦颐的本意。由上述分析可知,仁斋通过对语法句式的分析批判了朱熹以“四德”强解“中正仁义”的失误。

《宋元学案・濂溪学案》中黄氏父子对“中正仁义”的解释与朱熹及仁斋父子的解释都不同。黄宗羲指出圣人效法“寂然不动,感而遂通”的宇宙本根,因而以“主静”为工夫并确立了人伦之规范(“人极”),而“人极”的具体内容即是“中正仁义”。《通书》第六章“道”中说“圣人之道,仁义中正而已矣”,其中的仁义即是刚柔,系指人的喜怒哀乐,中正即是《中庸》所说的中和。[207]《通书》第七章“师”中指出“中也者、和也、中节也、天下之达道也、圣人之事也”,将未发之中等同于已发之和,也就是以情来言性。黄百家引刘宗周之说,从其性情合一论的立场出发,认为喜怒哀乐实际上属于未发并贯穿于动静之中,性体之中无动静,未发之中与已发之和均属于性,情是性之情而不是性的对立面。[208]因此刘宗周才说“《中庸》言喜怒哀乐专指四德而言,非以七情言也”,[209]主张喜怒哀乐不属情而是属于性或性之德,与仁义礼智之四德同样处于超越的层面,不应将其视作七情(喜怒哀惧爱恶欲)。这种看法是编纂者基于刘宗周的理气合一论而来。即喜怒哀乐是基于一气流行之秩序,七情则是此秩序之错杂,而非其本然状态,因此喜怒哀乐以天道而言即是元亨利贞,以四时而言即是春夏秋冬。[210]这是刘宗周所创不同于前人的“四德说”。因此,黄百家特别指出: “百家谨案: 提出喜怒哀乐以接元亨利贞,此子刘子宗旨。”[211]体育外围总之,按照黄百家所引刘宗周的看法,“中正仁义”实际就是性情(喜怒哀乐)发而中节(中和)的意思。这虽与朱熹基于其理学的阐释完全不同,但也是基于其性情合一的心学立场的主观性阐释。其与仁斋对“中正仁义”的句法理解比较接近,只是具体解释有所不同。

再次是关于“无欲”的涵义。《太极图说》中周敦颐指出圣人效法天道而制定中正仁义之人道,并以“主静”的工夫树立了人伦之准则。“主静”的关键即在于做到“无欲”。如《通书》第二十章“圣学”中所指出的,“一”是学而至于圣人的要诀,所谓“一”即是“无欲”。朱熹以其“存天理,灭人欲”的二元对立的理欲观来解释周敦颐的的“无欲”说,在其《大学章句》中云“尽夫天理之极,而无一毫人欲之私也”。[212]朱熹此说当本于其师李侗(延平)所云“仁只是理,初无彼此之辨,当理而无私心,即仁矣”。[213]对此,仁斋父子指出欲是人生来就有的,也即孟子所云“口之于味也,目之于色也,耳之于声也,鼻之于臭也,四肢之于安佚也,性也”(《告子》上),是任何人都逃脱不了的。有朱子学者辩解说“欲”是人心之流于恶的过分欲求,而孟子所说的耳目口鼻之欲则是人心之不能无的正当欲望,周敦颐所说的“无欲”不是让人绝灭这些正当欲望,因为如果那样的话人就变成了无生意的枯木死灰了,周敦颐不会走这样的极端,所以周敦颐所说的“无欲”的“欲”当是指超出正当范围的过度、过分的“人欲”,朱熹在其《中庸章句》“序”中所说的人心(人欲)道心(天理)之辨,并强调以天理之公战胜人欲之私即是这个意思。对此,仁斋父子引孟子的“寡欲”说,指出朱熹《孟子集注》中将“寡欲”的“欲”解释为口鼻耳目四肢这些正当的欲望。而周敦颐在其《养心亭说》中起首引孟子的“寡欲”说之后接着说“予谓养心不止于寡焉而存耳,盖寡焉以至于无。无则诚立、明通。诚立,贤也;明通,圣也”。[214]可见周敦颐所说的“无欲”是基于孟子的“寡欲”说而来,“无欲”之“欲”与“寡欲”之“欲”一脉相承,都是指声色臭味这些人心所不可无的正当欲望,朱熹则将“寡欲”之“欲”当作正当欲望,将“无欲”之“欲”视作过分的欲望(人欲),将两者区别割裂了开来,这是不符合周敦颐的实际思想的。反之,如果说孟子的“寡欲”与周敦颐“无欲”中的“欲”都是指过分欲求的话,在孟子这里就说不通了。因为过分的欲求是应该削除的,可以说“无欲”,但说“寡欲”(如从一天偷一只鸡减少到一个星期偷一只鸡)则不免落入世俗之玩世不恭。仁斋父子进而明确指出,周敦颐的“无欲”说的实质就是消除人的正当欲望,其实质毋庸讳言与道家所追求的反观内省、游心于虚无冲淡之境的主张是一致的。这其实也恰好反映了周敦颐对道家思想的吸收。因此仁斋父子批评周敦颐的“无欲”说不符合于孟子以来儒家的“寡欲”说,是源于道家的异端邪说,不足为训。[215]在仁斋父子看来,朱熹力图隐盖周敦颐“无欲”说的异端本质,实际上不符合周敦颐的本意,而周敦颐的思想又不符合孟子的“寡欲”说。

与上述仁斋父子对周敦颐“无欲”说的彻底否定态度不同,黄宗羲父子则在肯定周敦颐“无欲”说的前提下,采取了与朱熹理欲二元论阐释不同的途径。追根溯源的话,二程的再传、湖湘学派的实际创立者胡宏(五峰)指出“天理人欲,同体而异用,同行而异情”,[216]认为天理与人欲原本均包含在性体之中不可截然分开,二者实际上是依据心之作用发而中节与否区别开来的。对此朱熹从其理欲二元论出发,认为性体之中只有天理,没有属于人心(用)的人欲,从而将天理(道心)与人欲(人心)对立了起来。黄氏父子则引刘宗周之说指出,理与欲犹如水与冰一样本是同一性体(同体)之不同状态,欲之有无好比水与冰的相互转化,由水而变成冰就是欲(有欲),由冰变成水就是理(无欲),使欲消除(无欲)即是学问(工夫)。[217]体育外围这种解释与胡宏的“同体异用”的理欲同体观可说是一脉相承。这样,黄氏父子便用刘宗周的理欲一元论给周敦颐的“无欲”说作出了合理的解释。

最后是关于“主静”的涵义。朱熹在其《太极图说解》的《图解》中,指出太极不离乎阴阳而为阳动阴静之本体,又将阳动视作太极本体之所以行的依据,将阴静视作太极本体之所以立的依据。先立本体后用方能行,这样就在阴阳二者之间作了体(立)用(行)的区分。[218]在太极自身能否动静问题上,朱熹由于将太极视为“只存有不活动”(牟宗三语)的形上本体之理,因此认为太极(理)本身并无动静而随着阴阳的动静而动静。这样看来,“主静”之“静”即是阴之静,因此将太极本体归于静,将作用归于动便是理所当然的了。对此,仁斋父子指出朱熹一面说太极为体,阴阳动静为用,太极是统摄动静之理,一面又说太极是阴之静,这样太极就不是统合动静之理了。这两种说法不免自相矛盾,而其贵阴(主静)的主张也与《易传》贵阳(主动)的思想背道而驰。仁斋父子进而认为古代先秦儒家根本没有后世宋儒所谓体用之说,其修养方法论也不是宋儒所提倡“主静”(立本体),而是处处从用处(主动)着眼。追根根源的话,体用论实际上是宋儒援佛入儒带来的,并非中国古代儒家的本土思想,因此仁斋父子主张对于理解先秦儒家思想的真实本义来说,体用论完全可以不讲。[219]这样仁斋父子就依据其所理解的先秦儒学古义完全否定了宋儒基于体用论观点树立起来的“主静”修养论。这里很明显地体现出仁斋的反宋学立场。

与上述仁斋父子的反宋学立场不同,黄宗羲父子则在肯定周敦颐“主静”说的前提下,采取了一条与朱熹不同的阐释途径。黄宗羲认为朱熹既然以太极为本体,则阴阳都是太极之用,不应以本体归于阴而以作用归于阳。问题的关键即在于朱熹误解了周敦颐的“主静”说,即将“主静”之“静”视为动静对待之“静”。黄氏父子引刘宗周的说法,指出动静其实都是阴阳之作用,但为了明确理气之区别,则可认为理(条理)属静(阴阳气化流行之法则)而阴阳之气属动,因此说“循理为静,非动静对待之静”,又说“惟圣人深悟无极之理而得其所谓静者主之,乃在中正仁义之间,循理为静是也”,[220]结合上文可知“主静”之静并非朱熹所理解的动静之静,而是“循理为静”。所谓“循理为静”即是喜怒哀乐之未发已发,总之内外的一切活动都遵循天理(客观规律)以求达于无过无不及的中和之境,则可无往而非静。黄宗羲进而指出,气是充塞整个宇宙空间的唯一实体,气有动静不齐而分化出阴阳,指阴阳动静气化流行之规律(有条不紊)而言谓之理,以其极至而言谓之太极。所以一气、阴阳即是生化万物的宇宙本体。不是像朱熹所说的那样在阴阳之上还有一个至高无上的太极、天理作为主宰。气化流行之中不免有过不及之弊,而主体则容易被表象所蒙蔽,为物欲所牵引,以至远离本然之体。所以圣人以收敛为主而复还本源,发散是不得已的事,不是以收敛为静而以发散为动,收敛与发散都是造化流行过程中之不可或缺的作用,此过程中起支配作用的即是“静”,所以“不是不动是静,不妄动方是静”,[221]即“主静”之“静”不是动静之静而是不轻举妄动(即收敛慎动)的意思。[222]

虽然黄宗羲对其师刘宗周的“循理为静”说推崇备至,但事实上“循理为静”的说法并非是由刘宗周最早提出来的,明代心学的集大成者王守仁(阳明)在其《答伦彦式》中已经指出: “循理之谓静,从欲之谓动。欲也者,非必声色货利外诱也,有心之私皆欲也。故循理焉,虽酬酢万变,皆静也。濂溪所谓‘主静’,无欲之谓也,是谓集义者也。”[223]即在王守仁看来,本心原本是无动静的,但以体用而言的话,则静是其体而动是其用,如循天理的话则动静皆为“定”、“静”,如循私欲的话则动静皆为“动”。因此周敦颐以“无欲”作为“主静”之关键。王守仁进而认为孟子所谓“集义”(程朱将其理解为外在的格物穷理工夫)以养“浩然之气”的修养方法即指此循理主静的涵养工夫。由以上分析可知,王守仁主要是从心性修养论出发论述其“循理为静”说,而刘宗周则基于更高一层的本体论(理气论)深化了王守仁的观点。一方面,程颢在周敦颐主静说的基础上,在其答张载的《定性书》中所说的“动亦定,静亦定”是通过本心依天理之流行以应事物的主敬工夫,其本质也是“循理之谓静,从欲之谓动”。程颢认为能“循理”的话就可以达到动静合一的境界。由此可见,主静说与主敬说实际上是一脉相承的。但只强调“静”的话,可能产生动时的工夫欠缺与喜静厌动的弊病,并且恐怕难以跟佛道的“虚静无欲”、“静为动根”的思想划清界限。因此后来程颐便将主静的工夫作为佛教的空寂、虚无之说而加以了批判,[224]并将周敦颐的“主一之谓静,无欲之谓一”(笔者自拟)的“主静”说替换成了“主一之谓敬,无适之谓一”的“主敬”说。二程对“主静”说的扬弃也正好从一个侧面反映了仁斋对“主静”说的置疑有其合理性,即“主静”说与佛道二家的修养论很难划清界限。

探究刘宗周的“循理”说与黄宗羲的“不妄动”说的哲学渊源的话,唐代孔颖达在《周易正义》中注释“无妄”卦时云: “妄,谓虚妄矫诈,不循正理”,[225]以“循正理”来解释“无妄”。程颐在其《周易程氏传》中因之以“合正理而无妄”、[226]“順理而不妄”[227]来解释“无妄”卦的卦义。但与孔颖达所云事物自然之理的具体之“理”相比,程颐所谓的“理”(天理)作为事物存在与变化的根据,主要指抽象的法则、本质与规范,从中也可看出哲学概念的发展。[228]刘宗周、黄宗羲二人所说的“理”则是指事物自身的变化及其法则,与孔颖达所说的“理”相近。刘宗周的“循理”说与黄宗羲的“不妄动”说分别从积极与消极两个方面阐明了“主静”的意义,实际表达的则是同一个意思。而结合《通书》来考察的话,可知刘宗周的“循理为静”说与黄宗羲的“不妄动”说在周敦颐的思想中确有依据。事实上,《通书》中“慎动”、“无欲”的思想即是《太极图说》之主静说的最好注脚。周敦颐认为“主静”的关键在于“无欲”,所以在《太极图说》中自注说“无欲故静”,进而在《通书・圣学》第二十章中指出“一”是学而至于圣人的要诀,所谓“一”即是“无欲”。即心中不要有过分的欲望,而只将注意力集中于道德修养和境界提升上。[229]周敦颐又在《通书・慎动》第五章中指出人之动若“正”与“和”的话,便会与“道”、“德”相一致,但如果背离仁义礼智信之道德而陷于邪僻的话,则必然会蒙受耻辱或弊害,因此必须“慎动”。[230]周敦颐进而又在《通书・家人睽复无妄》第三十二章中发挥了《大学》“八条目”的思想,以身为治天下之本,以诚心为“端本”之要,而诚心实际即是回复不善之动。不善之动即是“妄”,回复其妄的话便可“无妄”,做到“无妄”的话即是“诚”了。[231]可见上述黄宗羲所提出的“不妄动”说与周敦颐的“慎动”说是一致的。与刘宗周、黄宗羲的阐释相比,仁斋对周敦颐“主静”说的批判虽切中要害,但其对理学思想体系的理解失之简单化了,这也是其反宋学的态度和立场所决定的。

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体育外围mengdesijiu、yuzhengxienvxingguanzhibijiaoyanjiu

郑 雯*

内容提要: 18世纪法国启蒙运动发展如火如荼,加速了西方社会迈入现代化的进程。而同一时期的东方,明清之际所产生的早期启蒙思潮却因政治因素,使学者们只得以更隐曲的方式表达对现代价值的追求。在此时期,东西方学者不约而同开始就女性问题展开论述,如何解决女性所受压迫与不公待遇,成为他们讨论的主题。孟德斯鸠和俞正燮分别选择法律、礼俗两种不同视角,就与女性相关的社会家庭问题展开探讨,通过比较启蒙学者的女性观,有助于分析东西方文明在“世界历史”视域下迈入近代时所表现出的差异性,也有助于揭示体育外围国传统文化资源中是否蕴含现代性价值因素。

关键词: 体育外围孟德斯鸠 俞正燮 女性观 启蒙 现代价值

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《论法的精神》主要是提倡资产阶级法制理论的重要著作,在该书中孟德斯鸠从理性出发,定义“法就是初元理性和各种存在物之间的关系,也是各种存在物之间的相互关系”[232],通过探讨法律与影响法律的各种事物之间的关系,考察法的精神。将这种考察置入社会公共领域则变为对政体形式的研究,置入私人生活领域则变为对民事法的研究,而他对女性的考察通过研究相关法律完成,涵盖公共、私人两个领域。

首先,孟德斯鸠从公共领域出发考察女性在社会生活中的权利与地位。孟德斯鸠认为公共领域中与女性生活息息相关的内容主要是奢侈消费,他之所以认为女性与奢侈相关,其根本原因在于他认为女性意志薄弱,容易受到诱惑,“淫乱随奢华而生,奢华随淫乱而盛,倘若放纵欲念,如何抑制薄弱的意志。”[233]因此各政体为了维持自身良好的运转,需要针对女性这一特质设定不同的法律[234]。在孟氏看来奢侈易使得女性行为放荡轻佻,“在自己堕入交际之前已将他人拖下水,将毫无意义的东西赋予价值,重要的东西则遭贬斥,妇女制定这样的准则得心应手。”[235]然而女性与奢侈相遇所产生的一系列社会反应并非无利于所有政体,例如在以“荣宠”为运行准则的君主政体中,朝臣利用妇女的魅力和激情来增加自己的财富,奢华与妇女一起充溢宫廷,女性在宫廷中可以自由自在无所拘束,因此女性的奢侈在君主制国家中是被允许的,尤其是宫廷生活中需要女性的奢华。

ciwai,genjubutongzhengtiyunxingyuanze,mengdesijiurenweishenghuozaibutongzhengtizhongdenvxingduijiazhuangdexuqiugebuxiangtong。weiweichizhangfudediwei,junzhuzhengtixianvxingdejiazhuangxuyaofenghou;gonghezhengtizhongshechiyingdangbimian,zenvxingwuxufenghoujiazhuang,yebubiyaoconghunyinzhonghuodezhangfudecaichan,yinweinvxinggerencaichanjiangdailaishehua,wuyigonghezhengtiwending。

由孟德斯鸠考察不同政体原则下法律设定与女性的关系,可以发现孟氏认为女性具有如下特点: 第一,意志薄弱。“淫乱随奢华而生,奢华随淫乱而盛,倘若放纵欲念,如何抑制薄弱的意志”[236],“女性失去美德,其他方面随之堕落”。第二,容易放纵。“小女人用来取悦权贵的雕虫小技,诸如争执、轻佻、憎恶、爱好、妒忌、愠怒等,若在宫廷里施展开来,不可能不产生后果”[237]体育外围。因此他提出共和政体运行依靠“美德”,因此需要监护女性,专制政体更需要将妻妾幽闭深宫。分析孟德斯鸠论女性在公共生活领域所表现出的特点,可见他视女性为缺乏意志力,容易失去美德的一群人。为了维护社会公共生活的良好运行,需针对不同政体设计相应法律来规范女性生活,而法律的制定权则掌握在男性手中。

其次,在私人生活领域,孟德斯鸠着重考察女性作为家庭的一份子所受的待遇。孟氏认为不少女性在家庭中地位低下,受到不同程度的家庭奴役,而这些奴役的产生与气候、政体等因素息息相关,是天然不可避免的。他之所以得出此结论,原因如下: 第一,孟氏认为“大自然给予女子的是魅力”,“炎热地区女子的魅力仅存于孩提时代,此后终其一生便再无魅力可言”[238]。因为在热带地区的家庭中,男女衰老不同步,致使女性只能处于依赖地位,多偶制就容易产生。第二,奴役女性符合专制政体的运行原则,盛行于东方地区的专制政体与家庭奴役携手共进,“欧洲妇女轻浮的精神和轻率的言行,她们的爱好和憎恶以及大大小小的嗜好,统统搬到东方政体下去,而且让她们如同在欧洲那样自由行动,还能有一个父亲享受片刻的安宁?”[239]在这种专制政体下,东方家庭常人为的将家中女性与男性生活分隔开,使女性组成特殊的家庭,“使她们将感情倾注于世界上本质最佳的东西,那就是心中唯有家庭,别无其他。”[240]

综观孟德斯鸠解释热带地区所形成的家庭奴役,他将奴役的形成归结为气候原因,并将这一地理决定论视为人类理性所服从的“至高原因”[241]。此外,他还将气候条件与政体原则相结合,进一步解释为何东方家庭的女性常生活于与男性隔离的环境中,并认为一现象为合理。孟德斯鸠通过气候与政体原则,阐释不同地区女性在家庭中所受不同待遇的理论,引发多方评论。有人肯定孟德斯鸠的地理决定论,促使社会研究摆脱神学史观以及唯理论的影响,将人的自然本性视为社会形成的根本原因。也有人批评孟德斯鸠的观点,认为他把地理环境与社会运行视为单向度作用关系,视气候地理条件决定人的情感差异,最终导致不同政体原则的建立,夸大了地理环境的作用[242]。此处评价孟德斯鸠对女性所受家庭奴役原因的分析,不能只看他对现象的评析,还需考察他是否批判这一现象。可惜,孟氏并未批判这种家庭奴役给女性生活所带来的不等待遇,甚至将其合理性归为热带地区女性容颜易老,并认为女性应当只关注家庭,排斥女性进入社会生活。

体育外围suiranmengdesijiushibufendiqudejiatingnuyiweihelicunzai,dantarengzhenduiduoouzhihunyinxingshitichupiping,renweizheiyihunyinxingshibuliyujiatinghexie、zinvchengzhang,yuanburuouzhoudiqusuoshengxingdeyifuyiqizhidu。bingqietazaitantaolihun、xiuhunquanshi,zhuzhanghuyujiyunvxingyunanxingxiangtongdexiuhunquan,shenzhitichuduoouzhidiquxiuhunquanjinshuyunvxing,zaiyidingchengdushangweihunvxingyujiatingzhongdediweiyuliyi。

最后,孟德斯鸠对由婚姻所带来的人口繁衍问题展开考察。首先,他提出抚养子女是父亲与生俱来的义务,原因即男人比女人有理性,女性只不过在抚育子女过程中喂养它们,并未教导它们。其次,提出在婚姻形式上,子女随父亲身份,若无婚姻关系,子女由母亲照管,婚姻关系所带来的人口繁衍属于父亲[243]。可见在孟氏看来女性在繁衍后代事务上仅做到了哺育工作,她们不具备理性不能更好地教育子女,同时也不具备传延自身家族的能力,需嫁入夫家传延夫家家族。

通过分析孟德斯鸠的女性观,可以发现他对女性问题的考察与社会法律紧密关联。虽然在《论法的精神》中有大量同情女性的言论,如给予女性与男性同等的离婚、休婚权;倡导一夫一妻制度,但也不能忽视他的很多思想并未跳出传统思想加诸女性的限定,例如他对女性歧视建立在理性的傲慢之上,否定女性为繁衍人口所做出的贡献,取消女性传延姓氏的权利,视热带地区家庭奴役现象为合理,并在社会公共生活中提出设定法律以规范女性生活行为。总体而言,孟德斯鸠虽然是较早为女性发声的男性启蒙思想家,但其女性观总体而言并未给予女性以平等的待遇,甚至表现出对女性的歧视,这一特点并非孟氏一人所独有,在同时期部分启蒙思想家的女性观中可窥得一二。狄德罗认为女性容易被感情所左右,受制于流言与迷信;卢梭认为妇女天生应从属于家庭,为女性提供教育机会和政治权利将扰乱社会秩序;伏尔泰也认为女性生活范围应局限于家中,因为她们缺少杰出才干。18世纪的启蒙思想家的女性观多表现出: “都过有色眼镜来观察妇女的智力和社会目的……当涉及妇女问题时,他们更类似于现代保守的基督教徒”[244],这与同一时期中国早期启蒙思想家的观点有一定的区别。

二、俞正燮的女性观

正当18世纪法国启蒙思想家高举自由平等的旗帜重新审视一切事物,女性作为社会重要部分,得到大批思想家的关注。同一时期,中国也有大批学者开始关注社会中女性所受不公待遇,如李贽、袁枚、章学诚、汪中、俞正燮等人,这股同情女性思想的产生与明清以降早期启蒙思潮紧密相关[245]。早期启蒙学者从不同角度批判社会给予女性种种压迫,这其中以俞正燮的批判最为全面,后世学者多视他为体育外围国历史上第一个明确提出“男女平等”之人[246]

zuoweijiadaoshiqizhumingkaojuxuezhe,yuzhengxiezhixue“zhangyujubukaozheng”,suiransixiangzongtiweinengxingchengwanzhenglilunxitong,dantajiunvxingwentisuozhankaideyixiliekaochapoweixiangjin。yumengdesijiukaochanvxingwentixiangjin,yushizhenduinvxingwentizhankaidekaochayecongshehuishenghuo、hunyinjiatinglianggecengmianzhankai。

体育外围kaojuxuezhedeguandianduoyinyukaozhengcailiaozhong,tamenduoyishijing、kaoshidefangshichanfazijidesixiang。tongshi,qingzhongqishengxinglixuekaozheng,xuezhemenqiwangtongguo“kaogulizhengjinsu”fahuiruxueyifengyisudeshiming,tuidongsixiangqianjin,yuzhengxiezaizheigusichaozhongjiutongguoquanshigulichanmingnannvpingdengdeguandian。lirutazaijie《zhouyi·daxiang》zhong“hou”zishi,jiupipingkongyingdayiji《shuowen》jiang“hou”jieshiwei“zhuhou”“jitijunye”,zaitakanlaishi“hou”yingdangcongyu《zhouyi》chengshushijianxiangjindejingshuzhongzequxiangguanjieshi,zheiyangdejieshicaifuhejingwenbenyi。yincitaqu《zhouguan》zhongshi“hou”wei“junzhuzhifu”yiyi,jie“fu”chuanwei‘“houbushengfang’,weishengyinli,shishiye”。zaitakanlaichengshujiaozaode《zhouguan》youguanyuzhouqinlizhixiangjindejilu,qieyouyinlijilu,tongshiguidingleshifu、neizongdengnvguandezhineng,yejiushishuonvxingyoulizhishangdegongneng,bushimeiyourenhegongnengdebaishe。yushixuanqu《zhouguan》“hou”yilaijie《zhouyi·xiangchuan》,kezhitarentongxianqinrujiazhongshinvxingdelifadiweiyuzuoyong,changdaoyinyangxiangchengdeguandian。

体育外围zaikendingnvxingyunanxingjuyouxiangtongshehuilizhizhinenghou,yuzhengxiekaishijiujiating、shehuishenghuozhongyunvxingxixixiangguandelizhizhankaitaolun,chanfaqinvxingguan。18shijidezhongguonvxingshenghuoduojuxianyujiatingzhizhong,ziqichushengdaosiwangzunshou“zaijiacongfu、jijiacongfu、fusicongzi”delizhiyaoqiu,meiyougerenxuanzeziyou,shizhongchuyu“congren”dezhuangtai。suizhejunzhuzhuanzhidejiaqiang,zhengfutuixingjingbiaozhiduyiweihushehuijibendanwei——jiatingdewending,zheishideciyishiqi“zhenjieguan”yujiayanke,bushaodifangchuxian“shinvshouzhen”xianxiang。yuzhengxietongguokaochahunliyishi,jieshi“fuqi”guanxichenglidetiaojian,pipanyifuquan、fuquanbiponvzichengwei“jiefu”“lienv”dexingwei。

“室女守贞”现象的出现,主要因为传统婚礼在历代注疏传延过程中,仪式错乱礼意不清,致使许嫁女需为去世未婚夫“守贞”[247]。学者们对“室女”是否需要“守贞”争执不下,主要集中在“纳征”仪式进行后,许嫁女身份归属问题。有学者认为此时“许嫁女”已与夫家缔结姻亲关系,为夫家成员,一旦未婚夫去世,需至夫家行弔礼,并为未婚夫守节[248]。俞氏认为婚礼进行到“亲迎”“同牢合卺”完成后,才可视婚姻关系成立。两种对婚礼仪式截然不同的解释,实质背后所反映的则是婚姻成立的标准问题,俞正燮坚持认为只有男女有“夫妻”之实方可宣告婚姻成立。为了更准确的厘清女性在婚礼中应有的礼制地位,婚礼各项仪意的真实意蕴,俞正燮详考婚礼过程中各项仪式后未婚男女以及两个家庭间的关系。因涉及婚礼中参与各方的人际关系,俞氏从“称谓”变化展开考证,论述他对“夫”“妻”“婿”“妇”等名份的理解,从而厘清婚礼中人物关系,阐发仪意。他对婚礼过程中“成妻”、“成夫”、“成婿”、“成妇”的考论,主要通过详考“纳徵”、“亲迎(合牢同卺)”、“庙见”三礼之间称谓变化完成[249]体育外围。这样,俞氏就通过详考婚礼全部仪式过程,解释了“夫妻”成立标准问题,反对受父权、夫权压迫下所出现的“守贞”。

同时,在解决困扰未嫁女守贞困扰后,俞氏还对已婚女性是否具有离婚权、休婚权[250]、再嫁权等问题展开探讨。中国旧式婚姻解体多属于休婚形式,且休婚权主要由男性掌握。针对婚姻中男女双方所拥有的不对等权利,俞正燮展开了一系列批判。首先,他认为在婚姻中不应只有男性拥有“出妻”的权利,应为“出兼男女”,男女均有休婚权。虽然他提出的“出夫”只局限于“入赘”家庭女性才具有此权利,但仍肯定女性在婚姻中拥有休婚权。其次,他认为女性具有再嫁权,无需固守“从一而终”。为了论证这一观点,他重释“一与之齐,终身不改”一语,认为“按‘妇无二适之文’固也,男亦无再娶之仪!”[251]。然而对于自愿为夫“守节”的行为,他认为“不再嫁者,敬礼之斯可矣”[252]。在是否“守节”问题上,俞正燮区分自愿与被迫“守节”两种不同行为的意义所在,他并非完全反对“守节”行为,而是反对在“贞节”问题上的男女双重道德标准所加诸于女性的不公待遇。

zuihou,yushijiuzhongguochuantongduoouzhihunyintichuzijideguandian。tabingbufanduitiyuwaiweiyuzongfazhidude“naqie”xingwei——jitangruoyingxiangzongdaichuanjiewenti,zhangfuyou“naqie”dequanli。duiyushenghuoyuduoouzhihunyinzhongnvxing,yushilijietamendujixinlidechansheng,tichuzhiyaonvziweiyindujizhishijiatingshihepolie,zezhangfubuyingshanzishiyongxiuhunquan。

除了着大量笔墨探讨女性于婚姻家庭生活中所受不公待遇外,俞正燮还关注女性在社会生活中所受不公,这集中体现在他对女性“社会性别”[253]设置不公的批判上。例如,他就女性称谓、服装、特定职业展开的考证,正是对社会生活中女性“社会性别”表现形态的关注。通过对此以内容的考察,他批评了将带有贬义特征的“社会性别”加诸于女性身上的做法。例如,考察“女”“妻”“婆”“姥”等女性称谓源流进行考察,纠正后世曲解“妻”为“妻者,齐也。与夫齐体”,认为“妻”只不过是质称,天子有后、夫人、嫔妃、世妇、有妻、有妾,所以“妻”并没有“齐体”之意。又如,“娘子”一词“盖初译时以娘子为一家尊称,六朝、唐人相沿,辽、金、元皆承用之。或笑其俚,不知其托意至高也”,批评从“社会性别”角度出发,通过曲解女性称谓来塑造女性低下、从属的社会现象。

chulechengweiyiwai,nvxingsuoteyoudefuzhuangzhuangshiyeshinvxingshehuishenfencunzaidebiaozhizhiyi。mingqingyijiang,tiyuwaiweiguonvxingchanzuzhifengrijianshengxing,qingchutongzhizhecengduocixialingjinzhichanzu,ranshouxiaoshenwei。zhenduizheiyangyizhongqiangponvxingbaochiteyoufushidexingwei,yuzhengxietongguokaochafunv“chanzu”lishi,shulilidaishishujizainvxingxiewadengjilu,xuanyang“guozuzeshidingnv,yinruozeliangyibuwan”desixiang,pipan“chanzu”duifunvshenxinzaochengdeshanghai。mingqingshiqisuoshengxingde“chanzu”,duinvxingshentizaochenglejidadeshanghai,nvxingde“shehuixingbie”yin“chanzu”zheiyitedingfushiyaoqiuergengxiandixia。cishinvxingyiburenweichanzushiduitamendecuican,zaidangshishehuifengqidedaidongxia,xuduonvxingjieshouxiaojiaoweimeideshenmeiguan。yuzhengxiefanfukaozhenglishizhongguanyunvxingxiewadedelunshu,buyanqifandequanjieshiren,jiushixiwangshirennenglejie“chanzu”debianqian,gaibiandangshiniuqudeshenmeiguannian。

体育外围rushangsuoshu,zuoweishenghuoyuqingzhongqidetiyuwaiweiguozaoqiqimengsixiangjia,yuzhengxiedenvxingguanjiaoqiqianbeixuezheyougengguangfandeguanzhumian,suiranqisixianghenduozangniyukaozhengwenzizhizhong,biaodajiaoweiyinhui,danzheibingbunengyangaiqisixiangdeshanguangdian。houshibushaoxuezheshengzanyushitongqingnvxingyanlun,weizhongguojinqiannianlaishougechangdaonannvpingdengdesixiangjia。

体育外围san、shibashijidongxifangxuezhenvxingguanzhibijiao

体育外围shibashijidedongxifangyinlishijinchengdebutong,suobiaoxianchulaideshehuishenghuoxingtaiyegebuxiangtong。shibashijizhongqidefaguo,suizhegongyegemingdejinyibushenru,dapipingminjiecengnvxingkaishicanyushehuishengchan,tamenyunanxingyidaojingzhengshanggang,kaishijieshouzhiyejinengjiaoyu。zichanjiejinvxing,zhengtuozongjiaoshufu,zuzhishalongxuexizirankexueherenwenkexue。kejian,shibashijidefaguoyiyoudapinvxingjinrucengjingzhishuyunanxingduxiangdezhishilingyu。suizhenvxingkaishiburushehuishenghuo,nvxingwentiyededaoshehuideguanzhu,faguoqimengsixiangjiamenkaishiconggegejiaoduguanzhunvxing。

体育外围erzaitongyishiqidedongfang,mingqingdinggeshiqisuobengfachudezaoqiqimengzhiguangbingweisuizhemanqinggaoyatongzhidejianlierxiaoshi,xuezhemenkaishiyiyinhuiquzhedefangshibiaodaduigeren、pingdengdengjiazhidezhuiqiu。junzhuzhuanzhitongzhideqianghua,weiweihushehuijicengdanweijiatingdewending,chaotingkaishidalituixingjingbiaozhidu,shidenvxingshenghuoshoudaogengduoshufu。tamenzichushengdaosiqu,meiyouhunyinzizhuquan,shenghuozhongtingpingfu、fu、zidejueding,huodongjuxianyuqiantinghouyuanxiaxiaokongjiannei,tamendebeicanjingyuyinfaxuezhemendesikao。

suiranshehuilishijinchengxiangyi,danquezaitongyishiqicushidongxifangxuezhesikaotongyigewenti“nvxingdiweiyumingyun”。zaicitiyuwaiweiduimengdesijiuyuyuzhengxiedenvxingguanjinxingbijiao,tamenshicongshenmejiaodutantaonvxingwenti,tamendenvxingguanyouyounaxieyitong。

体育外围mengdesijiukaochanvxingwentidezheyandianshiyunvxingshenghuoxixixiangguandefalvzhidu,taxiwangtongguoyanjiufalvyijiyuyingxiangfalvgeshiwudeguanxilaitantaofadejingshen,yinciyunvxingshenghuoxiangguanfalvshezhijiuchengweiqiyanjiuzhongdian。yuzhengxietantaonvxingwentidezheyandianzhuyaoshilisudequanshidingyi,qiwangtongguozhongshiyunvxingxiangguandelisu,gaibianqingzhongqinvxingsuoshoubupingdengdaiyu。suiranerrenzheyandianfenbieshifalv、lisu,dancierzhezaidangshidongxifangshehuizhongfahuidiaojieshehuizhixudezhongyaozuoyong。

孟德斯鸠和俞正燮所探讨的女性问题均涵盖家庭、社会两大领域,但二人关注重点有所不同,女性观亦有较大不同。首先,在探讨男女两性是否天然平等问题时,孟德斯鸠多次指出女性天生性格缺陷,而俞氏则无此观点。例如在探讨节俭法设立原则时,孟德斯鸠将奢侈淫逸之风的兴起视为女性之责“妇女制定这样的准则得心应手”[254]。同时,他曾多次指出女性性格柔弱所带来的一系列弊端“女性的软弱使她们不傲慢,但却虚荣”[255],“妇女当家既违背理性,又不合天然本性,在家庭里,妇女因柔弱而不占优势”[256],从天然性格层面批评女性,为她们参与社会生活设定一系列限制。俞正燮则多次主张“夫妇合体同尊卑”“阴弱则两仪不完”,强调男女两性天然平等,抨击社会上贬低女性性别低下的言论与礼制。

qici,mengdesijiuyuyuzhengxiedoutantaolenvxingzaihunyinshenghuozhongdeyixiliequanli。ruerrenjuntichunvxingzaihunyinzhongjuyouxiuhunquan,danbutongzaiyumengdesijiuzhuzhangnannvjunxiangyouxiuhunquan,duoouzhidiquzezhiyingnvxingxiangyouxiuhunquan;yuzhengxiezezhizhuzhangjinyouruzhuijiatingnvxingxiangyouxiuhunquan。kejianzaixiuhunquanfangmian,yuzhengxiedeguandianrengzhuzhanghunyinshoujiazuyingxiang,shifouxiangyouxiuhunquan,zhuyaoyichuanyansheijiaxingshiweiyiju。tongli,suiranyushilijienvxingyinzhangfunaqieerchanshengjiduxinli,danrengzhichiweiweihuzongzuchuanyandenaqiexingwei。kejian18shijidezhongguosixiangjiadehunyinguanrengwufatiaochuzongxingchuanyandemude,erfeixiandaihunyinguansuotichangnannvliangqingxiangyuedejiehe。tongshi,mengdesijiurenweinvxingbujubeifuyuzinvdeyiwu,yinweinvxingquefalixingzhinengbuyuernverbunengfuyuqichengren,foudingnvxingweifanyanrenleisuozuochudegongxian。zheiyiguandiandetichu,rengjianlizaiqinannvliangxingtianranxiangyi、nanxingbufenchengdugaoyunvxingdelilunjichu。

18世纪的法国启蒙思想家呼唤自由、平等,号召人民推翻封建专制建立起资产阶级“法治”,然而作为男性思想家,他们虽然意识到女性所受种种不公待遇,并提出给予女性同等权利,但仍旧无法跳出传统意识加之于女性于社会、家庭生活中的种种限定,孟德斯鸠女性观就是典型例证。他认定“法是人类的理性……各国的政治法和公民法只不过是人类理性在各个具体场合的实际应用而已”[257]体育外围,既然法律是人类理性的体现,而女性又不具备理性,则女性没有制定法律的能力。身处于热带地区所形成的家庭奴役被他视为人类理性所服从的“至高原因”,只能给予女性休婚权而无法取消多偶制与幽禁。孟德斯鸠的女性观,反映了男性思想家为争取第三等级女性参与革命,给予女性部分权利,但究其根本仍站在男性立场看待女性问题。

体育外围tongyishiqidezhongguozaoqiqimengsixiangjiayikaishiguanzhunvxingwenti,tamenjiexuqianbeixuezhedui“renqing”“renyu”dekending,diaoshichuyujinzhangzhuangtaideliyuguanxi,tingligerenheliyuqiu,duishehuizhonglizhizhankaitantao。zaizheixiekaochazhong,yuzhengxiezheliweinvxingsuoshoubugongdaiyunahan,huhuanzhongshinvxingyingyoupingdengdaiyu,gengtichu“yinruozeliangyibuwan”deguandian,zheiyuengesizai《fandulinlun》zhongsuoyin“funvjiefangdechengdushihengliangpubianjiefangdetianranbiaochi”youxiangleizhichu。suiranyushicongshehui、jiatingdengzhuduofangmianhuhuanjiyunvxingpingdengdaiyu,dantadehunyinguanyijijiatingguanrengshoufuyuchuantongzongfazhiduyingxiang,weinengjiangnvxingzaihunyinzhongdeyiwuyuchuanzongjiedaixiangfenli。jibianruci,yumengdesijiujiunvxingwentidelunshuxiangjiaoeryan,yuzhengxiedenvxingguanxiandegengjiejin“pingdeng”yiyi。keyituiyan,wusiyilaisuochangdaode“funvjiefang”bingfeixifangde“bolaipin”,zaitiyuwaiweiguochuantongsixiangzhongzaoyishengfachugenya。

tongguoduibishibashijizhongxisixiangjianvxingguankezhi,dongxifangshehuizaimairujindaiguochengzhongbiaoxianchujieranbutongdeqingtai。ouzhouyingongyegeming、qimengyundongdefazhan,sixiangjiagaoju“lixing”qizhiquzhuzhongshijiyilaizhuanzhi、yumei、tequanjirenmindailaidezhongya。zaizhongguo,suiranjunzhuzhuanzhitongzhijiaqiang,jiguyouwenzhifengxingqi,queweijiaoxiwanmingzaoqiqimengsixiangsuobengfachudehuohua,xuezhemenyikaozhengdefangshiyinqudibiaodazhuiqiu “zitiyuwaiwei”“pingdeng”dengjiazhi。nvxingwentizaicishiqichengweisixiangjiamenguanzhudejiaodianzhiyi,ruhegaibiannvxinglilaishoupodeshenghuokunjing,chengweihengliangshehuicongchuantongzouxiangxiandaidezhongyaoyinsu,zaiduinvxingwentidekaochazhong,dongxifangxuezhetongguobutongdelilunjinlu,dechugeyidelilunchengguo。xifangxuezheyunyonglixingpipanjiudeshehuizhidu,lunshurenquanpingdeng,danbushaorenfourennvxingjuyoulixing,tamenchaofengnvxingyouxurong、jiaozha、zuozuo、wuzhidengtexing,shishehuiandingyingjiangnvxingshenghuokongzhiyunanxingjianguanzhixia,xifangnvxingzaicishibingweihuodexiandaiyiyishangde“pingdeng”quanli。ertongyishiqidezhongguo,kaojuxuezhemenyikaozhengdefangshibiaodadui“pingdeng”“renquan”dengxiandaixingjiazhidezhuiqiu,youqishizainvxingwentishang,bushaoxuezhezhuzhangquxiaojiazhuyunvxingshenshangdebugongdaiyu,changdaohuifuxianqinrujiasuoshi“heti,tongzunbei”denannvlizhiguanxi,xitaijinshiyinjunzhuzhuanzhijiaqiangerzhinvxingsuoshoudeyazhi。suishuocishizhongguoqimengxuezhedenvxingguanyujinrinvquanyundongsuotichangderengyouyidingdechaju,dankeyikendingdeshixiandaixingsixiangbingfeixifangbolaipin,zaizhongguochuantongsixiangzhongyiyougenya。

xueshuxinren

现象学视域中的“濠梁之辩”

——试以胡塞尔的交互主体性现象学回应惠子

曾允*

内容提要: 在濠梁之辩中惠子持一种不可知论立场,通过分析可以发现这一不可知论以唯体育外围论为支撑。本文试图基于胡塞尔的交互主体性现象学,尤其是对他人经验的现象学描述来对惠子的唯体育外围论做出尝试性回应;同时对于胡塞尔他人理论的相关争论本文也将为胡塞尔做相应辩护,并将这些辩护进一步运用于惠子的情景,从而对其唯体育外围论做出更好回应。此外在上述回应中,本文也尝试提供一种中西哲学比较和对话的新思路,即以西方哲学中的理论方法来回应体育外围传统文化和哲学中的问题和困境。

关键词: 庄子濠梁之辩 交互主体性现象学 唯体育外围论 他人

benwenzhuzhishiyaojizhongguanzhuhuizizaiqibukezhilunbeihousuoyinzangdeweitiyuwaiweilunqingxiang,bingshituconghusaierdejiaohuzhutixingxianxiangxuelichang,youqiliyongqi《dikaerchensi》zhongduitarenjingyandejutixianxiangxuemiaoshulaiduihuizizuochuhuiying。tongshizhexuewentiyingdangshigonggongde,zaishangshuhuiyingzhongbenwenyechangshitigongyizhongzhongxizhexuebijiaoheduihuadexinsilu,jiyixifangzhexuedelilunfangfalaihuiyingtiyuwaiweichuantongzhexuezhongdewentihekunjing。

一、惠子的唯体育外围论困境及其回应途径

体育外围zhuangziyuhuizide“haoliangzhibian”jianyu《zhuangzi·qiushui》pian:

之上。庄子曰: “鲦鱼出游从容,是也。”惠子曰: “,安知鱼之乐?”庄子曰: “子非体育外围,安知体育外围不知鱼之乐?”惠子曰: “体育外围非子,固不知子矣;子固非鱼也,子不知鱼之乐,全矣。”庄子曰: “请循其本。子曰汝安知鱼乐云者,既已知吾知之而问体育外围,体育外围知之也。[258]

yibanrenweihuizizaicichiyizhongbukezhilunlichang,yinweiqijielun(tiyuwaiweifeizi,gubuzhiziyi;zigufeiyu,zibuzhiyuzhile)mingxianbiaoxianchuyizhongbukezhilunqingxiang。danzheiyijielunshijiyiweitiyuwaiweilunweijichu,qibukezhilunzhengshizheizhongweitiyuwaiweilunlichangdebiaoxianhuojieguo。duiciketongguofenxikanchu:

首先,惠子的不可知论表现在对“体育外围(惠子)知道他人”(庄子)和“你(庄子)知道他物(鱼)”的双重否定上。这两方面存在逻辑关系: 惠子认为庄子不可能知鱼之乐,因为庄子作为另一个体育外围(第二人称的“体育外围”,即“你”)不能超出自身达到他物,因而也就不可能知道他物;而惠子持此观点的理由源于对自身情况的一种类比[259],即就像体育外围(惠子)不能超出自身知道作为外部他人的庄子一样,庄子也不可能知道同样处于外部的他物。因此在惠子的结论中“体育外围非子”这一层面更根本,是惠子认为“子不知鱼之乐”的基础。其次,对“体育外围非子”这一层面的进一步分析可以揭示出惠子所潜含的唯体育外围论立场,即惠子将“体育外围”看作一个彻底封闭的“单子”,它被困于自身领域内而无法超出自身达到对外部他人的认识——正是基于这种认识论上的唯体育外围论[260],惠子否定体育外围认识他人的可能性,再进而否定对他物的认识可能性;结果无论第一人称性的体育外围还是第二人称性的体育外围(你)都被局限于自身封闭领域内,这最终导致了其不可知论。

另一方面,胡塞尔的先验现象学也常被误认为一种唯体育外围论,因为它“要求在由先验还原的自体育外围所展开的构造问题和理论框架的形式中去解决客观世界的先验问题”[261],而经过现象学悬搁(对一切非本己性的东西的悬搁和排除)之后,先验自体育外围似乎就成了“唯一的体育外围”。但胡塞尔强调这是一种误解,为此他在其《笛卡尔沉思》的第五沉思中集中探讨了他人问题,其整体思路是,立足先验自体育外围的本己性领域对他人经验做出具体的现象学描述,再由他人走向不同自体育外围(单子)的共同体化,在交互主体性的意义上揭示整个先验存在领域,从而反驳认为先验现象学陷入唯体育外围论困境的误解。

neimeruguozhanzaixianyanxianxiangxuehejiaohuzhutixingxianxiangxuedelichangshang,youqishijiezhuhusaierduitarenjingyandejutixianxiangxuemiaoshu,tiyuwaiweinengfou、youruhehuiyinghuizideweitiyuwaiweilun,zheijiangshibenwendehexinwenti。

二、对他人的经验“机制”的现象学描述

体育外围husaierduitarenjingyandejutixianxiangxuemiaoshukekanzuoshiduitiyuwaiweiyixiangtarendemouzhong“jizhi”dejieshi,xiawenderenwujiuzaiyutongguogaikuozheiyijizhibingyunyongyuhuiziqingxingzhong,jinerduiqiweitiyuwaiweilunhebukezhilunzuochuhuiying。

(一)起点: 向本己性领域的还原

现象学的“明见性(Evidenz)”要求避免把作为结论的东西误当作前提来使用,因此胡塞尔一开始就要求把一切与他人直接或间接相关的意向性成果悬搁,即排除所有由先验自体育外围构造出来的作为陌生者的东西。通过这一悬搁,先验自体育外围展示出它一种普遍构造的本质结构,在其中先验自体育外围不断展开并超越自身。此结构中包含一种指向陌生者的意向性,但现在仍不清楚的是,“体育外围的本己性自体育外围如何能够在其本己性中以他人经验的名义把陌生者构造出来”[262],即体育外围是如何构造他人的?

要回答此问题首先需要更仔细考察先验自体育外围的本己性领域。为此胡塞尔又提出“本己性(Eigenheits)还原”[263]——向先验自体育外围的本己性领域的还原,它通过悬搁一切作为“陌生者(Fremdes)”东西而在体育外围的纯粹经验的视界域内界定“体育外围—本己”的东西。由此得到的是作为先验自体育外围相关物层面上的“世界”,即“一个持续和谐地、连续不断地经验世界的先验相关物的层面”[264],这便是纯粹自体育外围意识的本己性领域。胡塞尔强调它本质上起一种奠基作用,是回答他人问题的起点。

体育外围huidaohuizideqingxingzhong。jiyuhusaierdelichangtiyuwaiweikenenghuitongyihuizicong“tiyuwaiwei”chufadezuofa,danbixukandao: butongshouxianzaiyuhusaierde“tiyuwaiwei”shixianyanzitiyuwaiwei,erqieqiqishilingyushijingguobenjixinghaiyuandedaodetiyuwaiweidebenjixinglingyu,yaoliyongxianxiangxueduihuizideweitiyuwaiweilunzuochuhuiying,yebixucongyikaishijiurushangshuneibanduihuizide“tiyuwaiwei”zuochuyangedexianxiangxuexianding;qici,huizicongtiyuwaiweichufasuihouzouxianglebukezhilun,danhusaierzerenweicongtiyuwaiweidebenjixinglingyuchufanenggoujieshichuxianyanzitiyuwaiweishiruhegouzaochutarende。

(二)他人的构造

体育外围tiyuwaiweiduitarendegouzaojizhihuoguochengkegaishuweiyixiasanhuanjie: shouxianshiduitarende“quti”deganzhihegouzao;qicishizaicijichushangjiangciqutijingyanwei“shenti”;zuihoushijiangbentiyuwaiweidezitiyuwaiweitongguo“tonggan”yirutarenshentizhong,congerzuizhonggouzaochutaren:

1.duitarende“quti(köper)”detongwo(apprehension)

对他人的构造的第一阶段是“对一个出现在体育外围的原真性周围世界中作为另一个自体育外围身体的躯体的统觉”[265],即他人首先作为一个出现在体育外围本己性领域内的躯体被体育外围感知和统摄: 对他人躯体的统摄包含当下被给予之物(体育外围当下关注的躯体侧面)和非当下之物(体育外围未关注到的躯体其他侧面),其中当下不在场的侧面作为背景包围着体育外围当下关注的侧面并通过体育外围的观察点转换而由不在场转换为在场,体育外围正是通过如此统摄它们而把握到此躯体整体的[266]。这与体育外围对自然物的统摄一样都主要涉及空间感知,因此在这一阶段体育外围只是把他人作为一个单纯的躯体、即外部物理事物来经验。

2.jiangtarendequtijingyanwei“shenti(leib)”

通过本己性还原体育外围得到一个作为先验自体育外围相关物的“世界”,从中可以分离出一个本己性的“纯粹自然”的基础层,在它所包含的众多躯体中体育外围又可以找到那个独属于体育外围的躯体——体育外围的“身体”,它作为一个自体育外围在其中起主宰作用的心灵—物理统一体不同于躯体[267]体育外围。要将他人的躯体经验为身体,意味着它也应当具有与体育外围的身体一样的“意义”,但在“纯粹自然”里的一切躯体中首先只有体育外围的躯体是身体,他人躯体之所以能被体育外围统握为身体是通过一种特殊的“意义转移(Sinnesübertragung)”——“结对”——实现的。

“结对(Paarung)”被胡塞尔看作先验领域的一种普遍现象,是作为联想的同一化的被动综合的一种原始形式,其本质特征在于: “在最原始的情况中,两个予料在一个意识的统一性中以突出的方式直观地被给予,据此,它们本质上已经在纯被动性中——无论它们是否被注意到——作为不同的显现者而在现象学上论证着一个相似性的统一,也就是说,它们始终是作为对子而被构造起来的”[268]。胡塞尔认为他人经验是结对的最佳范例[269]: 在他人经验中,结对发生在体育外围对作为体育外围的身体的躯体在那里时的“当前化(Gegenwrätigung)”与在那里对体育外围“显现”的作为物理事物的躯体之间[270],其结果是“在发生学上(而且在本质上)立即呈现出一种意向的交叠,更进一步说,一种根据对象意义的生动的相互的自身唤醒,一种彼此延及对方的自身吻合”[271],从而实现意义转移——体育外围对本己身体的主宰作用转移到被呈现的躯体上,后者获得从体育外围的躯体派生出来的作为身体的意义,由此被构造为一个身体。

3.“同感(Einfühlung)[272]

结对也使“同感”成为可能: 结对引起体育外围的身体与陌生身体之间的“相互自身唤醒”和“意义交迭”,并使体育外围的“这个自体育外围必须按照联想的整个意义给予过程而被必然地共现为处于在那里的样式中的现在共此在的自体育外围(好像假如体育外围在那里一样)”[273]。通过“好像假如体育外围在那里一样”的当前化,体育外围把在这里的体育外围的自体育外围“移入”在那里的陌生身体中。这种移入便是“同感”,正是它使得陌生身体最终被共现为“另一个自体育外围”,也就是他人。

胡塞尔强调对他人的经验有两个特征: 一是当体育外围经验他人时他是活生生地在体育外围面前的;二是在体育外围的经验中本原地被给予的并不直接是他人本身,体育外围无法直接通达他人的本己性领域,否则他人会完全等同于体育外围[274]。这种“不可直接通达性”意味着体育外围对他人的经验是间接的,这不仅体现在结对和同感要以“假如体育外围在那里”的当前化为中介间接达到,而且体现在对他人经验的“证实”上,即他人原来不可通达的经验是间接在体育外围的经验中得到确认的。胡塞尔认为,对他人的原本不可通达的东西的共现(Appräsentation)是与一种“原本的现出”(在体育外围本己性经验领域内对“假如体育外围在那里”的当前化)结合在一起的,在这种结合中他人身体中那个支配性的自体育外围以“内在超越”的方式被给予,并在“非直观的期待形式”中以进一步的具有内在超越性的经验相一致的方式而间接地被“证实”。须注意这是一个系列性的过程,即前面的一致又使体育外围做进一步期待,并在后续经验中继续寻求证实,在此过程中他人的身体需不断表明自己是一个既变化又始终协调的身体;而当这种一致性出现中断(与体育外围期待不符)时体育外围的证实也随之中断,转而反思对方的“他人身份”并寻求进一步证实。陌生者的特征正是以这种原本不可通达但现在可证实的通达性的方式中找到根据的,而且正是由于他人本己性领域的不可直接通达性,胡塞尔再次强调他人并不是对体育外围的简单复制,体育外围对他人的经验是一种特殊的“类比”[275],且需要根据经验的变化而不断做出修正。

jiangshangshuhusaierdelilunyunyongyuhuizideqingxingzhong: shouxiantiyuwaiwei(huizi)keyizaijingbenjixinghaiyuandedaodeshijiezhongfenlichuziranzheiyijichuceng,ranhoucongtabaohandezhongduoqutizhongzhaodaodushuyutiyuwaiweideshenti。dangzuoweitarendezhuangzichuxianzaitiyuwaiweideganzhilingyuneishi,tiyuwaiweishouxianjiangtazuoweiqutijiayitongwo,ranhoutongguojieduibatiyuwaiweidebenjishentideyiyizhuanyidaozhuangzidequtishang,shiqibeijingyanweilingyigeshenti,zuihouzaitongguotongganbatiyuwaiweidezheigezitiyuwaiweiyiruzhuangzideshentinei,congershizhuangzibeigouzaoweiyutiyuwaiweiyiyangdelingyigezitiyuwaiwei,jitaren。suirantiyuwaiweiwufazhijietongdazhuangzidebenjixinglingyu,dantiyuwaiweikeyitongguo“yizhongjuyoubenjidezhengmingfenggedejingyan”laibuduanzhengshi,bingzaijingyanchuxianbuyizhishijinxingxiuzheng,congerbaozhengtiyuwaiweiduitarendegouzaodeyouxiaoxing。yinci,huiziyoutiyuwaiweiyutarendebutong(tiyuwaiweifeizi)erjiangtiyuwaiweikanzuoshiyigewanquanfengbidedanzibingcongerxianruweitiyuwaiweilunshicuowude。

三、同感的更高阶段及交互主体共同体

(一)心理活动领域内的同感

体育外围xuzhuyideshi,huizideweitiyuwaiweilunshirenshilunerfeibentilunshangde,yinweitabingbumingquefourenzhuangzizheiyitarendecunzai,zhishiqiangdiaozhuangzidemouzhongxinlizhuangtai(zhiyuzhile)shitiyuwaiweiwufazhidaode。ershangwenzhongduitarengouzaojizhidejieshiheyunyongzhihuidaletarenruhetongguotiyuwaiweideyixianggouzaodeyizuoweilingyigezitiyuwaiweiercunzai,genggaocengcishangdetarenxinlihuodonglingyunengfouweitiyuwaiweisuozhihaixujinyibujieshi。

同感最初确实发生在身体层面,即“通过对另一个人的身体状况特别是对他的身体行为的理解而形成”[276]。但胡塞尔肯定在更高的心理活动领域也存在同感,而且其形成“又具有它们综合的相互关联外观及过程形式”[277]: 心理活动的含义首先可以在身体方面以及如喜怒哀乐等外在行为中被引发和表明,对此“体育外围能够通过对体育外围本己的经验上可靠的生活风格的联想加以理解”[278];然后被引发的心理方面又激起对身体行为的进一步期待,如果他人身体的这些进一步行为举止确实被体育外围经验到并且与体育外围的期待相一致,那么“它就证实了体育外围的以往被引发的对心理方面的共现,并且它可能再次引发体育外围的以往被引发的心理方面的某些其他内容,这些内容本身又转而引发出体育外围对这些可感知的举止之某些进一步方式的期待”[279]——对他人心理活动的同感及其证实正是在心理活动与身体行为举止之间循环地持续进行的。必须承认心理方面的同感要更复杂,心理活动与其外在表现并不总是一致的[280]体育外围,但这些特殊情形并不能否定原则上在大多情况中可以通过双方的关联而同感到他人心理层面的可能性;而且这种不一致也再一次强调了他人本己领域是体育外围不能直接通达的,体育外围无法对他人的心理层面进行直接“呈现”,只能通过与自己本己性经验的对照而对其进行“共现”,这种共现与身体层面一样也需在持续性过程中进行证实,并在出错时不断自体育外围修正。

jutidaohaoliangzhibianshang: tiyuwaiwei(huizi)keyishouxiangenjuzishendebenjixingjingyanduizhaozhuangzidemouxieshentifangmiandexingweibiaoxianerquerenzhuangzitihuidaolemouzhongkuailedexinqing,ranhoucongzheixiewaizaibiaoxianfanhuitiyuwaiweidebenjijingyan,tongguo“lianxiang”duizhuangzizhisuoyigandaoyukuaidexinliyuanyinzuochujieshi,bingduixiangyingdeshentihexingweifangmiandeqitabiaoxianyezuochujinyibuqidaihexunqiuzhengshi。ruguoyuqidaixiangfu,neimetiyuwaiweiduizhuangzixinlizhuangtaidetongganjiudeyibeizhengshi,bingzaihouxujingyanzhongxunqiujinyibuzhengshi;ruguoyuqidaibuxiangfu,neimetiyuwaiweijiuzhuanerduizijidejieshiheqidaizuochuxiuzheng,bingzhongxinxunqiuzhengshi。

(二)交互主体共同体

基于上述内容,胡塞尔进一步走向“单子的共同体化”(Monadengemeinschaft),即一个交互主体意义上的共同体。他首先通过一种涉及单个对象中的呈现者(体育外围)和共现者(他人)的共同联合的行为——“共感知(Mit-wahrnehmung)”来说明“体育外围原本领域的躯体和确实在其他自体育外围中全然分隔地构造的躯体的同一”[281],再由这种同一性说明他人身体的客观性;然后进一步将这种客观性的“意义添加”从他人身体扩展到整个“周遭环境”和“世界”,即由于他人“介入”到体育外围的世界,体育外围的本己性领域与他人的本己性领域有了意向交汇的可能性。这种可能的意向(视域)交汇带来两方面意义,这也正是胡塞尔通过单子共同体化所要强调的: 一方面他人使体育外围的世界转变为一个真正的客观世界,因为“只有当体育外围经验到他人所经验的和体育外围所经验的是同一个对象时,体育外围才能真正将这些对象经验为客观和真实的”[282];另一方面体育外围自身也发生了转变,体育外围认识到在体育外围与他人的“原初的交互共存”中体育外围只是世界的一个部分,“他人把体育外围从‘体育外围的’世界中驱逐出来……在构造方面体育外围并不占据任何特权地位”[283]体育外围,而是与其他可能主体相平等的。

jiyuzheizhongjiaohuzhutixinglichangkeyigengmingxiankanchuhuiziweitiyuwaiweilundejuxian: huizifourentiyuwaiweilijietarendekenengxing,yinciyejiufoudingletiyuwaiweiyutarendadao“gongshi”dekenengxing;tongshiyouyupaichuletaren,huizisuoyongyoudezhishiyigechunzhuguan(dangezhuti)deshijie,qikeguanxingwufabaozheng。erhusaierde“danzigongtongti”zenengjiaohaodihuiyingzheiliangzhongjuxian: yifangmian,zaitiyuwaiweigouzaochutarenzhihou,tarendejierushitiyuwaiweiyutarenzhijiancunzaikenengdeyixiangjiaohui,butongdanzijiandeshiyujiaohuishide“gongshi”chengweikeneng;lingyifangmian,butongdanzijiandejiaohuzuoyongyeshi“keguanshijieruhebeigouzaochulai”zheiyiwentidedaohuida,jishijieshitongguoxianyanzhutijiandegongtonggouzaoerdadaode,tajuyouyizhongxianyanzhutijianyiyishangde“keguanxing”。

体育外围zhici,benwenjiyuhusaierdetarenlilunhejiaohuzhutixingxianxiangxueduihuizideweitiyuwaiweilunzuochulechangshixinghuiying。buguohuiguotoulaifansi,husaierdezheixielilunbenshenshifoukekao,hourenyouweiheyaoduitajinxingjiliepiping,zheixiewentitongyangshiguanbenwenduihuizidehuiyingdehelixing,yinciyexuzhezhongtantao。

四、对胡塞尔的批评与回应

对胡塞尔他人理论的批评集中于两点: 第一点以海德格尔和萨特为代表,认为胡塞尔局限于认识论领域而忽略了他人问题的存在论意义。海德格尔基于其此在论强调“此在的存在之领会中已包含有对他人的领会……这不是一种由认识而得出的知识,而是一种源始生存论上的存在方式……自体育外围识认以源始地有所领会的共在为基础。”[284];具体到同感问题上,他也强调对他人的经验和同感以共在为基础,胡塞尔由体育外围再走向体育外围和他人的共在实为一种本末倒置。萨特认为“胡塞尔在体育外围的存在和他人的存在之间建立的唯一联系就是认识的联系”[285],但他人对体育外围具有存在论意义,他使体育外围的“世界”发生了改变,因为他人也是一个“世界的中心”,世界的诸对象不仅朝向体育外围也朝向他人聚合;同时通过对“注视”现象的现象学描述(在注视现象中体育外围被他人注视比体育外围注视他人更根本),萨特强调“主体性他人”,而非胡塞尔意义上(由体育外围构造出来)的对象性他人,才是他人的原始身份,体育外围与他人的最基本关系是体育外围与这种主体性他人的关系。

第二种批评针对的是胡塞尔的“他人”概念本身: 胡塞尔的他人更准确的说应当是“他体育外围”(另一个体育外围),但这一将他人等同于他体育外围的做法不仅理由不够充分(仅根据字面含义[286]),而且也使其“单子共同体”成了“同一个自体育外围的群体化: 自体育外围与他体育外围,主体和陌生主体,实际上是同一个自体育外围,只不过它(通过同感)时而在此时而在彼罢了”[287]。这种批评以列维纳斯最为典型,他强调他人的“绝对性”,并以对“面容”的现象学描述来说明: “体育外围既不是通过直观,也不是通过胡塞尔交互主体性现象学所说的移情或结对联想,而是通过体育外围意识权能性的一种根本的受挫感才经验到他人的面容”[288],只有在感受到它在抵制成为体育外围的直观对象、拒绝体育外围主题化时,体育外围才能确定地知道体育外围所注视的是一个活生生的面容,而不是面具——这种对体育外围的主题化的拒绝正是他人绝对性的体现。

体育外围liangzhongpipingdehexindouzaiyuduitarendeqiangdiao,bingfanduihusaieryoutiyuwaiweizaidaotarendechulifangshi,renweizheidaozhitarenzaijiaohuzhutixingzhongyifuyutiyuwaiwei,yinerbingweizhenzhengbaituoweitiyuwaiweilun。dantiyuwaiweikeyizhendui“tiyuwaiwei”he“taren”fenbieweihusaierzuoliangdianbianhu:

关于自体育外围,首先在逻辑起点上胡塞尔的“体育外围”不同于唯体育外围论的经验性自体育外围,它是通过现象学还原得到的先验自体育外围,其一个突出特征在于具有一种构造功能,虽然胡塞尔确实强调这种构造功能在认识论中的作用,但这并不意味着他没有看到由先验自体育外围所构造出来的他人的本体论意义,即被构造出来的他人将体育外围拉出世界的中心,使体育外围成为与其他主体相平等的构造者。其次,虽然每一个作为单子的先验自体育外围确实是首先自身给予地构造自身再进而构造出他人,但“每一个单子,只要它在其存在中意向地‘构造了’其他单子,它就无法离开其他单子存在”[289]而必须走向单子共同体,在其中单子不是单数而是复数的,上述构造也不再是单向的,体育外围在构造他人的同时他人也在构造着体育外围,单子共同体相互间的双向构造意味着每一个单子都既是主体又是客体。

胡塞尔强调先验自体育外围本己性领域的优先性也并不意味着对他人他性的不尊重,相反他基于这种优先性强调,作为另一个先验自体育外围的他人的原初本己性领域是体育外围无法直接通达的,因此体育外围才只能通过结对和同感而间接达到他人;而且也正因这种不可直接通达性体育外围才永远不可能成为和替代他人,而只能从体育外围自身出发尽可能认识和理解他人,并在自己的理解出现误差时做出“修正”。另一方面,列维纳斯对他人绝对性的过分强调也存在问题,尽管他的这一做法与其通过对面容的实际回应、对绝对性他人的责任担当而由“伦理关系”走向“伦理学的现象学”的主张相关,但由于他强调只有消除体育外围与他人的认知意向性关系才能使他人成为他人本身,在他看来就“既不需要证明他人如何呈现,也不用证明他人是否存在,他只是坚定地为他人的他性作辩护”[290],但如此一来“体育外围如何能够认识和理解他人”这一问题也就被回避掉并在认识论层面上变得不可知了。

jiangshangshupipingyunyongyuhuizishenshang,tiyuwaiweikeyishexiangtakenenghuijiyu“tarendetaxing”weizijidebukezhilunzuobianhu: zuoweijueduitarendezhuangzishitiyuwaiwei(huizi)wufatongdade,tiyuwaiweizhishijiangtiyuwaiweizishenjingyanleibihetaoyongzaitashenshang,erzheizhongtaoyonghenkenengzhishitiyuwaiweizijideyixiangqingyuan。danjiyushangshuweihusaierdebianhu,tiyuwaiweiyekeyizuoruxiafanbo: shouxian,zheizhongyoutiyuwaiweijitadejingyanfangshiqueshishejixiangsixing,dantabunenghuntongyutongchangyiyishangdeleibi,tashejideshiyizhongteshudeyiyi“zhuanhuan”(xiangjiandi6yezhu①);qici,suizhemeigexianyanzitiyuwaiweicongzishenzouxiangdanzigongtongti,gongtongtineibudejiaohuzuoyongshizheiyiguochengshishuangxiangde,tashisuoyouxianyanzitiyuwaiweideyizhongpubiandeyixiangbenzhijiegou,yincibujintiyuwaiweishirucijingyanzhuangzi,zhuangziyeshirucijingyantiyuwaiweide;zuihou,tiyuwaiweiqueshibukenengchengweitaren,yinweitarenshitiyuwaiweiwufazhijietongdade,dantiyuwaiweiyebubiyebuyingchengweitaren,tiyuwaiweiyingdangzuodeshicongtiyuwaiweizishenchufajinkenengdadaoduitarenderenshihelijie,ruguohuizijianchitarendejueduixing(tiyuwaiweibunengchengweitaren)erfangqiqurenshihelijietaren,neimetiyuwaiweiqueshiwufaduizheizhongpianzhiqiejiduandebukezhilunzuochuchedihuiying,danbixushuodeshizheiyangdebukezhilunshihaowujiazhide,yinweitazaiyikaishijiufangqileyutarendadaolijieheduihuadekeneng。

五、结语

tongguoshangshukaocha,benwenduihuizizaihaoliangzhibianzhongsuobiaoxianchulaideweitiyuwaiweilunhebukezhilunzuochulechangshixinghuiying,zheiyihuiyingyiduitarendejingyanweihexin,jijiyuhusaierduitarenjingyandeyixiangjizhidejieshihemiaoshulaizuochufanbo——zhengrubenwensuobiaomingde,conghusaierdejiaohuzhutixingxianxiangxuelaikan,huizibazitiyuwaiweikanzuoyigefengbi“danzi”jinerrenweiwaibutarenbukezhideweitiyuwaiweilunshibuhelide。tongshi,tarenwentiyouyuzhijiexiangguanjiaohuzhutixingyizhishixianxiangxueyanjiuderedianhezhongdian,houshidezhuduoxianxiangxuejiajiyugezililunduihusaiertichulepipingbingzaibutongchengdushangzhuazhuleqimouxiequexian,dantiyuwaiweibingbuyingdangyinciquanpanfoudinghusaier,weicibenwenduizheixiepipingzuolexiangyinghuiying。danbenwenyebingfeizhuzhanghusaierdetarenlilunwanshanwuque,yaogenghaojiejuetarenhejiaohuzhutixingwentihaixugengjinyibuyanjiu,gucibenwendehuiyinggengyingdangkanzuoshichangshixingde。

tongshi,zaishangshuhuiyingzhongbenwenyeshituxunzhaoyizhongzhongxizhexuebijiaoheduihuadexinsilu: qubieyuguowangtongguohongdafangmiandehengxiangduibiyiqizhaodaozhongxiwenhuahezhexuedegongtongdianhuochayixing,benwenshitutongguozhuazhutamengongtongmianduidewenti,bingtongguojiejianxifangzhexuedelilunhefangfacongzongxiangshangqieru,congerweitiyuwaiweijiejuezheixiegongtongwentitigongyizhongxinshiyuhexinsilu。xiangjiaoeryan,zheizhongxindeduihuafangshigengcongxijieshangzheshou,gengnengmianduiwentibenshen,yegengnengtixianzhongxibijiaosuodailaidejiejianyiyi,yincibufangzuoweiguowangfangfadeyizhongbiyaobuchonghezhongxizhexuezhijiantiyuwaiweideyizhongyouyichangshi。


*竹村牧男,日本东洋大学教授、校长。

*体育外围笑思,本名杨效斯,旅美华人学者。

[①]体育外围天下正治,与国家偏治相对照。这个巨大的题目,需要另外的专著来详加说明。

*体育外围吴泓缈,武汉大学法语系、武汉大学语言与信息研究中心教授。

[②]体育外围郭齐勇先生说: “‘仁’是孔子思想的中心观念,也是中国哲学的中心范畴之一。孔子一般不直接说‘仁’是什么,正如老子一般不直接说‘道’是什么一样。这也是中国哲学的方式。”《中国儒学之精神》,复旦大学出版,2009年版,第113页。.

[③]François Jullien,Chemin faisant,体育外围Seuil, Paris, 2007, p. 39.

[④]体育外围见刘清平,《忠孝与仁义》,复旦大学出版社,2012年版,第46页。该书清楚地阐述了“仁”是孔子“评判道德善恶的基本标准”,“是一种包容各种德行于一身的总合德性,甚至用它从整体上指称人的高尚道德品质”。

[⑤]体育外围本文倾向于共时性维度,所以不再讨论关于"仁"的另一种写法。

[⑥]体育外围Sophie Faure,“以人/仁为本的挑战”,武汉大学法语系系列讲座之一,2006,5.

[⑦]体育外围在文献学或考古学中,也有直接译为“辞典”、“词汇”或“主题词表”的。

[⑧]体育外围重庆《大公报》星期论文,1930,11.

[⑨]体育外围《孝与中国文化》,人民出版社,2001年版,第7页。

[⑩]刘清平,同上,第55页。

[11]体育外围见吴根友论孟子“爱有等差”的原则,“儒家‘仁爱’思想论纲”,《求道·求真·求通》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第6-7页。

[12]O.Jacob,L’un et l’Autre, 1986.

[13]François Jullien,Les Transformations silencieuses, Grasset, 2009.

*体育外围王林伟,武汉大学中国传统文化研究中心讲师。

*体育外围邹晓东,山东大学儒学高等研究院助理研究员。

[14]参考: 谢文郁: 《自由与生存: 西方思想史上的自由观追踪》导言,上海: 世纪/上海人民出版社,2007年;以及谢文郁: 《基督教真理观及西方思想史上的真理观》,许志伟主编: 《基督教思想评论》第三辑,上海: 上海人民出版社,2006年。

[15]参考: 郑家栋: 《“中国哲学”与现代性》,《哲学研究》,2005(2),第51页。

[16]谢文郁教授在一篇演讲中尝试把真理问题置于儒学的突出位置上。可参考: 谢文郁: 《善的生活需要真理吗?——从儒家仁义礼智信谈起》,庞朴主编: 《儒林.2011》,济南: 山东大学出版社,2011年。此外,本文的写作还深深受益于谢文郁《建构和解构: 儒耶在张力中互动》一文(载于罗秉祥、谢文郁主编: 《儒耶对谈: 问题在哪里?》(下),桂林: 广西师范大学出版社,2010年,第519—545页)。

[17]基尔克果: 《哲学片断》,1: 1。(“1: 1”,表示第一章第一自然段,其余类推;本文理解及引用依据这个版本: Kierkegaard,Philosophical Fragments., trans. byHoward V. Hong. & Edna H. Hong., Princeton University Press, 1985。)

[18]体育外围基尔克果: 《哲学片断》,1: 1。

[19]基尔克果: 《哲学片断》,1: 1。

[20]基尔克果: 《哲学片断》,1: 2。

[21]基尔克果: 《哲学片断》,1: 2。

[22]王阳明、朱熹皆以《大学》“明德”为《中庸》之“性”,这个解释传统影响深远,但绝非颠扑不破。请参考拙作: 《〈大学〉“明德”: 起点还是境界?》,即出。

[23]体育外围徐复观强调: 格物与天下平之间的媒介体(其他六条目)绝非虚设,每两者之间实须增加新的因素。参考: 徐复观: 《中国人性论史》,上海: 华东师范大学出版社,2005年,第170—171页。

[24]体育外围关于《大学》“诚其意”。《大学》作者注意到: 每一个被获得的原则(作为一个“知”),对当事人来说都是一个带有道德压力的“意”,它要求当事人遵行。但人同时又会有与这些原则—知—意相违的欲望。心志不坚定者往往会屈从诱惑,而置原则—知—意的压力于不顾。按照《大学》的术语,这种状况被称为“意不诚”。论到这个问题,《大学》可谓不惜笔墨,活灵活现地向读者勾画了一幅“意不诚”的“小人”形象。与此同时,《大学》向读者发出号召: “君子必诚其意!”即: 君子应当顺从原则—知—意的压力而行。

[25]体育外围在《〈大学章句〉中的“出发点丧失”问题》(《周易研究》,2011(5))这篇文章中,笔者曾指出: “天命之性”相当于“自己”或“真正的自己”。可参考。

[26]基尔克果: 《哲学片断》,1: 4。英译原文: The temporal point of departure is a nothing, because in the same moment I discover that I have known the truth from eternity without knowing it, in the same instant that moment is hidden in the eternal, assimilated into it in such a way that I, so to speak, still cannot find it even if I were to look for it, because there is no Here and no There, but only anubique et nusquam体育外围[everywhere and nowhere].

[27]体育外围参考: 王守仁: 《王阳明全集》卷三十三,上海: 上海古籍出版社,1992年,第1223、1224页。据王阳明后来回忆,他当初这样做的乃是在严格贯彻朱学精神。他说: “众人只说格物要依晦翁,何曾把他的说去用?体育外围着实曾用来。”(《王阳明全集》卷三,上海: 上海古籍出版社,1992年,第120页。)

[28]参考: 王守仁撰: 《王阳明全集》,第1223—1225页。

[29]体育外围王守仁撰: 《王阳明全集》,第1226、1228页。

[30]体育外围王守仁: 《王阳明全集》卷二十六,上海: 上海古籍出版社,1992年,第969页。

[31]王守仁: 《王阳明全集》卷二十六,上海: 上海古籍出版社,1992年,第968页。

[32]基尔克果: 《哲学片断》,1: 1。

[33]体育外围两处引文分别见: 《语类》百二十四,吴必大录;《文集》三十四,《答吕伯恭》九十四。需要指出的是,朱熹的批评并简单非出于门户之见的义气之争。他不是直接给陆氏学派贴上“禅学”标签简单了事,而是在批评中表达了自己的问题与担忧。体育外围想指出的是,朱熹的问题与担忧从其境界论意识而来。

[34]参考基尔克果: 《哲学片断》,1: 7。

[35]体育外围基尔克果: 《哲学片断》,1:8—9,1:17—20。还可参考《新约·约翰福音》第3章,耶稣与尼哥底母论重生一段。解释可参考: 谢文郁: 《道路与真理: 解读〈约翰福音〉的思想史密码》,上海: 华东师范大学出版社,2012年。

[36]基尔克果: 《哲学片断》,1: 19。

[37]体育外围韩愈《原道》基本上不涉及起点论问题。透过这篇文字,体育外围能充分体会到,儒家与佛老在什么是人应当追求的最高境界这个问题上,存在尖锐对立。

[38]参考: 冯友兰: 《〈大学〉为荀学说》,罗根泽编: 《古史辨四》,上海: 上海古籍出版社,1982年;冯友兰: 《中国哲学史》上册,上海: 华东师范大学出版社,2000年,第268—269页;冯友兰: 《中国哲学史新编》中,北京: 人民出版社,1998年,第141—150页。以及: 郭沫若: 《儒家八派的批判》,《十批判书》,北京: 东方出版社(据人民出版社1982版编校再版),1996年,第126—130页。以及: 梁涛: 《郭店竹简与思孟学派》第三、五章,北京: 中国人民大学出版社,2008年。

[39]体育外围参考: 牟宗三: 《心体与性体》第一部,上海: 上海古籍出版社,1999年。

[40]参考: 见张岂之主编: 《中国思想学说史·先秦卷》(上)第二篇之第二章(该章由郭沂撰写),桂林: 广西师范大学出版社,2007年。

*体育外围储昭华,武汉大学哲学学院教授;谭研,武汉大学哲学学院伦理学专业博士生。

[41]梁启超: (《饮冰室合集》文集之九,中华书局1989年版(以下同),第10页。

[42]梁启超: 《欧游心影录》,《梁启超选集》,上海人民出版社1984年版(以下同),第733页。

[43]梁启超: 《先秦政治思想史》,东方出版社1996年版,第15页。

[44]梁启超: 《治国学的两条大路》,《饮冰室合集》文集之三十九,第117页。

[45]梁启超: 《湖南时务学堂学约》,《饮冰室合集》文集之二,第25页。

[46]梁启超: 《变法通议》,《饮冰室合集》文集之一,第61页。

[47]梁启超: 《科学精神与东西文化——8月20日在南通为科学社年会讲演》,《梁启超选集》,第794页。

[48]梁启超: 《新史学》,《梁启超选集》,第277页。

[49]梁启超: 《新史学》,《梁启超选集》,第282、283页。

[50]同上书,第278、279、280页。

[51]梁启超: 《新民说》,《梁启超选集》,第212页。

[52]梁启超: 《新民说》,《梁启超选集》第211、212页。

[53]体育外围梁启超: 《饮冰室合集》文集之七,第4页。

[54]体育外围梁启超: 《饮冰室合集》文集之一,第129页。

[55]梁启超: 《欧游心影录》,《梁启超选集》,第731页。

[56]参见李喜所、元青: 《梁启超传》,人民出版社1993年版,第37、38页。

[57]体育外围梁启超: 《变法通议》,《饮冰室合集》文集之一,第61页。

[58]体育外围梁启超: 《保教非所以尊孔论》,《梁启超选集》,第304页。

[59]体育外围梁启超: 《欧游心影录》,《梁启超选集》,第731页。

[60]同上,《梁启超选集》,第733页。

[61]梁漱溟: 《东西文化及其哲学》,商务印书馆1999年版,第11、21页。

[62]Joseph R. Levenson ,Liang Ch’i-Ch’ao and the Mind of Modern China, Harvard University Press , 1959 , p. 5.

[62]liangqichao: 《yinbingshiheji》wenjizhiqi,di2、4ye,

体育外围[62]liangqichao: 《ouyouxinyinglu》,《liangqichaoxuanji》,di733ye。

[65]体育外围胡适: 《中国古代哲学史》,《胡适文集》,第6册,北京大学出版社,1998年版,第182页。

[66]体育外围胡适: 《体育外围是完全赞成陈序经先生的全盘西化论》,《胡适论争集》,中国社会科学出版社1998年版,第1492页。

[67]Hu Shih,The Chinese Renaissance (The Haskell Lectures Delivered at the University of Chicago,in 1933)体育外围,Chicago,The University of Chicago Press,1934,p.6.

[68]胡适,唐德刚: 《胡适口述自传》,安徽教育出版社,2005年版,第189页。

[69]体育外围胡适: 《先秦名学史》,《胡适文集》,第6册,北京大学出版社,1998年版,第10页。

[70]胡适: 《先秦名学史》,《胡适文集》,第6册,北京大学出版社,1998年版,第10、11页。

*余泳芳,武汉大学外国语言文学学院副教授。

[71]体育外围郝大维,安乐哲著: 《汉哲学思维的文化探源》,江苏人民出版社1999年版,第196-197页。

[72]斯密著,韦卓民译: 《康德<纯粹理性批判>解义》,华中师范大学出版社2000年版,第114-115页;郑家栋: 《“超越”与“内在超越”》,载《中国社会科学》2001年第4期;耿开君: 《超越问题: “内在”与“外在”》,载《中国哲学史》1998年第1期。

[72]guoqiyong: 《rujiarenwenjingshenjiqizongjiaoyihan》,zai《guojiruxueyanjiu》(dishiqiji),jiuzhouchubanshe2010nianban。

[74]体育外围唐君毅: 《中华人文与当今世界》,学生书局1975年版,第881页。

[75]体育外围牟宗三: 《中国哲学的特质》,兰台书局1973年版,第37页。

[76]秦家懿著,吴有能,吴华译: 《儒与耶: 一个比较研究》,台北文史哲出版社2000年版,第195页。

[77]体育外围秦家懿著,曹剑波译: 《朱熹的宗教思想》,厦门大学出版社2010年版,第145页。

[78]体育外围秦家懿著,曹剑波译: 《朱熹的宗教思想》,厦门大学出版社2010年版,第138页。

[79]秦家懿著,曹剑波译: 《朱熹的宗教思想》,厦门大学出版社2010年版,第101页。

[80]体育外围秦家懿著,曹剑波译: 《朱熹的宗教思想》,厦门大学出版社2010年版,第168页。

[81]秦家懿著,吴有能,吴华译: 《儒与耶: 一个比较研究》,台北文史哲出版社2000年版,第23页。

[82]秦家懿著,吴有能,吴华译: 《儒与耶: 一个比较研究》,台北文史哲出版社2000年版,第169页。

[83]体育外围秦家懿著,吴有能,吴华译: 《儒与耶: 一个比较研究》,台北文史哲出版社2000年版,第177页。

[84]Julia Ching,The Religious Thought of Chu Hsi,Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, p.104.

[85]体育外围沈清松: 《飘散之“中”: 从灵根自植到和谐外推》,载郭齐勇: 《儒家文化研究》(第五辑),生活·读书·新知三联书店2012年版,第89-90页。

[86]Julia Ching,Mysticism and Kingship: The Heart of Chinese Wisdom,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997,pp. 173-174。

[87]体育外围秦家懿著,曹剑波译: 《朱熹的宗教思想》,厦门大学出版社2010年版,第153页。

[88]秦家懿: 《朱熹与道教》,载汤一介: 《国故新知: 中国传统文化的再诠释—纪念汤用彤先生诞辰百《周年论文集》,北京大学出版社1993年版,第337-346页;秦家懿: 《朱熹与佛教》,载祝瑞开: 《宋明思想和中华文明》,学林出版社1995年版,第346-361页。

[89]秦家懿: 《王阳明》,台北东大图书体育外围1987年版,第205页。

[90]秦家懿,孔汉思著,吴华译: 《中国宗教与基督教》,生活·读书·新知三联书店2003年版,第61-117页。

[91]秦家懿著,曹剑波译: 《朱熹的宗教思想》,厦门大学出版社2010年版,第164页。

[92]秦家懿著,吴有能,吴华译: 《儒与耶: 一个比较研究》,台北文史哲出版社2000年版,第196页。

[93]体育外围秦家懿著,吴有能,吴华译: 《儒与耶: 一个比较研究》,台北文史哲出版社2000年版,第50页。

[94]秦家懿,孔汉思著,吴华译: 《中国宗教与基督教》,生活·读书·新知三联书店2003年版,第59页。

[95]秦家懿著,吴有能,吴华译: 《儒与耶: 一个比较研究》,台北文史哲出版社2000年版,第187页。

[96]秦家懿著,曹剑波译: 《朱熹的宗教思想》,厦门大学出版社2010年版,第98页。

[97]体育外围秦家懿,孔汉思著,吴华译: 《中国宗教与基督教》,生活·读书·新知三联书店2003年版,第59页。

[98]秦家懿著,吴有能,吴华译: 《儒与耶: 一个比较研究》,台北文史哲出版社2000年版,第187页。

[99]秦家懿,孔汉思著,吴华译: 《中国宗教与基督教》,生活·读书·新知三联书店2003年版,第63-64页。

[100]秦家懿著,吴有能,吴华译: 《儒与耶: 一个比较研究》,台北文史哲出版社2000年版,第194页。

[101]体育外围加地伸行著,于时化译: 《论儒教》,齐鲁书社1993年版,第96-97页。

[102]体育外围秦家懿: 《秦家懿自选集》,山东教育出版社2005年版,第9页。

[103]秦家懿,孔汉思著,吴华译: 《中国宗教与基督教》,生活·读书·新知三联书店2003年版,第190页。

[104]秦家懿,孔汉思著,吴华译: 《中国宗教与基督教》,生活·读书·新知三联书店2003年版,第195页。

[105]秦家懿著,吴有能,吴华译: 《儒与耶: 一个比较研究》,台北文史哲出版社2000年版,第21页。

[106]体育外围秦家懿,孔汉思著,吴华译: 《中国宗教与基督教》,生活·读书·新知三联书店2003年版,第77页。

[107]Ching Julia,Chinese Religions.London: Macmillan and Maryknoll, New York: Orbis, 1993: 6, 51, 52.

[108]体育外围龚道运: 《孔子的儒学与基督教的比较研究》,载《国外社会科学》,1995年第2期。

*体育外围钱雪松,中国政法大学哲学系讲师。

[109]一般认为,该类型学划分最早是由艾伦•莱斯(Alan Race)于1983年所提出。不过,正如一些论者所指出,莱斯并非独立发展出这一类型学框架的,他在很大程度上借用了他的老师约翰·希克(John Hick)的划分思路。早在1972年,希克就在“神学的哥白尼革命(The Copernican Revolution in Theology)”一文中提到了这三种宗教对话的神学类型。不过当时他没有使用“排他-兼容-多元”这样的字眼来命名,而是代之以“托勒密地心说”、“周转圆理论”以及“哥白尼式的日心说革命”这三个譬喻分别对这三种立场作出阐发。关于这一思想脉络之梳理,可参见Alan Race:Christians and Religious Pluralism: Patterns in the Christian Theology of Religions. London: SCM, 1983; Tim S. Perry:Radical Difference: A Defence of Hendrik Kraemer’s Theology of Religions体育外围. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2001, pp 12, 14-17。

[110]Gavin D’Costa, “The Impossibility of A Pluralist View of Religions,” inReligious Studies体育外围32, Cambridge University Press, Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1996, p.232.

[111]Alvin Plantinga, “Pluralism: A Defense of Religious Exclusivism,” inThe Rationality of Belief and the Plurality of Faith: Essays in honor of Willism P. Alston体育外围. Ed. T. Senor. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995, pp.191-215..

[112]Ibid., p.197.

[113]Gavin D’Costa “The Impossibility of A Pluralist View of Reliigons,” p.223.

[114]Gavin D’Costa, “The Impossibility of A Pluralist View of Reliigons,” p.232.

[115]例如,范因瓦根(Peter van Inwagen)基于与普兰丁格和德科斯塔类似的理由认为: “希克教授自己就是一个宗教的排他论者(……)‘宗教多元论’并非宗教排他论的矛盾面,而不过是其额外的一个范例罢了。”(Inwagen, “Responses and Discussion: 2 (iii) Peter van Inwagen,” inDialogues in the Philosophy of Religion, ed. John Hick, New York: PALGRAVE, 2001, p.58)此外,香港学者江丕盛也赞同德科斯塔的观点,认为: “多元论者无法把自己视为一个非排他论者。由于多元论不能独立于排他论而清楚界定,多元论因此不能成为排他论之外的另一种真实选择。”(江丕盛,“排他论的宗教认知意义——对类型、启示及对谈的一些反思”,《维真学刊》1998(1),温哥华: 维真学院中国研究部,第63页)

[116]体育外围艾伦·托伦斯,“宗教的学术研究和真理的问题”,潘玉仪译,《维真学刊》1998(3),温哥华: 维真学院中国研究部,1998,第5页。

[117]例如,希克在回应德克斯塔时指出,德克斯塔是在一种“不足道且误导人的意义上”来谈论排他论的,尽管希克同时承认,当一个人在作出信念的取舍臧否时的确可说是这种意义上的排他论者,“因为肯定某事就是否定其对立面,而建议某种理论或观点也就是拒斥了其他替代性的观点”。Cf. John Hick, “The Possibility of Religious Pluralism: A Reply to Gavin D’Costa,” inReligious Studies体育外围, Vol. 33, No. 2 (Jun., 1997), p. 162。

[118]Cf. David Basinger,Religious Diversity: A Philosophical Assessment. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2002, pp.4-5, pp.55-56。

[119]Ibid.

[120]须注意的是,(4)和(5)中的“足够好的理由”一般说来会是很不相同的理由。前者是相信某一特定宗教信念的理由,因此其理由只须与该宗教信念自身相关即可,甚至只须是该宗教信念自身的“初始的合理性(prima facie体育外围rationality)”即可;而后者则必然涉及该宗教与其他宗教之间的认知关系。

[121]或许,排他论者借助真理排他性所真正想阐明的是另外一种“不可能”,即: 真诚的宗教信仰者不可能同时也是宗教多元论者(除非“宗教多元论”本身成为一种一阶的宗教)!这种指责隐含的是另一种批评,即: 宗教多元论乃是与信仰之绝对性特质相冲突的立场。但事实上,许多多元论者本身就是虔诚的信仰者。他们所以批评排他论,并不是因为要“改宗”宗教多元论,而是因为他们发现这种排他论并不真正代表自己信仰之本质,而恰恰构成他们自己信仰的某种障碍。例如,一名基督徒或许正是基于对上帝之爱的普遍性信念而相信上帝必然也向其他的民族以对他们而言最好的方式启示了救赎之道,而这时他就已经是一名多元论者了。这种指责含蓄地将排他论与特定宗教信仰之本质相捆绑,但这说到底,依然是暗含着对(5)的断定。而对于许多多元论者而言,这种捆绑与断定在理性上皆是独断的,依然不能否定宗教多元论事实上的可能性。

[122]John Hick , “The Epistemological Challenge of Religious Pluralism,” inDialogues in the Philosophy of Religion体育外围, ed. John Hick, New York: PALGRAVE, 2001, pp.28-29.

[123]体育外围显而易见,一命题现实可能为真则已蕴涵它在逻辑上可能为真。

[124]南怀瑾,《禅海蠡测》,北京: 中国世界语出版社,1996,9-10页。

[125]乔达摩,《正理经》,载《古印度六派哲学经典》,姚卫群编译,北京: 商务印书馆,2003,65页。

[126]体育外围参见《正理经》卷二第一章: “这(吠陀的)可靠性与咒语、医书的可靠性类似,因为权威者是可信赖的。”(乔达摩,《正理经》,79页)

[127]体育外围参见: 武邑尚邦,《佛教逻辑学之研究》,顺真、何放译,中华书局,2010,83-114页;阿特里雅,《印度因明学纲要》,杨国宾译,华东师范大学出版社,2007,14-15页,43-48页。

[128]体育外围服部正明,“陈那的认识论”,吴汝钧译,载《佛学研究方法论》,吴汝钧著,台湾学生书局,1983,351-352页。

[129]比量的这一功能,详见陈那《集量论》的第五卷“观遣他品”。服部正明所说的“他者之排除”,就是这里所说的“遣他”。根据法尊法师在《<集量论>略解》中的译法,陈那在这一品开篇的原文是“由遣他门显,自义如所作”,法尊法师释作“由遮余义而显示自义”。参见: 服部正明,“陈那的认识论”,352-356页;陈那造、法尊译编,《<集量论>略解》卷五“观遣他品”,中国社会科学出版社,1982,110-134页。

[130]体育外围宗喀巴,《因明七论入门》,载《藏传因明学》,杨化群著译,北京: 中华书局,2009,74页。

[131]体育外围这里的“世间量”乃相对于圣言量而确立,包括了处于类似于“生盲者”地位的一般人的现量和比量(包括他们对圣言量之比量理解)。

[132]体育外围这里的“极隐秘事物”是因明学的概念,特指超出一般感官认知领域而只能为证悟者或神灵所知晓之对象。对于正理派而言,这样的极隐秘事物特指吠陀圣典所启示之祭祀可升天等“不可见物”。而在陈那之后的佛教因明传统中,则是指依靠证悟之圣者所证悟加上因明三相观察而确立之所量,属于三种所量之一。宗喀巴指出,这三种所量,分别与现量、一般之比量与圣言量对应: “现量所见,为所量现实事物之性相,比如青色。由比量所知,为所量隐秘事物之性相,比如青色之无常……谓依经过三种观察所订正之圣教所证悟,为所量极隐秘事物之性相”。(宗喀巴,《因明七论入门》,74页)推而广之,体育外围可以将这里的极隐秘事物视作各大宗教所描述的“终极实在”范畴,由此各大宗教皆可说拥有为各自信仰团体所认可之圣言量,而且这些论述非借助圣言量范畴(无论是上帝之启示还是佛陀之证悟)无法确立其认识来源的正当性。

[133]阿尔斯顿(W. P. Alston)曾指出,体育外围无法就日常的感知觉与记忆等认知机能提供非认知循环的论证,最多也只能退而求其次地诉诸或然性的实践合理性来建立日常认知过程可靠性的证明。(William P. Alston,Perceiving God: The Epistemology of Religious Experience, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1991, Chap. 3)阿尔斯顿的这一论述颇有说服力,且可视作此处作为认知标准之世间量的不可靠或不充分的一个佐证: 说不可靠乃是因为其认知可靠性只是或然为真,而且无法确切地判定其或然率的高低;说不充分则是因为,作为认知标准之世间量对于这里所说的“极隐秘”事物或“超越的”事物的认知,其支持理据实际上无法达到足够充分的可作公共判定的程度。

[134]这一结论可说是以另一种方式表达了当代宗教知识论中对宗教信念的“个体相对性(person-relativity)”和经验认知之“歧义性(ambiguity)”的重要洞见,并可对这种相对性与歧义性提供某种更根基的解释。有关证明上的个体相对性研究及其在宗教多样性问题上的运用和分析,可参见: George I. Mavrodes,Belief in God: A Study in the Epistemology of Religion, University Press of American, 1970, pp.17-48;以及拙文“基于保证的PT辩护与宗教多样性”(载《基督教思想评论》总第十一辑,上海人民出版社,2010,155-174页)和“宗教多样性的合理性挑战与人类认知的个体相对性”(载《宗教与哲学》第二辑,金泽、赵广明主编,社会科学文献出版社,2013,405-440页)。而从宗教知识论角度对人类认知之歧义性的集中阐释,可参见希克,《宗教之解释——人类对超越者的回应》,王志成译,成都: 四川人民出版社,1998。

[135]体育外围潘尼卡,《智慧的居所》,王志成、思竹译,江苏人民出版社,2000,第156页。

[136]体育外围关于宗教对话的这种成长模式,可参见潘尼卡,《宗教内对话》第六章“比较宗教中的成长范畴: 一个批评性自省”,王志成、思竹译,北京: 宗教文化出版社,2001,109-131页;王志成,“宗教相遇、宗教多元论与人的成长——宗教间关系的理论反思”,载《浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版)》,第32卷第2期,2002(3),54-60页。笔者认为,这种成长模式若与本文所提供的观察角度相结合,将能在概念上变得更为精确,也更好理解。

[137]体育外围在此借用蒂利希(Paul Tillich)充满智慧的提点语应该是有助益的,他在《系统神学》中如此说道: “基本的存在论结构是无法引出来的。它必须被接受。”(参见保罗·蒂利希: 《系统神学》第一卷,载《蒂利希选集(卷下)》,何光沪选编,上海三联书店,1999,第1092页。)

[138]潘尼卡,《宗教内对话》,第129页。

*徐弢,武汉大学哲学学院教授。师俊华,武汉大学哲学学院博士生。

[139]体育外围[德]孔汉思、库舍尔: 《全球伦理: 世界宗教议会宣言》,何光沪译,四川人民出版社,1997,第7页。

[140]段德智: 《宗教概论》,北京: 人民出版社,2005年,第405-407页。

[141]本书引用的《古兰经》经文均出自中文版《古兰经》,马坚译,北京: 中国社会科学出版社,1996年。

[142]体育外围参阅金宜久: 《伊斯兰教》,北京: 宗教文化出版社,1997年,第87页。

[143]本书引用的《圣经》经文均出自《中文和合本圣经》,中国基督宗教协会,1995年再版。

[144]体育外围宁夏回族自治区伊斯兰教协会编: 《古兰经概述》,宁夏人民出版社,1991年,第205-206页。

[145][埃]穆斯塔发·本·穆罕默德艾玛热编,《布哈里圣训实录精华》,穆萨·宝文安哈吉等译,北京: 中国社会科学出版社,1981年,第137页。

[146]梁家麟: 《基督宗教会史略》第五版,香港: 明风出版社,第42页。

*黄超,武汉大学哲学学院副教授。

[147]Singer, Margaret “Cults in Our Midst,” Margaret Singer PhD.,Jossey-Bass体育外围, San Francisco p.62.

[148]瑞克·艾伦·罗斯: 《邪教: 洗脑背后的真相》,香港和平图书有限体育外围,2015年1月,第200页。

[149]Lifton, Robert Jay, M.D., “Cult Formation ,”Harvard Mental Health Letter, February 1981).

[150]Singer, MargaretCults in Our Midst,Margaret Singer PhD.,Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (1996).

[151]Ofshe, Richard, Ph.D., “Coercive persuasion and attitude change,”Encyclopedia of Sociology, Volume 1, McMillan New York pp. 212-224 (1992).

[152]Lifton, Robert Jay, M.D. “Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism,”Universityof North CarolinaPress1989, Original Publisher:Norton and Co.,pp. 419-437 (1961).

[153]体育外围Schein, Edgar H., ““Coercive Persuasion: A Socio-psychological Analysis of the ‘Brainwashing’of American Civilian Prisoners by the Chinese Communists,” W.W. Norton and Company (1961), paperback edition (1971).

[154]体育外围彼得·哈特劳: 《哲学践行:西方哲学中的一种新的范式》,《安徽大学学报》(哲学社会科学版),2013年第5期,第34页。

[155]体育外围Shlomit C. Schuster:《哲学诊治——谘商和心理治疗的另类途径》,张绍乾译,五南图书出版体育外围,2007年,第39页。

[156]E. Ruschmann, Foundations of Philosophical Counseling, Inquiry, 1998,17(3), p. 30.

[157]体育外围约翰·麦克里奥德: 《心理咨询导论》,潘洁译,上海社会科学院出版社,2006年1月,第260页。

[158]R.Lahav, Counceptual Framework, in Ran Lahav and Maria da Venza Tillmanns(eds.), Essays on Philosophical Counseling, Boston: University Press of America, 1995, pp.9-15.

[159]体育外围戎雪枫,杨春瑰: 《评拉伯纯哲学立场的哲学咨询观》,《安徽大学学报》(哲学社会科学版) 2014年第3期,第19页。

[160]约翰·麦克里奥德: 《心理咨询导论》,潘洁译,上海社会科学院出版社,2006年1月,第26页。

[161]Hadot P. Philosophy as A Way of Life[M].Cambridge,MA:Blackwell,1995:82-83.

[162]Peter.B.Raatie.Philosophical Counseling:Theory and Practice[M].Praeger Publishers,2001:pp.179-182.

[163]Shlomit C. Schuster:《哲学诊治——谘商和心理治疗的另类途径》,张绍乾译,五南图书出版体育外围,2007年,第165页。

[164]体育外围语出《红楼梦》第九十回。中医典籍对“心病”有比较系统描述,并提供了丰富的案例。古籍所载“心病”案例中,“邪崇”与今天所描述的膜拜引起的心理疾病比较接近。“心药”语出佛典《秘藏宝钥》,意指出世法。“解铃”句典出宋代惠洪《林间集》卷下: 法灯泰钦禅师少解悟,然未为人知,独法眼禅师深奇之。一日法眼问大众曰: “虎项下金铃,何人解得?”众无以对。泰钦适至,法眼举前语问之,泰钦曰: “大众何不道: ‘系者解得。’”由是人人刮目相看。

[165]体育外围Langone, Michael D., Ph.D., “Reflections on the Legion of Christ 2003-2006”, International Cultic Studies Association, International Conference at Montreal, Canada (2012).

[166]Langone, Michael, “‘By Their Fruits Ye Shall Know Them’: How Good and Bad Works Can Deceive—the Case of the Legion of Christ,”ICSA TodayVol. 3 p.5 (2012).

[167]体育外围张利增: 《哲学咨询的诠释学维度》,《山东大学学报》(哲学社会科学版),2014,年第3期,第132页。

[168]周永生: 《哲学咨询在北美的生存状态略窥》,《现代哲学》,2008年第4期,第125页。

*连凡,武汉大学哲学学院讲师。

[169]体育外围如伊藤仁斋在其主要著作《语孟字义》中仿照陈淳《北溪字义》的范畴分析法,列出天道、天命、道、理、德、仁义礼智、心、性、四端之心、情、才、志、意、良知良能、忠信、忠恕、诚、敬、和直、学、权、圣贤、君子小人、王霸、鬼神、诗、书、易、春秋、总论四经等范畴或论题,对宋儒(程朱)的性理学说作了系统地批判。此书问世后引起许多朱子学者的反驳和批判。如木山枫溪著《語孟字義辨》等。

[170]朱谦之: 《日本的古学及阳明学》,北京: 人民出版社,2000年版,前言第7页。

[171]陈剑锽: 《高攀龙论王阳明》,北京: 中国社会科学出版社,1995年版,第209-226页。

[172]“原典回归运动”这一概念出自台湾学者林庆彰,参见,林庆彰: 《明末清初经学研究的回归原典运动》,载《国际孔学会议论文集》,1988年版,第867-881页。

[173]朱谦之: 《日本的古学及阳明学》,北京: 人民出版社,2000年版,前言第9页。

[174]关于《太极图》之考辩的最新成果参见台湾学者郑吉雄: 《周敦颐<太极图>及其相关诠释问题》,载《易图象与易诠释》,上海: 华东师范大学出版社,2008年版,第163-221页。

[175][清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册),北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第497-498页。

[176]“刘蕺山曰: ‘一阴一阳之谓道’,即太极也。天地之间,一气而已,非有理而后有气,乃气立而理因之寓也。就形下之中而指其形而上者,不得不推高一层以立至尊之位,故谓之太极。而实无太极之可言,所谓‘无极而太极’也。使实有是太极之理为此气从出之母,则亦一物而已,又何以生生不息,妙万物而无穷乎!今曰理本无形,故谓之无极,无乃转落注脚。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第498-499页。参见,[明]刘宗周: 《圣学宗要》,杭州: 浙江古籍出版社,2007年版,第230-231页。

[177]“陆象山与朱子书曰: ……后书又谓: ‘无极即是无形,太极即是有理。周先生恐学者错认太极别为一物,故著“无极”二字以明之。’《易》之《大传》曰: ‘形而上者谓之道。’又曰: ‘一阴一阳之谓道。’一阴一阳已是形而上者,况太极乎。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第500-501页。

[178]体育外围陆九渊指出: “太极判而为阴阳,阴阳播而为五行。天一生水,地六成之,地二生火,天七成之,天三生木,地八成之,地四生金,天九成之,天五生土,地十成之。五奇天数,阳也,五偶地数,阴也。阴阳奇偶相与配合,而五行生成备矣。故太极判而为阴阳,阴阳即太极也。阴阳播而为五行,五行即阴阳也。塞宇宙之间,何往而非五行?”[宋]陆九洲: 《陆九渊集》卷二十三《讲义》,北京: 中华书局,1980年版,第281-282页。

[179]陆九渊指出: “盖同指此理,则曰‘极’、曰‘中’、曰‘至’,其实一也。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第506页。

[180]“朱答曰: ……圣人之意,正以其究竟至极,无名可名,故特谓之太极。犹曰‘举天下之至极无以加此’云尔,初不以其中而命之也。至如‘北极’之极,‘屋极’之极,‘皇极’之极,‘民极’之极,诸儒虽有解为中者、盖以此物之极常在此物之中,非指极字而训之以中也。极者,至极而已。……至于《大传》既曰‘形而上者谓之道’矣,而又曰‘一阴一阳之谓道’,此岂真以阴阳为形而上者哉。正所以见一阴一阳虽属形器,然其所以一阴一阳者是乃道体之所为也。故语道体之至极,则谓之太极。语太极之流行,则谓之道。虽有二名,初无两体。”“朱曰: ‘极’是名此理之至极,‘中’是状此理之不偏,……中者,天下之大本,乃以喜怒哀乐之未发,此理浑然无所偏倚而言。”“朱曰: 周子言‘中’,……盖此中字,是就气禀发用而言其无过不及处耳,非直指本体未发无所偏倚者而言也。岂可以此而训极为中也哉!”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第502-503、505-507页。

[181]吕大临认为“中”出于“道”,《中庸》中说“天命之谓性,率性之谓道”,“中也者,天下之大本也。和也者,天下达道也”。因此性与道、“大本”与“达道”实质是相同的。对此程颐则认为,中(大本)虽是道(达道),但区别来说的话,在天为命,在人为性,率性之谓道,性、命、道各有其意义,“大本”是其体(本体),“达道”则是其用(功用),二者不能混同。对此吕大临认为,《中庸》既然已经说“率性之谓道”,则随性而行即是道,并不是程颐理解的那样性中别有“道”,因此“中”即是性,而在天为命,在人为性,由中(性)而出者无不道的,所以说“中”是道之所由出。针对吕大临的以“中”言性的“中即性”说,程颐则认为“中”是形容性之过与不及状态的言语,“中”自身并非性(理)。参见,[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第2册)卷三十一《吕范诸儒学案》,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第1106页。

[182]体育外围“(朱曰)且‘极’字亦不可以‘形’字释之。盖极者,中也。”“陆曰: 以极为‘中’,则为不明理。以极为‘形’,乃为明理乎!”“朱曰: 老兄自以中训极,熹未尝以形训极也。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第505-506页。

[183][清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第499页。

[184]体育外围[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第499-500页。

[185]体育外围“宗羲案、……此朱子自以理先气后之说解周子,亦未得周子之意也。罗整庵《困知记》谓: ‘“无极之真,二五之精,妙合而凝”三语,不能无疑。凡物必两而后可以言合。太极与阴阳,果二物乎?其为物也果二,则方其未合之先,各安在邪?朱子终身认理气为二物,其原盖出于此。’”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第508-509页。

[186][日]伊藤仁斋: 《读近思录钞》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第2页。

[187]体育外围[日]伊藤东涯: 《大极图说管见》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第1页。

[188]体育外围[日]伊藤仁斋: 《读近思录钞》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第3-4页。

[189][日]伊藤仁斋: 《读近思录钞》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第4页。

[190][日]伊藤仁斋: 《读近思录钞》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第4页。

[191][日]伊藤仁斋: 《读近思录钞》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第5页。

[192]参见,[日]伊藤仁斋: 《读近思录钞》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第2页。又参见,[日]伊藤东涯: 《大极图说十论》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第1页。

[193]从哲学史的发展脉络来看,对于《易经》的解释主要有象数派与义理派两派。其中,属于象数派的汉代纬书《易纬乾凿度》受道家元气说(《淮南子》等)的影响最早提出了“太极元气说”(太易说、太一神说),将“太极”视作天地未分之前的“元气”,主要是着眼于宇宙生成论。到了魏晋时期,受玄学思潮的影响,属于义理派的魏王弼在其《周易注》中,依据老子的“有生于无”的思想,将太极(无)视作虚无的本体,主要着眼于宇宙本体论。唐代孔颖达在《周易正义》中以王弼的注释为基础统合了汉魏以来的象数与义理二派,并对王弼之说加以修正,指出“太极谓天地未分之前,元气混而为一,即是太初、太一也”,从而再次提出了“太极元气论”,同时又排除了汉易的“太极元气论”中的神秘色彩,将太极视为了一种原始物质。《周易正义》作为唐代以后科举考试的官修教科书(直至王安石的《三经新义》出现)对唐、宋两代的学者给予了很大的影响,“太极元气说”也成为了学界的一般看法。一方面,朱震在其《周易集传・进书表》中提出的“陈抟→种放→穆修→周敦颐→二程”这一《太极图》的传授谱系虽有可议之处,但朱陆二人均承认周敦颐继承了陈抟的易学。实际上周敦颐一方面可能从陈抟那里接受了象数派的“图书”之学,一方面又受汉唐以来义理派易学的影响,进而将其与儒家的伦理观念相结合以阐释《周易》的基本原理。也就是说,周敦颐的易学思想中包含有象数派(《太极图》之图式)与义理派(《太极图说》)两方面的因素。参见,朱伯崑: 《易学哲学史》第一卷,北京: 华夏出版社,1995年版,第388页。

[194]“二气五行,化生万物。五殊二实,二本则一,是万为一,一实万分。万一各正,小大有定。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十一《濂溪学案》上,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第490页。参见,余敦康: 《汉宋易学解读》,北京: 华夏出版社,2006年版,第248-249页。

[195]“陆象山与朱子书曰: 梭山兄谓: 《太极图说》与《通书》不类,疑非周子所为。不然,或是其学未成时所作。不然,则或是传他人之文,后人不辨也。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第500页。

[196]详见葛荣晋主编: 《中国实学思想史》中卷第19章、第20章《元气实体论哲学思潮的产生和发展》(上・下),北京: 首都师范大学出版社,1994年版。

[197]体育外围[日]伊藤东涯: 《大极图说十论》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第7-8页。

[198][宋]周敦颐: 《周敦颐集》,长沙: 岳麓书社,2007年版,第7页。

[199]体育外围[日]伊藤东涯: 《大极图说管见》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第2页。

[200]体育外围[宋]周敦颐: 《周敦颐集》,长沙: 岳麓书社,2007年版,第68页。

[201][日]伊藤仁斋: 《语孟字义》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第38页。

[202]体育外围[日]伊藤东涯: 《大极图说十论》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第9-10页。

[203][宋]周敦颐: 《周敦颐集》,长沙: 岳麓书社,2007年版,第7页。

[204]体育外围[宋]周敦颐: 《周敦颐集》,长沙: 岳麓书社,2007年版,第68页。

[205]体育外围[宋]周敦颐: 《周敦颐集》,北京: 中华书局,1990年版,第9页。

[206][日]伊藤东涯: 《大极图说管见》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第2页。

[207]体育外围“(刘蕺山曰)濂溪以中言性,而本之刚柔善恶。刚柔二字,即喜怒哀乐之别名。……《图说》言“仁义中正”,仁义即刚柔之别名,中正即中和之别解。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第499页。

[208]体育外围“盖子刘子意,以仁义礼智之性,由恻隐、羞恶、辞让、是非而名,故恻隐即仁也。时位有动静,性体无动静,非未发为性、已发为情,中、和尽属性也。情者性之情、不得与性对。此开辟以来之特解,须细心体会。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十五《伊川学案》上,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第621页。参见,[明]刘宗周: 《圣学宗要》,杭州: 浙江古籍出版社,2007年版,第466页。又参见,[清]黄宗羲: 《黄宗羲全集》(第1册)《孟子师说》卷二,杭州: 浙江古籍出版社,2005年版,第68页。

[209]体育外围[清]黄宗羲: 《明儒学案》(下),北京: 中华书局,2008年版,第1525页。参见,[清]黄宗羲: 《黄宗羲全集》(第1册)《子刘子学言》卷二,杭州: 浙江古籍出版社,2005年版,第311页。

[210]参见,东方朔: 《刘宗周评传》,南京: 南京大学出版社,1998年版,第129页。

[211][清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十一《濂溪学案》上,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第483页。

[212][宋]朱熹: 《四书章句集注》,北京: 中华书局,2010年版,第3页。

[213][宋]朱熹: 《延平答问》,上海古籍出版社,安徽教育出版社,2002年版,第328页。

[214][宋]周敦颐: 《周敦颐集》,长沙: 岳麓书社,2007年版,第121页。

[215]体育外围[日]伊藤东涯: 《大极图说十论》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第14页。

[216][宋]胡宏: 《胡宏集》,北京: 中华书局,1997年版,第329页。

[217]体育外围“(刘蕺山曰)欲与天理,虚直处只是一个,从凝处看是欲,从化处看是理。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十一《濂溪学案》上,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第489-490页。

[218][宋]朱熹: 《太极图说解》,上海古籍出版社,安徽教育出版社,2010年版,第70页。

[219]体育外围[日]伊藤东涯: 《大极图说十论》,东京: 株式会社凤出版,1971年版,第15-16页。

[220][清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第498-499页。

[221][清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第500页。

[222]“宗羲案: 朱子以为,阳之动为用之所以行也,阴之静为体之所以立也。夫太极既为之体,则阴阳皆是其用。……缘朱子以下文主静立人极,故不得不以体归之静。先师云: ‘循理为静,非动静对待之静。’一语点破,旷若发蒙矣。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十二《濂溪学案》下,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第499页。

[223][明]王守仁: 《王阳明全集》(第1册),杭州: 浙江古籍出版社,2010年版,第195页。《明儒学案》卷十《姚江学案》所收的《阳明传信录》中也有此一段。其下黄宗羲辑录刘宗周语云: “与《定性书》相为表里。”[清]黄宗羲: 《明儒学案》(上),北京: 中华书局,2008年版,第188页。

[224]“敬则自虚静,不可把虚静唤做敬。”[宋]程颐,程颢: 《二程集》(上),北京: 中华书局,2004年版,第157页。“又问: 敬莫是静否。曰: 才说静,便入于释氏之说也。不用静字,只用敬字。才说著静字,便是忘也。”[宋]程颐,程颢: 《二程集》(上),北京: 中华书局,2004年版,第189页。

[225]体育外围[魏]王弼,[晋]韩康伯,[唐]孔颖达: 《周易正义》,北京: 北京大学出版社,1999年版,第115页。

[226][宋]程颢,程颢: 《二程集》(下),北京: 中华书局,2004年版,第822页。

[227][宋]程颢,程颢: 《二程集》(下),北京: 中华书局,2004年版,第823页。

[228]参见,朱伯崑: 《易学哲学史》第二卷,北京: 华夏出版社,1995年版,第205-206页。

[229]“圣可学乎?曰: 可。曰: 有要乎?曰: 有。请问焉,曰: 一为要。一者,无欲也。无欲则静虚动直。静虚则明,明则通;动直则公,公则溥。明通公溥,庶矣乎!(《圣学》第二十)”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十一《濂溪学案》上,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第489页。

[230]体育外围“动而正曰道,用而和曰德。匪仁、匪义、匪礼、匪智、匪信,悉邪也。邪动,辱也;甚焉,害也。故君子慎动。(《慎動》第五)”其下黄百家引刘宗周之语,指出: “慎动即主静也。主静,则动而无动,斯为动而正矣。离几一步,便是邪。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十一《濂溪学案》上,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第485页。

[231]周敦颐《通书》: “是治天下观于家,治家观于身而已矣。身端,心诚之谓也。诚心,复其不善之动而已矣。不善之动,妄也;妄复则无妄矣,无妄则诚矣,故《无妄》次《复》,而曰《先王以茂对时育万物》。深哉!(《家人睽复无妄》第三十二)”其下黄百家引刘宗周之语指出: “最勘得亲切。此为慎动。”[清]黄宗羲,[清]全祖望: 《宋元学案》(第1册)卷十一《濂溪学案》上,北京: 中华书局,1986年版,第492页。

*体育外围郑雯,武汉轻工大学马克思主义学院讲师。

[232]体育外围[法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第9页。

[233]体育外围[法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第129页。

[234]根据法在公共领域所表现出与各事物之间的关系,孟德斯鸠将世界各国政体主要分为三种类型,共和政体、君主政体与专制政体。各政体的运行原则截然不同,共和政体的运行动力是“美德”,君主政体运行动力则是“荣宠”,专制政体的运行动力则是“服从”。在共和政体国家内“奢侈”是与“美德”相悖的因素,是需要竭力根除的现象,因此共和政体多设置节俭法。与此相对的是,君主政体运行原则为“荣宠”,因此社会贫富不均,亟需奢侈之风令富人大肆挥霍,穷人得以有工作维持生存。对此孟德斯鸠得出结论: “共和政体毁于奢侈,君主政体毁于贫穷。”参见,[法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第119页。

[235]体育外围[法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第123页。

[236][法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第129页。

[237][法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第124页。

[238]体育外围[法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第306页。

[239][法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第311-312页。

[240][法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第312页。

[241]体育外围原文为“与亚洲的气候条件相比较,规定一夫一妻制的法律更时候欧洲的气候条件。正因为如此,伊斯兰教在亚洲很容易立脚,而在欧洲则很困难;反之,基督教在欧洲得到广泛传播,而在亚洲则遭受败绩,信徒寥寥无几。人类的理性永远听命于至高原因,这个至高原因想干什么就干什么,想利用什么东西就利用什么东西。”参见,[法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第306页。

[242]原文为“自然界作用于人,只是自然条件到处决定人的历史发展,它忘记了人也反作用于自然界、改变自然界,为自己创造新的生存条件。”参见,《马克思恩格斯全集·第三卷》,人民出版社,1974年版,第551页。

[243]原文为“继承父亲身份,母亲照管”即表明女性无论是否有婚姻关系在身,其哺育的后代都无法继承她的身份,女性在社会中没有独立传承姓氏身份的能力。参见,[法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第490页。

[244]Karen Offen,Ernest Legouvé and the Doctrine of “Equality in difference”for Women:A Case Study of Male Feminism in Nineteenth-Century French Thought,The Journal of Modern History体育外围,Vol.58(Jun 1986).

[245]体育外围庞雯予,《晚明至清中期解放妇女思想研究》,武汉大学博士学位论文,2012年,第22-27页。

[246]体育外围关于此议题,蔡元培、周作人、张舜徽、李敖等人参与发声,详见《中国伦理学史》、《周作人文类编》《清人文集别录》、《李敖清华大学演讲文稿》。

[247]“室女”指未婚女子。齐仲甫《女科百问》第十三问: “室女者,乃未出闺门之女也。”[宋]齐仲甫.《女科百问》,上海: 上海古籍出版社,1983年版,第60页。“守贞”主要指未婚夫尚在世,男女尚未成婚,许嫁女需为未婚夫“守贞”;“守节”则主要指男女已成婚,丈夫去世后,其妻不再改嫁即“守节”。然而清中期所出现的许嫁女尚未成婚,未婚夫即去世,她们被要求“守志”之事,被称为“室女守贞”。因许嫁女尚未“亲迎”,故仍为“室女”,尚未婚配即为“守贞”,故名“室女守贞”或“室女守志”,但不可称为“室女守节”,因为许嫁女终未亲迎、婚配,故不可视为“守节”。归有光、毛奇龄、汪中针对这一现象分别作《贞女论》、《禁室女守志殉死文》、《女子许嫁而婿死从死及守志议》,可见这一扭曲现象只能称为“室女守贞”、“室女守志”。

[248]持此观点学者认为“女固守初命”,女子“纳征”后,即为“许嫁女”,夫妻之实已经产生,“许嫁女”在此一时期已为夫家之“妇”,如方苞、吴定、朱珔、胡承珙、方宗诚、何秋涛、罗有高等,均持此观点。

[249]涉及此方面考证文章有《女弔婿驳义》、《嗣为兄弟义》、《释士補仪礼篇名义》。

[250]体育外围按孟德斯鸠解释离婚主要指男女双方达成一致意愿而解除婚约,而休婚则指婚姻一方主动解除婚约,另一方只能被动接受。

[251]体育外围[清]俞正燮,《节妇说》《俞正燮全集》(壹),黄山书社,2005年版,第629页。

[252][清]俞正燮,《节妇说》《俞正燮全集》(壹),黄山书社,2005年版,第630页。

[253]体育外围在《被建构的女性——当代社会性别理论》一书中,作者对“性别”与“社会性别”两个概念进行了辨析,她指出“社会性别强调性别是由文化制定,文化分配的,它是描述体育外围社会地位、角色、服装装饰、行为等作为性别身份存在的标志”。沈奕斐,《被建构的女性——当代社会性别理论》,复旦大学出版社,2005年版,第28页。

[254][法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第123页。

[255][法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第124页。

[256][法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第132页。

[257][法]孟德斯鸠,《论法的精神》,商务印书馆,2014年版,第15页。

*曾允,武汉大学哲学学院外国哲学专业研究生。

[258]《庄子·秋水》,见郭庆藩: 《庄子集释》,北京: 中华书局.1961,第606-607页。

[259]体育外围在“体育外围非子”的“体育外围”和“子非鱼”的“子”(你)之间存在一个跳跃,因为前者是第一人称性的“体育外围”,后者只能说是第二人称性的“体育外围”。惠子正是通过这一“类比”,即以第一人称的“体育外围”来“类比”第二人称的“另一个体育外围”来消除这一跳跃。

[260]体育外围惠子的唯体育外围论是认识论而非本体论上的,因为他并不明确否认他人和他物的存在,而只是强调他们是体育外围不可知的。这一点在下文第三节中还将涉及并做更详细说明。

[261][德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第126页。

[262]体育外围[德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第131页。

[263]体育外围《沉思》第44节中实际存在两个悬搁或还原: 一是对与他人相关的意向性成果的悬搁,二是对一切陌生性的悬搁。二者存在递进关联,即前者提出他人经验如何可能的问题,后者则提供回答此问题的起点;但另一方面二者又相区别,前者是对意向性的分析,要求悬搁有关他人的意向性成果但保留指向他人的意向行为,后者则是对先验经验领域的纯化,得到的是一个纯粹的本己性领域。

[264]体育外围[德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第133页。

[265]倪梁康.胡塞尔现象学概念通释.[M].北京: 生活·读书·新知三联书店.2008,第53页。

[266]体育外围倪梁康.现象学及其效应.[M].北京: 生活·读书·新知三联书店.1994,第147-148页。

[267]对于身体的特殊意义,详见[德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第134页。

[268][德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第149页。

[269]倪梁康.胡塞尔现象学概念通释.[M].北京: 生活·读书·新知三联书店.2008,第330页。

[270]结对不是直接发生在“在这里”的体育外围的本己躯体与“在那里”的躯体之间,而必须通过将体育外围的躯体的当前化(“好像体育外围在那里一样”)这一中介间接达到。

[271][德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第149页。

[272]德文词“einfüllen”字面含义为“注入、移入”,因此旧译通常为“移情”。但当前国内现象学学界为避免将其与心理学和美学上的移情概念相混淆而译为“同感”,本文遵循这一惯例而使用“同感”这一译法。

[273]体育外围[德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第155页。

[274][德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第145页。

[275]须注意对他人的“类比”不能混同于通常意义上的类比,它涉及一种特殊“转换”,即将对象往回意向地指明一个“原始的设定”,然后再将体育外围本源的意义转换到对于对象可能具有的类似意义的期待上。胡塞尔强调这是体育外围经验的一种普遍方式,“这个世界还不为体育外围所知的东西都是以这样的方式为体育外围所知……每一个日常经验都可以从本源地建立起来的对象意义类比地转移到新的意义,即对对象作具有类似意义的期待说明。”([德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第147-148页)

[276][德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第155页。

[277][德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第156页。

[278][德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第156页。

[279]倪梁康.胡塞尔现象学概念通释.[M].北京: 生活·读书·新知三联书店.2008,第114页。

[280]体育外围典型例子是一个内心痛苦的人却在微笑,他人能通过相反的外在行为表现有意隐瞒自己真实的心理状态。

[281]体育外围[德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第157。

[282][丹]扎哈维.胡塞尔现象学..[M].李忠伟译.上海: 译文出版社.2007,第124页。

[283]体育外围[英]A.D.史密斯.胡塞尔与<笛卡尔式的沉思>.[M].赵玉兰译.广西师范大学出版社.2007,第269页。

[284]体育外围[德]海德格尔.存在与时间.[M].陈嘉映.王庆节译.北京: 生活·读书·新知三联书店.2006,第143页。

[285][法]萨特.存在与虚无.[M]].陈宣良等译.北京: 生活·读书·新知三联书店.1987,第314页。

[286]“他人——其他的自体育外围——这一字面上意义可以为体育外围提供一种最初的引导;另一个就意味着另一个自体育外围。”([德]胡塞尔.笛卡尔沉思与巴黎演讲.[M].张宪译.北京: 人民出版社.2008,第146页)

[287]朱刚.交互主体性与他人——论胡塞尔交互主体性现象学的意义与界限.[J].哲学动态.2008.4.

[288]朱刚.交互主体性与他人——论胡塞尔交互主体性现象学的意义与界限.[J].哲学动态.2008.4.

[289]倪梁康.胡塞尔现象学概念通释.[M].北京: 生活·读书·新知三联书店.2008,第301页。

[290]杨大春.超越现象学——列维纳斯与他人问题.[J].哲学研究.2001.7.